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Couto I.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado FMT HVD | Victoria M.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado FMT HVD | Veloso V.G.,Instituto Nacional Of Infectologia Evandro Chagas Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Rodrigues L.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado FMT HVD | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

Objective The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictor factors for compensated advanced chronic liver disease (c-ACLD) in patients with hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) infection. Methods This cross-sectional study included consecutive HDV-infected patients defined by positive anti-HDV. Patients with hepatitis C coinfection, liver transplantation or presence of conditions that limit liver (LSM) or spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) were excluded. Blood tests, abdominal ultrasound, SSM and LSM by transient elastography (FibroScan®) were performed at the same day. Alcohol consumption was quantified using the AUDIT score and c-ACLD was defined by LSM ≥ 15 kPa performed by an experimented operator blinded for clinical and laboratory data. Results 101 patients were eligible and few patients were excluded due to negative anti-HDV (n = 7), hepatitis C coinfection (n = 2), liver transplantation (n = 10) and limitation for LSM or SSM (n = 5). Therefore, 77 patients [61% male, age = 43 (IQR,36-52) years] were included. The prevalence of c-ACLD was 57% (n = 44/77). Patients with c-ACLD had a higher rate of detectable HBV viral load (p = 0.039), higher levels of transaminases, GGT, alkaline phosphatases, total bilirubin and INR (p<0.001 for all), as well as lower platelet count and albumin levels (p>0.001 for both) compared to those without c-ACLD. Patients with c-ACLD had higher SSM [65.2 (IQR,33.8-75.0) vs 21.8 (16.5-32.0) kPa; p<0.001] and higher splenic volume [475 (IQR,311-746) vs 154 (112-283) cm3; p<0.001] compared to those without. Detectable HBV viral load (>10 UI/ml), alkaline phosphatase (per IU/L) and GGT levels (per IU/L) were independently associated with c-ACLD in all multivariate models. Splenic volume [per cm3,OR = 1.01 (95%CI,1.01-1.02);p = 0.002], SSM [per kPa, OR = 1.04 (1.01-1.07); p = 0.012] and splenomegaly [yes vs no,OR = 28.45 (4.42-182.95);p<0.001] were independently associated with c-ACLD. Conclusions The prevalence of c-ACLD was high in patients with chronic HDV infection in western Amazon basin. HBV viral load, liver enzymes and splenic features can be used to predict severe liver disease in HDV-infected patients. © 2017 Couto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Botto-Menezes C.,University of the State of Amazonas | Botto-Menezes C.,Federal University of Amazonas | Dos Santos M.C.S.,Federal University of Amazonas | Simplicio J.L.,Federal University of Amazonas | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Introduction: Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malaria species in the American region. Brazil accounts for the higher number of the malaria cases reported in pregnant women in the Americas. This study aims to describe the characteristics of pregnant women with malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon and the risk factors associated with prematurity and low birth weight (LBW). Methods/Principal Findings: Between December 2005 and March 2008, 503 pregnant women with malaria that attended a tertiary health centre were enrolled and followed up until delivery and reported a total of 1016 malaria episodes. More than half of study women (54%) were between 20-29 years old, and almost a third were adolescents. The prevalence of anaemia at enrolment was 59%. Most women (286/503) reported more than one malaria episode and most malaria episodes (84.5%, 846/1001) were due to P. vivax infection. Among women with only P. vivax malaria, the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight decreased in multigravidae (OR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.16-0.82]; p = 0.015 and OR 0.24 [95% CI, 0.10-0.58]; p = 0.001, respectively). The risk of preterm birth decreased with higher maternal age (OR 0.43 [95% CI, 0.19-0.95]; p = 0.037) and among those women who reported higher antenatal care (ANC) attendance (OR, 0.32 [95% CI, 0.15-0.70]; p = 0.005). Conclusion: This study shows that P. vivax is the prevailing species among pregnant women with malaria in the region and shows that vivax clinical malaria may represent harmful consequences for the health of the mother and their offsprings particularly on specific groups such as adolescents, primigravidae and those women with lower ANC attendance. © 2015 Bôtto-Menezes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Botto-Menezes C.,University of the State of Amazonas | Bardaji A.,Hospital Clinicuniversitat Of Barcelona | dos Santos Campos G.,Federal University of Amazonas | Fernandes S.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2016

Background: Information on costs associated with malaria in pregnancy (MiP) in low transmission areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates is so far missing. This study estimates health system and patient costs of MiP in the Brazilian Amazon. Methods/Principal Findings: Between January 2011 and March 2012 patient costs for the treatment of MiP were collected through an exit survey at a tertiary referral hospital and at a primary health care centre in the Manaus metropolitan area, Amazonas state. Pregnant and post-partum women diagnosed with malaria were interviewed after an outpatient consultation or at discharge after admission. Seventy-three interviews were included in the analysis. Ninety-six percent of episodes were due to P. vivax and 4% to Plasmodium falciparum. In 2010, the total median costs from the patient perspective were estimated at US $45.91 and US $216.29 for an outpatient consultation and an admission, respectively. When multiple P. vivax infections during the same pregnancy were considered, patient costs increased up to US $335.85, representing the costs of an admission plus an outpatient consultation. Provider direct and overhead cost data were obtained from several sources. The provider cost associated with an outpatient case, which includes several consultations at the tertiary hospital was US $103.51 for a P. vivax malaria episode and US $83.59 for a P. falciparum malaria episode. The cost of an inpatient day and average admission of 3 days was US $118.51 and US $355.53, respectively. Total provider costs for the diagnosis and treatment of all malaria cases reported in pregnant women in Manaus in 2010 (N = 364) were US $17,038.50, of which 92.4% (US$ 15,741.14) due to P. vivax infection. Conclusion: Despite being an area of low risk malaria transmission, MiP is responsible for a significant economic burden in Manaus. Especially when multiple infections are considered, costs associated with P. vivax are higher than costs associated with P. falciparum. The information generated may help health policy decisions for the current control and future elimination of malaria in the area. © 2016 Bôtto-Menezes et al.


de Alencar Filho A.C.,Federal University of Amazonas | de Lacerda M.V.G.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado FMT HVD | Okoshi K.,São Paulo State University | Okoshi M.P.,São Paulo State University
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia | Year: 2014

Involvement of the cardiovascular system in patients with infectious and parasitic diseases can result from both intrinsic mechanisms of the disease and drug intervention. Malaria is an example, considering that the endothelial injury by Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes can cause circulatory disorders. This is a literature review aimed at discussing the relationship between malaria and endothelial impairment, especially its effects on the cardiovascular system. We discuss the implications of endothelial aggression and the interdisciplinarity that should guide the malaria patient care, whose acute infection can contribute to precipitate or aggravate a preexisting heart disease. © 1996-2014, Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia. All rights reserved.


Perez-Porcuna T.M.,University of Barcelona | Perez-Porcuna T.M.,Hospital Universitari Mutua Terrassa | Pereira-Da-Silva H.D.,University of Barcelona | Ascaso C.,University of Barcelona | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Introduction: For adequate disease control the World Health Organization has proposed the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in groups of risk of developing the disease such as children. There is no gold standard (GS) test for the diagnosis of LTBI. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of LTBI in young children in contact with a household case of tuberculosis (TB-HCC) and determine the accuracy and precision of the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube (QFT) used in the absence of a GS. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in children up to 6 years of age in Manaus/Brazil during the years 2009-2010. All the children had been vaccinated with the BCG and were classified into two groups according to the presence of a TB-HCC or no known contact with tuberculosis (TB). The variables studied were: the TST and QFT results and the intensity and length of exposure to the index tuberculosis case. We used the latent class model to determine the prevalence of LTBI and the accuracy of the tests. Results: Fifty percent of the children with TB-HCC had LTBI, with the prevalence depending on the intensity and length of exposure to the index case. The sensitivity and specificity of TST were 73% [95% confidence interval (CI):53-91] and 97% (95%CI: 89-100), respectively, versus 53% (95%CI: 41-66) and 81% (95%CI:71-90) for QFT. The positive predictive value of TST in children with TB-HCC was 91% (95%CI: 61-99), being 74% for QFT (95% CI: 47-95). Conclusions: This is one of the first studies to estimate the prevalence of LTBI in children and the parameters of the main diagnostic tests using a latent class model. Our results suggest that children in contact with an index case have a high risk of infection. The accuracy and the predictive value of the two tests did not significantly differ. Combined use of the two tests showed scarce improvement in the diagnosis of LTBI. © 2016 Perez-Porcuna et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Monteiro W.M.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado FMT HVD | Monteiro W.M.,University of the State of Amazonas | Franca G.P.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado FMT HVD | Melo G.C.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado FMT HVD | And 13 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Although G6PDd individuals are generally asymptomatic throughout their life, the clinical burden of this genetic condition includes a range of haematological conditions, including acute haemolytic anaemia (AHA), neonatal jaundice (NNJ) and chronic non-sphaerocytic anaemia (CNSA). In Latin America (LA), the huge knowledge gap regarding G6PDd is related to the scarce understanding of the burden of clinical manifestation underlying G6PDd carriage. The aim of this work was to study the clinical significance of G6PDd in LA and the Caribbean region through a systematic review. Methods. A systematic search of the published literature was undertaken in August 2013. Bibliographies of manuscripts were also searched and additional references were identified. Only original research was included. All study designs were included, as long as any clinical information was present. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported clinical information from populations living in LA or Caribbean countries or about migrants from these countries living in countries outside this continent. Results: The Medline search generated 487 papers, and the LILACS search identified 140 papers. After applying the inclusion criteria, 100 original papers with any clinical information on G6PDd in LA were retrieved. Additionally, 16 articles were included after reading the references from these papers. These 116 articles reported data from 18 LA and Caribbean countries. The major clinical manifestations reported from LA countries were those related to AHA, namely drug-induced haemolysis. Most of the published works regarding drug-induced haemolysis in LA referred to haemolytic crises in P. vivax malaria patients during the course of the treatment with primaquine (PQ). Favism, infection-induced haemolysis, NNJ and CNSA appear to play only a minor public health role in this continent. Conclusion: Haemolysis in patients using PQ seems to be the major clinical manifestation of G6PDd in LA and contributes to the morbidity of P. vivax infection in this continent, although the low number of reported cases, which could be linked to under-reporting of complications. These results support the need for better strategies to diagnose and manage G6PDd in malaria field conditions. Additionally, Malaria Control Programmes in LA should not overlook this condition in their national guidelines. © 2014 Monteiro et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Federal University of Goais, University of Barcelona, Laboratorio Multidisciplinar Fundacao Of Hematologia E Hemoterapia Do Amazonas and Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado FMT HVD
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

For adequate disease control the World Health Organization has proposed the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in groups of risk of developing the disease such as children. There is no gold standard (GS) test for the diagnosis of LTBI. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of LTBI in young children in contact with a household case of tuberculosis (TB-HCC) and determine the accuracy and precision of the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube (QFT) used in the absence of a GS.We conducted a cross-sectional study in children up to 6 years of age in Manaus/Brazil during the years 2009-2010. All the children had been vaccinated with the BCG and were classified into two groups according to the presence of a TB-HCC or no known contact with tuberculosis (TB). The variables studied were: the TST and QFT results and the intensity and length of exposure to the index tuberculosis case. We used the latent class model to determine the prevalence of LTBI and the accuracy of the tests.Fifty percent of the children with TB-HCC had LTBI, with the prevalence depending on the intensity and length of exposure to the index case. The sensitivity and specificity of TST were 73% [95% confidence interval (CI): 53-91] and 97% (95%CI: 89-100), respectively, versus 53% (95%CI: 41-66) and 81% (95%CI:71-90) for QFT. The positive predictive value of TST in children with TB-HCC was 91% (95%CI: 61-99), being 74% for QFT (95%CI: 47-95).This is one of the first studies to estimate the prevalence of LTBI in children and the parameters of the main diagnostic tests using a latent class model. Our results suggest that children in contact with an index case have a high risk of infection. The accuracy and the predictive value of the two tests did not significantly differ. Combined use of the two tests showed scarce improvement in the diagnosis of LTBI.


Ladeia-Andrade S.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Fe N.F.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado FMT HVD | Sanguinette C.D.C.,Instituto Rene Rachou | Andrade Filho J.D.,Instituto Rene Rachou
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

A new species of phlebotomine sand flies belonging to Trichophoromyia Barretto, 1962 genus is described, based on males collected in Jaú National Park, Amazonas state, Brazil. Methods. The Sand flies were mounted in Canada balsam. They were measured with a binocular Olympus CH-2 microscope with the aid of a micrometer objective and the drawings were done with the help of a camera lucida. Results: This new species named Trichophoromyia uniniensis sp. nov. is closely related to Trichophoromyia omagua (Martins, Llanos & Silva, 1976). The former can be distinguished from the latter by the shape of its paramere that has the lower apical region turned up in the new species. Conclusion: With the new species here described a total of 39 species belonging to the Trichophoromyia genus are now known, most of them present in the Amazon rainforest. © 2014 Ladeia-Andrade et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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