Fundacao Nacional de Saude

Belo Horizonte, Brazil

Fundacao Nacional de Saude

Belo Horizonte, Brazil
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da Rosa E.S.T.,Instituto Evandro Chagas | Medeiros D.B.A.,Instituto Evandro Chagas | Nunes M.R.T.,Instituto Evandro Chagas | Simith D.B.,Instituto Evandro Chagas | And 11 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

To study the dynamics of wild rodent populations and identify potential hosts for hantavirus, we conducted an eco-epidemiologic study in Campo Novo do Parecis, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. We detected and genetically characterized Castelo dos Sonhos virus found in a species of pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys utiaritensis).

PubMed | Federal University of Sergipe, Fundacao Nacional de Saude and Federal University of Pernambuco
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2014

Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus represent the two most important species of mosquitoes in relation to dengue virus transmission both in the Americas and Asia. However, the study of theses species generally requires the establishment of a colony for the larvae to hatch, or waiting for the adult development to perform its taxonomic classification, which is time consuming. Thus, the establishment of new methods aimed at obtaining DNA directly from the mosquito eggs is relevant. Accordingly, we compared a new approach based on Chelex() 100 resin with the standard STE method to extract DNA from the eggs of Aedes spp to molecularly identify these vectors. The Chelex() 100 resin approach was very efficient, as satisfactory amounts of DNA were obtained, making it possible to amplify and sequence a mitochondrial DNA barcode region widely used to identify species. The STE protocol yielded substantial amounts of DNA, but the 260/280 optical density ratio indicated a low quality, precluding amplification. This new method proved quite effective in obtaining DNA from even a single mosquito egg, and it can thus be applied in population genetic studies of various vector insects to enhance monitoring programs.

Guterres A.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Guterres A.,Laboratorio Nacional Of Computacao | de Oliveira R.C.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Fernandes J.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | And 11 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to investigate the phylogenetic relationship of the Juquitiba virus (JUQV) carried by Oligoryzomys nigripes in endemic and non-endemic areas of Brazil. Wild rodents infected with the Juquitiba virus (JUQV) were sampled from a non-Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome endemic area in Brazil. Three strains from O. nigripes were identified by the sequencing of the complete S segment and compared to previous studies of JUQV available in GenBank. The phylogenetic analysis of the complete S segment revealed two distinct clades; the first clade was composed of the JUQV from two non-endemic areas in Brazil and the second clade contained JUQV strains from Argentina, Paraguay and other Brazilian endemic areas. © 2013 .

PubMed | Fundacao Nacional de Saude, New York Medical College and Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Drug development research | Year: 2015

Visceral leishmaniasis [VL] represents a major public health problem in many areas of the world. This review focuses on the impact of periurbanization on the epidemiology and treatment of VL, using Brazil as an example. VL continues to be mostly a disease of poverty with impact on families. However, the disease has expanded in Latin America, with foci reported as far south as Argentina. There is an increasing overlap of

De Barros Lopes L.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Guterres A.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Rozental T.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Carvalho De Oliveira R.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | And 14 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of rickettsia and hantavirus in wild rodents and arthropods in response to an outbreak of acute unidentified febrile illness among Indians in the Halataikwa Indian Reserve, northwest of the Mato Grosso state, in the Brazilian Amazon. Where previously surveillance data showed serologic evidence of rickettsia and hantavirus human infection. Methods. The arthropods were collected from the healthy Indian population and by flagging vegetation in grassland or woodland along the peridomestic environment of the Indian reserve. Wild rodents were live-trapped in an area bordering the reserve limits, due the impossibility of capturing wild animals in the Indian reserve. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and karyotype. DNA was extracted from spleen or liver samples of rodents and from invertebrate (tick and louse) pools, and the molecular characterization of the rickettsia was through PCR and DNA sequencing of fragments of two rickettsial genes (gltA and ompA). In relation to hantavirus, rodent serum samples were serologically screened by IgG ELISA using the Araraquara-N antigen and total RNA was extracted from lung samples of IgG-positive rodents. The amplification of the complete S segment was performed. Results: A total of 153 wild rodents, 121 louse, and 36 tick specimens were collected in 2010. Laguna Negra hantavirus was identified in Calomys callidus rodents and Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii were identified in Amblyomma cajennense ticks. Conclusions: Zoonotic diseases such as HCPS and spotted fever rickettsiosis are a public health threat and should be considered in outbreaks and acute febrile illnesses among Indian populations. The presence of the genome of rickettsias and hantavirus in animals in this Indian reserve reinforces the need to include these infectious agents in outbreak investigations of febrile cases in Indian populations. © 2014 de Barros Lopes et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

da Rosa Elkhoury M.,Fundacao Nacional de Saude | da Silva Mendes W.,Federal University of Maranhão | Waldman E.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Dias J.P.,Federal University of Bahia | And 3 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2012

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was described for the first time in Brazil in 1993 and has occurred endemically throughout the country. This study analysed clinical and laboratory aspects as well as death-related factors for HPS cases in Brazil from 1993 to 2006. The investigation comprised a descriptive and exploratory study of the history of cases as well as an analytical retrospective cohort survey to identify prognostic factors for death due to HPS. A total of 855 Brazilian HPS cases were assessed. The majority of cases occurred during spring (33.5%) and winter (27.6%), mainly among young male adults working in rural areas. The global case fatality rate was 39.3%. The mean interval between the onset of symptoms and hospitalisation was 4 days and that between hospitalisation and death was 1 day. In the multiple regression analysis, adult respiratory distress syndrome and mechanical respiratory support were associated with risk of death; when these two variables were excluded from the model, dyspnoea and haemoconcentration were associated with a higher risk of death. © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Nascimento E.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Nascimento E.,Hospital Municipal Of Januaria | Fernandes D.F.,Hospital Municipal Of Januaria | Vieira E.P.,Fundacao Nacional de Saude | And 13 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2010

Forty-four adult patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, controlled, dose-escalating clinical trial and were randomly assigned to receive three injections of either the LEISH-F1+MPL-SE vaccine (consisting of 5, 10, or 20μg recombinant Leishmania polyprotein LEISH-F1 antigen+25μg MPL®-SE adjuvant) (n=27), adjuvant alone (n=8), or saline placebo (n=9). The study injections were given subcutaneously on Days 0, 28, and 56, and the patients were followed through Day 336 for safety, immunological, and clinical evolution endpoints. All patients received chemotherapy with meglumine antimoniate starting on Day 0. The vaccine was safe and well tolerated. Nearly all vaccine recipients and no adjuvant-alone or placebo recipients demonstrated an IgG antibody response to LEISH-F1 at Day 84. Also at Day 84, 80% of vaccine recipients were clinically cured, compared to 50% and 38% of adjuvant-alone and placebo recipients. The LEISH-F1+MPL-SE vaccine was safe and immunogenic in CL patients and appeared to shorten their time to cure when used in combination with meglumine antimoniate chemotherapy. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Pontes R.J.S.,Federal University of Ceará | Filho F.F.D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | de Alencar C.H.M.,Federal University of Ceará | Regazzi A.C.F.,Fundacao Nacional de Saude | And 4 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2010

This study was carried out to evaluate the residual effect of three larvicides under laboratory conditions for 100 days in Aedes aegypti. The larval mortality rate was measured without water renewal or with daily water renewal (80%). With temephos, there was 100% mortality in both groups until the 70th day. In the Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti)-WDG test, there was no difference during the first 20 days. With Bti-G, without water renewal, mortality was sustained above 90% for up to 35 days. The second experiment (with water renewal) reduced the mortality to below 90% after the first 20 days. When renewed water was provided, the residual effect was significantly lower for all larvicides.

Sampaio F.C.,Federal University of Paraiba | De Morais Freitas C.H.S.,Federal University of Paraiba | De Farias Cabral M.B.,Fundacao Nacional de Saude | De Azevedo Britto Machado A.T.,Secretaria de Saude do Estado da Paraiba
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2010

Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the caries prevalence and treatment needs of Brazilian indigenous residents on an Indian reservation. Methods. This cross-sectional study comprised 1 461 individuals of ages 18-36 months and 5, 12, 15-19, 35-44, and 65-74 years living in the Potiguara Indian villages of Brazil. Decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT) and deciduous teeth (dmft) were determined by calibrated examiners using the methodology recommended by the World Health Organization. Treatment needs were assessed with the guidelines of the 2003 Brazilian Oral Health Survey. Results. Means ± standard deviations (SD) for dmft of 18- to 36-month-old and 5-year-old children were 2.5 ± 3.7 and 5.8 ± 4.3, respectively. For the age groups 12, 15-19, 35-44, and 65-74 years, mean ± SD values of DMFT were 3.6 ± 3.1, 7.1 ± 4.9, 16.4 ± 7.5, and 22.8 ± 8.6. The mean ± SD number of deciduous teeth requiring treatment varied from 2.4 ± 3.5 to 5.0 ± 4.0 in the 18- to 36-month and 5-year-old age groups, respectively. Among adolescents and adults, it was observed that on average at least three permanent teeth required dental treatment such as fillings, crowns, endodontic treatment, and extractions. Conclusions. High prevalence of caries and many teeth needing treatment were observed in all age groups of the Potiguara Indians.

Rebelo J.M.M.,Federal University of Maranhão | Assuncao Jr. A.N.,Federal University of Maranhão | Silva O.,Federal University of Maranhão | Moraes J.L.P.,Fundacao Nacional de Saude
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2010

The distribution and relative abundance of sand fly species were studied in the municipality of Barreirinhas, Maranhão State, Brazil, around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, from January to June 2005, August 2004, July 2005, and September/2008. A total of 6,658 specimens were captured. The most frequent species were Lutzomyia whitmani (46.6%), L. longipalpis (29.9%), L. evandroi (17.1%), and L. lenti (4.8%), while L. termitophila, L. flaviscutellata, L. migonei, L. infraspinosa, L. sordellii, L. wellcomei, L. antunesi, and L. trinidadensis represented 1.6%. The presence of Leishmania vector species explains the high detection rate for tegumentary leishmaniasis in 2000 (308.2), 2001 (310.9), 2002 (338.2), and 2005 (313.6) and active foci of human visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Barreirinhas.

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