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Fabbrocini A.,CNR Marine Science Institute | D'Adamo R.,CNR Marine Science Institute | Del Prete F.,University of Naples Federico II | Maurizio D.,CNR Marine Science Institute | And 6 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2016

Changes in environmental stressors inevitably lead to an increasing need for innovative and more flexible monitoring tools. The aim of this work has been the characterization of the motility pattern of the cryopreserved sea bream semen after exposure to a dumpsite leachate sample, for the identification of the best representative parameters to be used as endpoints in an ecotoxicological bioassay.Sperm motility has been evaluated either by visual and by computer-assisted analysis; parameters concerning motility on activation and those describing it in the times after activation (duration parameters) have been assessed, discerning them in terms of sensitivity, reliability and methodology of assessment by means of multivariate analyses. The EC50 values of the evaluated endpoints ranged between 2.3 and 4.5ml/L, except for the total motile percentage (aTM, 7.0ml/L), which proved to be the less sensitive among all the tested parameters. According to the multivariate analyses, a difference in sensitivity among "activation" endpoints in respect of "duration" ones can be inferred; on the contrary, endpoints seem to be equally informative either describing total motile sperm or the rapid sub-population, as well as the assessment methodology seems to be not discriminating. In conclusion, the CRYO-Ecotest is a multi-endpoint bioassay that can be considered a promising innovative ecotoxicological tool, characterized by a high plasticity, as its endpoints can be easy tailored each time according to the different needs of the environmental quality assessment programs. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Silvestri F.,Fiperj Fundacao Institute Pesca Do Estado Do Rio Of Janeiro | Silvestri F.,University of Naples Federico II | Vitiello V.,University of Naples Federico II | Del Prete F.,University of Naples Federico II | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2016

Cryopreservation is a valuable tool for aquaculture as it provides continuous seed production, regardless of the spawning season of the brood stock. The selection of a suitable cryoprotectant with low toxicity and high water solubility is important to avoid membrane injuries and intracellular ice crystallization. This study has been aimed at the assessment of the toxic effects of two usually applied cryoprotectants, 1-2 propylene glycol (PG) and methanol (MetOH), on spermatozoa of the of lion-paw scallop Nodipecten nodosus, by evaluating the sperm motility and the development of D larvae after fertilization procedure. Sperm was exposed at room temperature (22°C) for 10, 20 and 30 min to different concentration ranges of two cryoprotectants. Regarding the sperm motility, PG5%, PG7%, MetOH4% and MetOH6% did not show differences compared to control (semen incubated in seawater) (P < 0.05). The development of D larvae was not affected by the exposition to PG5%, MetOH 4% and MetOH 6%. These results indicate the potential use of both cryoprotectants for cryopreservation procedures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Lopes V.G.,Federal University of Goais | Nessimian J.L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Da-Silva E.R.,Rio de Janeiro State Federal University | Gomes J.H.C.,Petrobras | And 3 more authors.
Iheringia - Serie Zoologia | Year: 2016

Food flexibility and omnivory are important features pronounced in Neotropical freshwater fish species, particularly for Astyanax species. Traditionally most fish diet resources are known to be originated in the aquatic environment, however recent studies have pointed to the importance of allochthonous sources. Besides, the colonization of macrophytes, common at several tropical reservoirs, may enhance insectivory in fish diet expanding or concentrating the area of available resources for feeding. Here we employed stomach contents analysis of two sympatric Astyanax species to access the importance of habitat differentiations as spatial complexity in two tropical reservoirs with different environmental features. The NMDS analysis indicated separation in the diet of these species between reservoirs (Stress= 8.28%). Additionally, analysis of variance revealed a significative difference in the volume of food itens ingested between the reservoirs (Anova one-way F(1, 132)=4.4446; p= 0.037). This points out the importance of environmental conditions on the composition of the diet of fishes. This study highlighted the insectivorous feeding habit of Astyanax species and revealed different feeding strategies between sympatric fishes despite high niche overlap in both environments. Habitat heterogeneity increasing food resources availability plays an important role in the diet strategy of these Astyanax species and on their constant maintenance in the two different reservoirs. © 2016, Fundacao Zoobotanica do Rio Grande do Sul. All rights reserved.

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