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Bastos T.C.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado FMT HVD | Cruz K.S.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado FMT HVD | Francesconi F.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado FMT HVD
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia | Year: 2014

Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic subcutaneous mycotic infection caused by dematiaceous saprophytic moulds. The most frequently isolated agent is Fonsecae pedrosoi. This article reports a case of a man from the Amazon region in Northern Brazil who presented with a lesion of 12 months' duration, which gradually increased in size until covering the majority of his right leg. A successful treatment with itraconazole was performed. © 2014 by Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia.

Gomes Naveca F.,Instituto Leonidas e Maria Deane Fiocruz Amazonia | Sabido M.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado FMT HVD | Amaral Pires de Almeida T.,Instituto Leonidas e Maria Deane Fiocruz Amazonia | Amaral Pires de Almeida T.,Federal University of Amazonas
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objectives:To determine the etiology and factors associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD) among patients presenting to a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil; and to compare a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for the diagnosis of GUD with standard methods.Methods:Ulcer swabs were collected and used for Tzanck test and processed in an M-PCR to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV-1/2), Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), and Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi). Sera were tested for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Multivariable analysis was used to measure the association between clinical aspects and GUD. M-PCR results were compared with syphilis serology and Tzanck tests.Results:Overall, 434 GUD samples were evaluated, 84.8% from men. DNA from HSV-2 was detected in 55.3% of GUD samples, T. pallidum in 8.3%, HSV-1 in 3.2%, and 32.5% of GUD specimens were negative for the DNA of all three pathogens. No cases of H. ducreyi were identified. HIV serology among GUD patients was 3.2%. Treponemal antibodies and Tzanck test positivity for genital herpes was detected in 25 (5.8%) and in 125 (30.3%) of GUD patients, respectively. In multivariable analysis genital herpes etiology by M-PCR was associated with the vesicular, multiple and recurrent lesions whereas T. pallidum with non-vesicular, non-recurrent lesions. Compared to M-PCR, syphilis serology was 27.8% sensitive and 96.2% specific whereas Tzanck test was 43.8% sensitive and 88.9% specific.Conclusions:The predominance of genital herpes etiology suggests a revision of existing national syndromic treatment guidelines in Brazil to include antiherpetic treatment for all GUD patients. The use of M-PCR can significantly improve the diagnosis of GUD and provide a greater sensitivity than standard diagnostics. © 2013 Gomes Naveca et al.

Sabido M.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado FMT HVD | Sabido M.,University of Girona | Kerr L.R.F.S.,Federal University of Ceara | Mota R.S.,Federal University of Ceara | And 6 more authors.
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2015

We estimated the prevalence of sexual violence (SV) experience among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Brazil and identified its associated risk factors. We recruited 3859 MSM through respondent driven sampling. A multivariable hierarchical analysis was performed using an ecological model. The prevalence of having ever experienced SV was 15.9 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 14.7–17.1). SV experience was independently associated with discrimination due to sexual orientation (odds ratio [OR] 3.05; 95 % CI 2.10–4.42), prior HIV testing (OR 1.81; 95 % CI 1.25–2.63), ≤14 years at first sex (OR 1.86; 95 % CI 1.28–2.71), first sex with a man (OR 1.89; 95 % CI 1.28–2.79), presenting STI symptoms (last year) (OR 1.66; 95 % CI 1.12–2.47), and having suicidal ideas (last 6 months) (OR 2.08; 95 % CI 1.30–3.35). The high levels of SV against MSM in Brazil place them at a markedly higher risk of SV than the general population. Homophobic prejudice is the strongest determinant of SV and urgently needs to be included at the forefront of the national response to SV. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Ruffinen C.Z.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Sabido M.,University of Girona | Diaz-Bermudez X.P.,University of Brasilia | Lacerda M.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado FMT HVD | And 3 more authors.
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2015

Background: Point-of-care (POC) screening for HIV and syphilis using rapid testing was implemented in indigenous communities in the triple-border area of the Brazilian Amazon. We describe the context of the early introduction of POC screening, explore hindering and enabling factors for POC implementation, and recommend strategies for feasible, viable, and sustainable syphilis and HIV screening interventions. Methods: This was a qualitative study based on grounded theory methodology. Data were collected using in-depth interviews, semi-structured questionnaires, and field observations and were analysed using the framework approach. Qualitative information was complemented by quantitative data for descriptive purposes. Results: An overall high score for vulnerability to acquiring HIV and syphilis was observed among the indigenous communities. Health professionals reported satisfactory rapid testing acceptance, although concerns were raised about the pain of the fingerprick. Counselling-related challenges included ensuring the accuracy of translations, collaborating with translators and communicating positive test results. Over 3 months, 86.7 % of the syphilis-positive individuals began treatment, and all of them notified their partners. Accessibility, measured as travel time via the local transportation network, was a barrier to health care access. A lack of gasoline for boats and other transportation was also a hindering factor at all levels of implementation. Conclusions: The recommendations address the preparation phase at the coordination level as well as at the training level. Tools such as strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analyses; checklists; context-adapted protocols; and fact sheets are very simple methods to facilitate implementation. The findings of this study are important because they may inform the implementation of new health technologies in low-resource national disease control programmes in remote communities. © 2015 Ruffinen et al.

Pinto I.C.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado FMT HVD | Sabido M.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado FMT HVD | Sabido M.,University of Girona | Pereira A.B.,Facultade La Salle | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of the PIMA point-of-care CD4 analyzer (PIMA) under field conditions in comparison to the current CD4 count system (FACSCalibur), and to evaluate the operational suitability and acceptability of health professionals (HP) and HIV-patients in using the PIMA in health clinics in the Amazon Region. Methods: CD4 counts were measured onsite by the PIMA using fingerprick blood and in the reference laboratory by both the PIMA and FACSCalibur using venous blood. We used the Bland-Altman method to estimate the mean bias, and calculated the sensitivity and specificity at <200 and <500 cell/μL thresholds. Patients (n = 404) and HP (n = 7) were interviewed on the acceptability and operational suitability of the PIMA. Results: Using fingerprick blood (n = 337), the PIMA showed a concordance correlation coefficient (Rc) of 0.81, mean difference of -111.9 cell/μL, 93.1%/98.5% sensitivity, and 89.2%/56.7% specificity at <200 and <500 cell/μL thresholds, respectively. Venous blood (n = 340) showed an Rc of 0.89, mean difference of -83.4 cell/μL, 98.3%/97.5% sensitivity, and 93.9%/66.0% specificity at <200 and <500 cell/μL thresholds, respectively. The capillary PIMA was well accepted and found operationally appropriate by patients and HP. Conclusions: The agreement between both instruments was poor and the PIMA underestimated CD4 cell counts, which was more pronounced at CD4 counts ≥500 cell/μl. The PIMA's performance with fingerprick blood was less reliable than its performance with venous blood. In Brazil where antiretroviral treatment is initiated regardless of CD4 counts, the PIMA's systematic bias towards CD4 underestimation may limit its role for monitoring HIV-patients. © 2015 Pinto et al.

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