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PubMed | Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler, University of the Rio dos Sinos Valley, University of the Basque Country and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2016

Soils around coal mining are important reservoir of hazardous elements (HEs), nanominerals, and ultrafine compounds. This research reports and discusses the soil concentrations of HEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in coal residues of abandoned mines. To assess differences regarding environmental impact and risk assessment between coal abandoned mines from the Santa Catarina state, eighteen coal cleaning rejects with different mineralogical and chemical composition, from eight abandoned mines were collected. Nanominerals and ultra-fine minerals from mining-contaminated areas were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), providing new information on the mineralogy and nano-mineralogy of these coal residues. The total contents of 57 elements (HEs, alkali metals, and rare earth elements) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The calculation of NWACs (Normalized Average Weighted Concentration), together with the chemometric analysis by Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the variability of the samples regarding their city and their mine of origin. Moreover, the results confirmed the existence of hotspots in mines near urban areas.


Teixeira E.C.,Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler | Teixeira E.C.,University Feevale | Teixeira E.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Garcia K.O.,Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler | And 3 more authors.
Atmospheric Research | Year: 2011

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate six nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) in fine (<2.5μm) and coarse (2.5-10μm) atmospheric particles in an urban and industrial area located in the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre (MAPA), RS, Brazil. The method used was of NPAHs isolation and derivatization, and subsequent gas chromatography by electron capture detection (CG/ECD). Results revealed a higher concentration of NPAHs, especially 3-nitrofluoranthene and 1-nitropyrene, in fine particles in the sampling sites studied within the MAPA. The diagnostic ratios calculated for PAHs and NPAHs identified the influence of heavy traffic, mainly of diesel emissions. The correlation of NPAHs with other pollutants (NOx, NO2, NO and O3) evidence the influence of vehicular emissions in the MAPA. The seasonal variation evidenced higher NPAHs concentrations in the fine particles during winter for most compounds studied. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Garcia K.O.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Teixeira E.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Agudelo-Castaneda D.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Braga M.,Centro Universitario La Salle | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

The objective of this research was to evaluate nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) associated with ultrafine airborne particles (PM1) in areas affected by vehicles in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre (MAPA), RS, Brazil. Extraction, isolation/derivatization, and subsequently gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC/ECD) were the techniques used to extract and determine NPAHs (1-nitronaphthalene, 2-nitrofluorene,3-nitrofluoranthene,1-nitropyrene, and 6-nitrochrysene) associated with PM1 Airborne particles (PM1) were collected using PTFE filters in a PM162M automatic sampler. The analytical method was validated by the Standard Reference Material - SRM 1649b - from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA). The results were consistent with the certified values. 3-NFlt and 6-NChr reached highest concentrations of 0.047ng·m-3 and 0.0284ng·m-3, respectively, in Sapucaia do Sul and Canoas. Seasonal variation showed higher NPAH concentrations in cold days. The NPAHs associated with PM1 were correlated with the pollutants nitrogen oxides and NPAHs with meteorological variables: temperature and wind speed. The results indicated that vehicles with diesel engines were influential. This was confirmed by the study of the ratios NPAHs/PAHs, 1-NPyr/Pyr, and 6-NChr/Chr. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler and Centro Universitario La Salle
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2016

Ultrafine and nanometric sediment inputs into river systems can be a major source of nutrients and hazardous elements and have a strong impact on water quality and ecosystem functions of rivers and lakes regions. However, little is known to date about the spatial distribution of sediment sources in most large scale river basins in South America. The objective of this work was to study the coal cleaning rejects (CCRs) spill that occurred from a CCRs impoundment pond into the Tubaro River, South Brazil, provided a unique occasion to study the importance and role of incidental nanoparticles associated with pollutant dispersal from a large-scale, acute aquatic pollution event. Multifaceted geochemical research by X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS, and Raman spectroscopy, provided an in-depth understanding of importance of a nano-mineralogy approach of Aqueous Pollution Scenarios. The electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements (PHEs) in nanoparticles (amorphous and minerals). Some of the neoformed ultrafine/nanoparticles found in the contaminated sediments are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of oxides, silicates, sulfides, and sulfates. These data of the secondary ultra/nanoparticles, puts in evidence their ability to control the mobility of PHEs, suggesting possible presentations in environmental technology, including recuperation of sensitive coal mine. The developed methodology facilitated the sediment transport of the catchment providing consistent results and suggesting its usefulness as a tool for temporary rivers management.


Wiegand F.,Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler | Pereira F.N.,Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler | Pereira F.N.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Teixeira E.C.,Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011

The present paper presents the study of in-cloud and below-cloud SO2 and SO42-scavenging processes by applying numerical models in the Candiota region, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil. The BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) model was applied to simulate the vertical structure of the clouds, and the B.V.2 (Below-Cloud Beheng Version 2) scavenging model was applied to simulate in-cloud and below-cloud scavenging processes of the pollutants SO2 and SO42-. Five events in 2004 were selected for this study and were sampled at the Candiota Airport station. The concentrations of SO2 and SO42- sampled in the air and the simulated meteorological parameters of rainfall episodes were used as input data in the B.V.2, which simulates raindrop interactions associated with the scavenging process. Results for the Candiota region showed that in-cloud scavenging processes were more significant than below-cloud scavenging processes for two of the five events studied, with a contribution of approximately 90-100% of SO2 and SO42- concentrations in rainwater. A few adjustments to the original version of B.V.2 were made to allow simulation of scavenging processes in several types of clouds, not only cumulus humilis and cumulus congestus. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Agudelo-Castaneda D.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Teixeira E.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Rolim S.B.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Pereira F.N.,Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler | Wiegand F.,Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

The purpose of the present study was to analyze atmospheric particle number concentration at Sapucaia do Sul, in the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre, and associate it with the pollutants NO, NO2, and O3. Measurements were performed in two periods: August to October, in 2010 and 2011. We used the following equipment: the continuous particulate monitor (CPM), the chemiluminescent nitrogen oxide analyzer (AC32M), and the UV photometric ozone analyzer (O342M). Daily and hourly particle number concentrations in fractions PR1.0 (0.3-1.0 μm), PR2.5 (1.0-2.5 μm), and PR10 (2.5-10 μm), and concentrations of pollutants NO, NO2, NOx, and O3 were measured. These data were correlated with meteorological parameters such as wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation. The daily variation of OX (NO2 + O3) and its relation with NO2 were also established. The results obtained for daily particle number concentration (particles L-1) showed that the area of study had higher particle number of PR2.5 and PR1.0 size ranges, with values of 19.5 and 28.51 particles L-1, respectively. Differences in particle number concentrations in PR1 and PR2.5 size ranges were found between weekdays and weekends. The daily variation per hour of concentrations of particle number, NO, and NOx showed peaks during increased traffic flow in the morning and in the evening. NO2 showed peaks at different times, with the first peak (morning) 2 h after the peak of NO, and a second peak in the evening (19:00). This is due to the oxidation of NO and to the photolysis of NO3 formed overnight. Correlation analysis suggests that there may be a relationship between the fine and ultrafine particles and NO, probably indicating that they have similar sources, such as vehicular emissions. In addition, a possible relationship of solar radiation with fine particle number concentrations, as well as with O3 was also observed. The results, too, show an inverse relationship between particle number concentration and relative humidity. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Agudelo-Castaneda D.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Teixeira E.C.,Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler | Teixeira E.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

The objective of this research was to evaluate the seasonal variation of PAHs in PM1.0, as well as to identify and quantify the contributions of each source profile using the PMF receptor model. PM1.0 samples were collected on PTFE filters from August 2011 to July 2013 in the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The samples were extracted using the EPA method TO-13A and 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a gaseous chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Also, the data discussed in this study were analyzed to identify the relations of the PAHs concentrations with NOx, NO, O3 and meteorological parameters (temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, relative humidity). The results showed that in winter, concentrations of total PAHs were significantly higher than in summer, thus showing their seasonal variation. The identification of emission sources by applying diagnostic ratios confirmed that PAHs in the study area originate from mobile sources, especially, from diesel and gasoline emissions. The analysis by PMF receptor model showed the contribution of these two main sources of emissions, too, followed by coal combustion, incomplete combustion/unburned petroleum and wood combustion. The toxic equivalent factors were calculated to characterize the risk of cancer from PAH exposure to PM1.0 samples, and BaP and DahA dominated BaPeq levels. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Teixeira E.C.,Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler | Teixeira E.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Mattiuzi C.D.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Agudelo-Castaneda D.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013

Atmospheric fine and coarse particles were collected in Teflon filters in three cities of the region of the Lower Sinos River Basin of Rio Grande do Sul in the year 2010. The filters were Soxhlet extracted, and 14 priority PAHs were analyzed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The principal emission sources of these compounds were assessed by using diagnostic ratios and receptor model: positive matrix factorization (PMF 3.0) of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results of PAHs concentration for the studied year showed significant levels of high molecular weight (HMW) PAH, Ind, and BghiP, in PM2.5 in the winter season, showing the influence of mobile sources. The application of receptor model PMF 3.0 revealed that the main sources of PAHs were vehicle fleet (both diesel and gasoline), followed by coal combustion, wood combustion, and resuspension of dust. The results of the receptor modeling are in agreement with the data obtained by the ratio diagnostic. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Teixeira E.C.,Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler | Teixeira E.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Agudelo-Castaneda D.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Fachel J.M.G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 3 more authors.
Atmospheric Research | Year: 2012

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fine (PM 2.5) and coarse particles (PM 2.5-10) in an urban and industrial area in the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre (MAPA), Brazil. Sixteen U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured. Filters containing ambient air particulate were extracted with dichloromethane using Soxhlet. Extracts were later analyzed, for determining PAH concentrations, using a gaseous chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were more concentrated in PM 2.5 with an average of 70% of total PAHs in the MAPA. The target PAH apportionment among the main emission sources was carried out by diagnostic PAH concentration ratios, and principal component analysis (PCA). PAHs with higher molecular weight showed higher percentages in the fine particles in the MAPA. Based on the diagnostic ratios and PCA analysis, it may be concluded that the major contribution of PAHs was from vehicular sources (diesel and gasoline), especially in the PM 2.5 fraction, as well as coal and wood burning. The winter/summer ratio in the PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 fractions in the MAPA was 3.1 and 1.8, respectively, revealing the seasonal variation of PAHs in the two fractions. The estimated toxicity equivalent factor (TEF), used to assess the contribution of the carcinogenic potency, confirms a significant presence of the moderately active carcinogenic PAHs BaP and DahA in the samples collected in the MAPA. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Teixeira E.C.,Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler | Mattiuzi C.D.P.,Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler | Feltes S.,Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler | Wiegand F.,Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler | Santana E.R.R.,Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias | Year: 2012

The purpose of the present study was to estimate emissions of some pollutants (CO, NOX, HC, SOX, and PM) in diesel fleet due to the addition of biodiesel in different blends, as well as to assess atmospheric pollutant concentrations in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre (MAPA). The methodology was based on inventories from mobile sources based on US EPA's technical report. Regarding air quality the following parameters were determined: PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOX, O3, SO2, HC and PAHs. The results showed a decrease for emissions PM, CO, and HC, and a slight increase for NOX. The characterization of atmospheric pollutants in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre showed that they are influenced by mobile sources, particularly diesel vehicles. The diagnosis of ratios analysis that was applied to facilitate the identification of sources of PAHs, indicated an influence of diesel oil.

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