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In Brazil, some initiatives focusing on sustainable rural development are being implemented in rural settlements. This study aimed to investigate environmental health issues faced in traditional rural settlements in comparison to sustainable development settlements. Qualitative research approaching four "Sustainable Development Projects" and two traditional projects in rural settlements of central and northeastern São Paulo State based on workshops with participants of the settlement projects, discussing environmental health problems faced by community. Procedures were developed after the Ethics Research Committee approval. Settlers in both types of settlements reported similar environmental health problems, related mainly to lack of basic sanitation, inadequate waste management, difficulties in pest control, and workers' health problems. There is a large gap between the proposed discourse of some polities concerned with sustainable development, as in the case of the sustainable development projects in rural settlements in the State of São Paulo, particularly in the incorporation of issues related with public health. However, this dissociation does not manifest itself in the perception of the settlers involved in such projects. For them the construction of a sustainable lifestyle cannot waive attention from the central role of primary attention on aspects of public health as a fundamental factor for human development.

Bentes F.M.,Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina Do Trabalho | Slama J.G.,Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra Of Pos Graduacao E Pesquisa Em Engineering
Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management | Year: 2011

This paper presents the method to analyze the sensitivity of airport noise using computer simulation with the aid of Integrated Noise Model 7.0. The technique serves to support the selection of alternatives to better control aircraft noise, since it helps identify which areas of the noise curves experienced greater variation from changes in aircraft movements at a particular airport.

Anjos R.M.,Federal University of Fluminense | Umisedo N.,University of Sao Paulo | da Silva A.A.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Estellita L.,Federal University of Fluminense | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2010

Radon and gamma radiation level measurements were carried out inside the La Carolina mine, one of the oldest gold mining camps of southern South America, which is open for touristic visits nowadays. CR-39 track-etch detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters of natural CaF2 and LiF TLD-100 were exposed at 14 points along the mine tunnels in order to estimate the mean 222Rn concentration and the ambient dose equivalent during the summer season (November 2008 to February 2009). The values for the 222Rn concentration at each monitoring site ranged from 1.8 ± 0.1 kBq m-3 to 6.0 ± 0.5 kBq m-3, with a mean value of 4.8 kBq m-3, indicating that these measurements exceed in about three times the upper action level recommended by ICRP for workplaces. The correlations between radon and gamma radiation levels inside the mine were also investigated. Effective doses due to 222Rn and gamma rays inside the mine were determined, resulting in negligible values to tourists. Considering the effective dose to the mine tourist guides, values exceeding 20 mSv of internal contribution to the effective doses can be reached, depending on the number of working hours inside the mine. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Santos K.T.,University of Sao Paulo | Florenzano J.,University of Sao Paulo | Rodrigues L.,University of Sao Paulo | Favaro R.R.,University of Sao Paulo | And 11 more authors.
Archives of Toxicology | Year: 2014

High diesel exhaust particle levels are associated with increased health effects; however, knowledge on the impact of its chemical contaminant 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) is limited. We investigated whether postnatal and adult exposures to 1,2-NQ influence allergic reaction and the roles of innate and adaptive immunity. Male neonate (6 days) and adult (56 days) C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to 1,2-NQ (100 nM; 15 min) for 3 days, and on day 59, they were sensitized and later challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and production of cytokines, immunoglobulin E (IgE) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) were measured in the airways. Postnatal exposure to 1,2-NQ activated dendritic cells in splenocytes by increasing expressing cell surface molecules (e.g., CD11c). Co-exposure to OVA effectively polarized T helper (Th) type 2 (Th2) by secreting Th2-mediated cytokines. Re-stimulation with unspecific stimuli (PMA and ionomycin) generated a mixed Th1 (CD4+/IFN-γ+) and Th17 (CD4 +/IL-17+) phenotype in comparison with the vehicle-matched group. Postnatal exposure to 1,2-NQ did not induce eosinophilia in the airways at adulthood, although it evoked neutrophilia and exacerbated OVA-induced eosinophilia, Th2 cytokines, IgE and LTB4 production without affecting AHR and mast cell degranulation. At adulthood, 1,2-NQ exposure evoked neutrophilia and increased Th1/Th2 cytokine levels, but failed to affect OVA-induced eosinophilia. In conclusion, postnatal exposure to 1,2-NQ increases the susceptibility to antigen-induced asthma. The mechanism appears to be dependent on increased expression of co-stimulatory molecules, which leads to cell presentation amplification, Th2 polarization and enhanced LTB4, humoral response and Th1/Th2 cytokines. These findings may be useful for future investigations on treatments focused on pulmonary illnesses observed in children living in heavy polluted areas. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

Estellita L.,Federal University of Fluminense | Santos A.M.A.,Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina Do Trabalho | Anjos R.M.,Federal University of Fluminense | Yoshimura E.M.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
Radiation Measurements | Year: 2010

Occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica and to radiation emitted by natural radionuclides present both in rocks and sands was studied in the Brazilian extractive process and granite product manufacture. Respirable airborne dust samples were collected in working environments, where workers perform different tasks with distinct commercial granites types, and also in places where sandblasters work with sands from different origins. The free crystalline silica contents were determined using X-ray diffraction of the respirable particulate fraction of each sample. Dust samples from granite cutting and sandblasting ambient had the natural radionuclides concentrations measured by gamma spectrometry. Dust concentrations in the workplaces were quite variable, reaching values up to 10 times higher than the respirable particle mass threshold limit value (TLV) set by the American Conference for Governmental Industrial Hygienists of 3 mg m-3. Also the free crystalline silica concentrations were high, reaching values up to 48 times the TLV of 0.025 mg m-3. Additionally, our results suggest that the risk of radiation-induced cancer in the granite or marble industries is negligible. However, the combined exposure to dust, gamma radiation, and radon daughter products could result in the enhancement of lung cancer risks associated to sandblasting activities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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