Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Date: 2015-07-17

Substantially purified salivary Lu. longipalpis polypeptides, and polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are disclosed. Vectors and host cells including the Lu. longipalpis polynucleotides are also disclosed. In one embodiment, a method is disclosed for inducing an immune response to sand fly saliva. In other embodiments, methods for treating, diagnosing, or preventing Leishmaniasis are disclosed.

Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Date: 2013-12-05

Substantially purified salivary Lu. longipalpis polypeptides, and polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are disclosed. Vectors and host cells including the Lu. longipalpis polynucleotides are also disclosed. In one embodiment, a method is disclosed for inducing an immune response to sand fly saliva. In other embodiments, methods for treating, diagnosing, or preventing Leishmaniasis are disclosed.

De Almeida P.F.,Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia | Fausto M.C.R.,Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ | Giovanella L.,FIOCRUZ
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Objective. To describe and analyze the actions developed in four large cities to strengthen the family health strategy (FHS) in Brazil. Methods. Case studies were carried out in Aracaju, Belo Horizonte, Florianópolis, and Vitória based on semi-structured interviews with health care managers. In addition, a cross-sectional study was conducted with questionnaires administered to a sample of FHS workers and services users. Results. Actions needed to strengthen primary health care services were identified in all four cities. These include increasing the number of services offered at the primary health care level, removing barriers to access, restructuring primary services as the entry point to the health care system, enhancing problem-solving capacity (diagnostic and therapeutic support and networking between health units to organize the work process, training, and supervision), as well as improving articulation between surveillance and care actions. Conclusions. The cities studied have gained solid experience in the reorganization of the health care model based on a strengthening of health primary care and of the capacity to undertake the role of health care coordinator. However, to make the primary care level the customary entry point and first choice for users, additional actions are required to balance supplier-induced and consumer-driven demands. Consumerdriven demand is the biggest challenge for the organization of teamwork processes. Support for and recognition of FHS as a basis for primary health care is still an issue. Initiatives to make FHS better known to the population, health care professionals at all levels, and civil society organizations are still needed. © 2011 Organización Panamericana de la Salud.

Lowe R.,Institute Catala Of Ciencies Del Clima Ic3 | Barcellos C.,Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ | Coelho C.A.S.,National Institute for Space Research | Bailey T.C.,University of Exeter | And 8 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: With more than a million spectators expected to travel among 12 different cities in Brazil during the football World Cup, June 12-July 13, 2014, the risk of the mosquito-transmitted disease dengue fever is a concern. We addressed the potential for a dengue epidemic during the tournament, using a probabilistic forecast of dengue risk for the 553 microregions of Brazil, with risk level warnings for the 12 cities where matches will be played. Methods: We obtained real-time seasonal climate forecasts from several international sources (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts [ECMWF], Met Office, Meteo-France and Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos [CPTEC]) and the observed dengue epidemiological situation in Brazil at the forecast issue date as provided by the Ministry of Health. Using this information we devised a spatiotemporal hierarchical Bayesian modelling framework that enabled dengue warnings to be made 3 months ahead. By assessing the past performance of the forecasting system using observed dengue incidence rates for June, 2000-2013, we identified optimum trigger alert thresholds for scenarios of medium-risk and high-risk of dengue. Findings: Our forecasts for June, 2014, showed that dengue risk was likely to be low in the host cities Brasília, Cuiabá, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, and São Paulo. The risk was medium in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, and Manaus. High-risk alerts were triggered for the northeastern cities of Recife (phigh=19%), Fortaleza (phigh=46%), and Natal (phigh=48%). For these high-risk areas, particularly Natal, the forecasting system did well for previous years (in June, 2000-13). Interpretation: This timely dengue early warning permits the Ministry of Health and local authorities to implement appropriate, city-specific mitigation and control actions ahead of the World Cup. Funding: European Commission's Seventh Framework Research Programme projects DENFREE, EUPORIAS, and SPECS; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Barros M.B.,Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz
Clinical microbiology reviews | Year: 2011

Sporotrichosis, which is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii, is currently distributed throughout the world, especially in tropical and subtropical zones. Infection generally occurs by traumatic inoculation of soil, plants, and organic matter contaminated with the fungus. Certain leisure and occupational activities, such as floriculture, agriculture, mining, and wood exploitation, are traditionally associated with the mycosis. Zoonotic transmission has been described in isolated cases or in small outbreaks. Since the end of the 1990s there has been an epidemic of sporotrichosis associated with transmission by cats in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. More than 2,000 human cases and 3,000 animal cases have been reported. In humans, the lesions are usually restricted to the skin, subcutaneous cellular tissue, and adjacent lymphatic vessels. In cats, the disease can evolve with severe clinical manifestations and frequent systemic involvement. The gold standard for sporotrichosis diagnosis is culture. However, serological, histopathological, and molecular approaches have been recently adopted as auxiliary tools for the diagnosis of this mycotic infection. The first-choice treatment for both humans and cats is itraconazole.

Objective: To perform anthropometric assessment of patients with quadriplegic, chronic non-progressive encephalopathy, comparing two distinct references of nutritional classification and to compare the estimated height to the length measured by stadiometer. Method: Cross-sectional study including 0-3-year children with quadriplegic chronic non-progressive encephalopathy in secondary public hospital. Length, weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and knee height were measured. The arm muscle circumference and estimated height were calculated. The following relations were evaluated: weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length, using as reference the charts of the World Health Organization (WHO) and those proposed by Krick et al. Results: Fourteen children with a mean age of 21 months were evaluated. Assessment of anthropometric indicators showed significant difference between the two classification methods to assess nutritional indicators length/age (p=0.014), weight/age (p=0.014) and weight/length (p=0.001). There was significant correlation between measured length and estimated height (r=0.796, p=0.001). Evaluation of arm circumference and triceps skinfold showed that most patients presented some degree of malnutrition. According to arm muscle circumference, most were eutrophic. Conclusions: Specific curves for children with chronic non-progressive encephalopathy appear to underestimate malnutrition when one takes into account indicators involving weight. Curves developed for healthy children can be a good option for clinical practice and weight-for-length indicator and body composition measurements should be considered as complementary tools. © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

Pedro A.S.,Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ | De Oliveira R.M.,Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2013

Objective. To review the literature to determine the existence of associations between socioeconomic factors (individual and collective) and the presence of tuberculosis. Methods. A systematic literature review was carried out in SciELO, Lilacs, Medline, and Scopus using the following search terms: poverty, social indicators, socioeconomic factors, and tuberculosis (in Portuguese, English, and Spanish). Studies having individuals as the unit of analysis were classified according to study design and dependent variable. Ecological studies were classified according to levels of spatial aggregation of data and dependent variable. For each article, the following were recorded: study title, country of origin, year the study was carried out, authors, language, objective, level of spatial aggregation, and indicators used in the analysis. Results. For individual level studies, a direct statistical association was observed between tuberculosis and alcohol addiction, HIV coinfection, low schooling, marital status, low income, lack of food, immigration, and previous contact with tuberculosis patients. For collective analyses, an indirect association was observed for variables relating to gross domestic product per capita, human development index, and basic sanitation at the country level. Indicators relating to crowding, poverty density, schooling, decline in family income, and households receiving governmental cash support were directly associated with tuberculosis at different levels of spatial aggregation. Conclusions. The studies analyzed indicate a persisting relationship between socioeconomic indicators and the production of tuberculosis both at the individual and collective levels. The association between tuberculosis and socioeconomic indicators seems to be influenced by both the level of spatial aggregation and specific characteristics of geographic areas. © 2013 Organización Panamericana de la Salud.

Fujimoto D.E.,Federal University of Acre | Koifman S.,Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz
Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia | Year: 2014

Background: Dengue is an infectious disease with a recurring incidence, especially in developing countries. Despite recent economic growth, success in disease control has not been achieved, and dengue has evolved from cyclic epidemic outbreaks to a lack of seasonality. The lack of scientific basis for the proper management of cases with hemorrhagic manifestations, especially regarding transfusion procedures, might contribute to the high death rate in potentially avoidable cases. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify the clinical and laboratory manifestations in hemorrhagic dengue fever treated at the emergency services in Rio Branco, AC, Brazil, as well as to describe transfusion characteristics of patients and identify possible prognostic factors. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was performed to analyze the distribution of relative frequencies of clinical and laboratory variables. The study was carried out in Rio Branco with confirmed dengue fever cases. Secondary data were obtained by Acre Epidemiological Surveillance teams of cases with bleeding or platelet counts under 100.0 × 109/L. The patients' clinical, laboratory and transfusion data were obtained from hospital records. Results: A total of 90,553 dengue cases were reported of which 7,447 had serologic confirmation; 267 cases had hemorrhagic manifestations and 193 patients were located. Nearly half of the patients had anemia and the mean of the lowest platelet count of these patients was 26.4 × 109/L. Platelet concentrate was transfused in 22.3% of cases with a mean of 7.5 IU/patient, fresh frozen plasma in 21.2% with a mean of 5.2 IU/patient and just 2.6% of patients received concentrated red blood cells with a mean of 3.2 IU/patient. Bleeding led to transfusions. Signs of plasma leakage and cardiopulmonary dysfunction were correlated to unfavorable outcomes. Conclusion: The pattern of clinical and laboratory criteria observed in this investigation does not differ from the literature. Transfusions were used as part of the treatment of dengue hemorrhagic fever manifestations. Some of the clinical manifestations may be related to unfavorable outcomes. © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular All rights reserved.

Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Date: 2010-12-29

This invention refers to new 1,2,3-triazole and imidazole compounds included in the families of compounds represented by general formula VIII. where: X is an atom of C or Nwhere X is N the radicals do triazole ring are represented by:R_(1)=COR_(2), CSR_(3), CN(R_(4))R_(5 )or CF_(2)R_(6);R_(2)=H, NHNH_(2), alkyl, aryl substituted or not, OH, NR_(7)R_(8 )or OR_(9 )R_(3)=alkyl or aryl substituted or notR_(4)=H, OH, alkyl or aryl substituted or notR_(5)=R_(6)=R_(7)=R_(8)=R_(9)=R_(10)=H, alkyl or aryl substituted or notwhere X is C the radicals do imidazolic ring are represented by:R_(1)=COR_(2 )R_(2)=NHNH_(2), OH, OR_(3), or NR_(4)R_(5 )R_(3)=alkyl or aryl substituted or notR_(4)=R_(5)=H, alkyl or aryl substituted or notR_(10)=NHR_(6 )or NR_(6)R_(7 )R_(6)=R_(7)=COR_(8 )R_(8)=aryl substituted or notwhile radical R_(n )can be located in any one or in more than one of the carbon atoms of the aromatic ring, and these radicals can be equal or different, represented by hydrogen, alkylic groups with 1 or more carbon atoms in a linear or branched chain alkenes or alkynes, hydroxyl, hydroxyalkyl or oxygenated functions in acyclic or cyclic systems forming an heterocyclic ring, free or substituted amines, thioalkyl, donators and/or removing groupings of electrons or halogens, thus n can vary from 1 to 5. This invention also refers to a pharmaceutical composition comprising, as active principle, at least one of the azole compounds represented by the general formula VIII, to the use of such compositions and to method of treatment or inhibition de tuberculosis and leishmaniasis.

Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Date: 2013-03-27

The present invention refers to the subsampler and to a subsampling method that allows for the execution of environmental monitoring without the use of large sample volumes, thus ensuring specimen wealth and expedited analyses.

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