Fundacao Agraria de Pesquisa Agropecuaria

Guarapuava, Brazil

Fundacao Agraria de Pesquisa Agropecuaria

Guarapuava, Brazil
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Reynaldo E.F.,Fundacao Agraria de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | Machado T.M.,Federal University of Mato Grosso
Revista Ceres | Year: 2016

Centrifugal spreaders are indispensable in modern agriculture due to several functions that they can perform. Most of the times, however, regulation and maintenance of such equipment are unsatisfactory, causing losses through lost productivity due to overlapping of past problems caused by fertilizer deficit. Based on these assumptions, the aim of the present work is to inspect and raise critical points of broadcast fertilizer spreaders in the South-central region of Paraná State. A checklist was developed, in which, through field visits, the spreaders were inspected. In 59% of inspections, the machines had various problems of maintenance and regulation, especially regulation of the angle of the fins. All inspected spreaders failed because they presented the coefficient of variation above 20%. The inspection program of fertilizer spreaders is of great value and should be mandatory in the states of increased agricultural production to avoid productivity losses due to irregularities in the spreading of fertilizers.


Spader V.,Fundacao Agraria de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | Deschamps C.,Federal University of Paraná
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2015

The study aimed to evaluate the performance of soybean cultivars at different sowing dates and plant densities. Two experiments were carried out at FAPA (Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária [Agrarian Foundation for Agricultural and Cattle Research]), located at 25°33' S latitude, 51°29' W longitude and with 1.100 meters of altitude in Guarapuava, PR [Paraná], Brazil, in two agricultural harvests (2010/2011 and 2011/2012). The experimental design was in randomized blocks and split plots, in which the sowing dates (10/20, 11/18 and 12/10) were allocated by plot, the densities (250, 350 and 450 thousand plants ha-1) by subplot and the cultivars (BMX Energia, BMX Apolo, BMX Ativa, FPS Júpiter, V-Top, NS 6631, TMG 7161 and BRS Tordilha) by sub-subplot. The agronomic characteristics, grain yield and yield components were evaluated. Sowing dates and plant densities affected the agronomic characteristics, grain yield and yield components of soybean. The best sowing dates for lodging-tolerant cultivars are 10/20 and 11/18, and the best densities are 350 and 450 thousand plants ha-1, while lodging-susceptible cultivars respond best for sowing dates of 11/18 and 12/10 and densities from 250 to 350 thousand plants ha-1.


Silva R.R.,State University Londrina | Benin G.,Federal Technological University of Paraná | de Almeida J.L.,Fundacao Agraria de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | de Batista Fonseca I.C.,State University Londrina | Zucareli C.,State University Londrina
Acta Scientiarum - Agronomy | Year: 2014

Choosing the right sowing dates can maximize the outcomes of the interaction between genotype and environment, thus increasing grain yield and baking quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The present study aimed at determining the most appropriate sowing dates that maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat cultivars. Seven wheat cultivars (BRS 179, BRS Guamirim, BRS Guabiju, BRS Umbu, Safira, CD 105 and CD 115) were evaluated at four sowing dates (the 1st and the 15th of June and July) in two harvesting seasons (2007 and 2008). The study was setup in a completely randomized block design with four repetitions. The effects of the year and sowing date when combined explained 93% of the grain yield variance. In 2007, the CD 105 and Safira cultivars had the highest grain yield (GY) for all sowing dates. Only the BRS Guabiju and Safira cultivars possessed high baking quality for all sowing dates assessed. In 2008, the environmental conditions were favorable for superior GY, but the baking quality was inferior. Considering adapted cultivars and sowing dates, it is possible to maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat.


Silva R.R.,State University Londrina | Benin G.,Federal Technological University of Paraná | da Silva G.O.,Embrapa Transferencia de Tecnologia | Marchioro V.S.,Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agricola da Nossa Terra | And 2 more authors.
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2011

The objective of this work was to identify the best sowing dates and to evaluate the adaptability and stability of wheat cultivars in two wheat growing regions of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Seven cultivars were evaluated at Guarapuava and nine at Palotina as to grain yield, at four sowing seasons, in 2006, 2007 and 2008. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design, with four and three replicates, for Guarapuava and Palotina, respectively. The methodologies REML/BLUP and genotype main effect and genotype x environment interaction (GGE biplot) were used for adaptability and stability analysis, and the AMMI model was used to identify the best sowing dates. Sowing in July, at Guarapuava, and in April, at Palotina, maximized grain yield. The cultivars Safira, at Guarapuava, and CD 113, at Palotina, are stable, highly adapted and show high grain yield.


da Silva F.R.,University of South Santa Catarina | Albuquerque J.A.,Santa Catarina State University | da Costa A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Fontoura S.M.V.,Fundacao Agraria de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2016

Changes in soil physical properties due to different management systems occur slowly, and long-term studies are needed to assess soil quality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of soil management systems and liming methods on the physical properties of a Latossolo Bruno Alumínico típico (Hapludox). A long-term experiment that began in 1978 with conventional and no-tillage systems was assessed. In addition, different liming methods (no lime, incorporated lime, and lime on the soil surface) have been applied since 1987 and were also evaluated in this study. Moreover, an area of native forest was evaluated and considered a reference for the natural condition of the soil. Soil physical properties were evaluated in layers to a depth of 1.00 m. Compared to native forest, the conventional tillage and no-tillage systems had higher soil bulk density, penetration resistance, and microporosity, and lower aggregate stability and macroporosity. Compared to the conventional tillage system, long-term no-tillage improved the structure of the Hapludox, as evidenced by increased microporosity and aggregate stability, especially in the soil surface layer. In no-tillage with lime applications sporadically incorporated, soil physical properties did not differ from no-tillage without lime and with lime applied on the soil surface, indicating that this practice maintains the physical quality of soil under no-tillage. Liming in a conventional tillage system improved soil aggregation and reduces penetration resistance in the soil layers near the soil surface. No-tillage was the main practice related to improvement of soil physical quality, and liming methods did not influence soil physical properties in this soil management system. © 2016, Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo. All rights reserved.


Vieira R.C.B.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Fontoura S.M.V.,Fundacao Agraria de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | Bayer C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Ernani P.R.,Santa Catarina State University | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2016

In no-tillage (NT) systems, there is no plowed layer since the soil is not tilled. Thus, the soil layer for fertility evaluation can be defined as the one in which the fertility indices are affected by the surface application of lime and fertilizers and soil properties have the closest relationship with crop yields. The objective of this study was to determine the most appropriate soil layer under long-term NT for sampling for fertility evaluation in the South-Central region of Paraná, Brazil. A total of 99 field experiments of crop rotations were performed, including soybean, corn, barley, wheat, and white oat, all on Oxisols (Hapludox). Despite the surface application, lime and fertilizers increased base saturation (V) and available K to a depth of 0.20 m. The relationship with crop yields was high for V and low for available K for both soil layers (0.00-0.10 and 0.00-0.20 m); for P, however, the relationships with soybean and corn yields were strongest in the 0.00-0.20 m layer. Thus, considering the soil layer fertilized by the surface application of lime and potassium fertilizers and the highest relationship of soil P contents with the yield of the main crops of the crop rotation, the 0.00-0.20 m layer is the most appropriate for soil fertility evaluation under long-term no-tillage systems. © 2016, Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo. All rights reserved.


Stoetzer A.,Fundacao Agraria de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | Kawakami J.,State University of the Central West | Junior A.L.M.,Embrapa Trigo | Lau D.,Embrapa Trigo | And 2 more authors.
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2014

The objective of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of different forms of insecticide application on the transmission of yellow dwarf disease in barley cultivars, as well as to determine the production costs and the net profit of these managements. The experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 growing seasons, using the following managements at main plots: T1, seed treatment with insecticide (ST) + insecticide on shoots at 15-day interval T2, just ST T3, insecticide applied on shoots, when aphid control level (CL) was reached T4, without insecticide and T5, ST + insecticide on shoots when CL was reached. Different barley cultivars - BRS Cauê, BRS Brau and MN 6021-were arranged in the subplots. Insecticides lambda cyhalothrin (pyrethroid) and thiamethoxam (neonicotinoid) were used. There were differences on yellow dwarf disease index in both seasons for the different treatments, while damage to grain yield was influenced by year and aphid population. Production costs and net profit were different among treatments. Seed treatment with insecticide is sufficient to reduce the transmission of yellow dwarf disease in years with low aphid population pressure, while in years with larger populations, the application of insecticide on shoots is also required.


Reynaldo E.F.,Monsanto Corporation | Machado T.M.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | Taubinger L.,State University of the Central West | De Quadros D.,Fundacao Agraria de Pesquisa Agropecuaria
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2016

The spray boom is one of the sprayer components that most affect the application quality and may cause phytotoxicity and overlay application problems. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the displacement in the vertical and horizontal movements of the spray booms in three models of self-propelled boom sprayers. The vibrations of the spray boom in the vertical direction was measured using three receivers (GNSS) with RTK differential correction. The vibration measurements in the horizontal direction were determined using a high resolution camera. At the end, the processed data were entered into a spreadsheet for the descriptive statistics. The smallest spray boom movement in the horizontal direction was obtained by the specimen 2. No statistical differences were observed between the different speeds for the spray boom vibration in the horizontal and vertical directions, in the evaluated sprayers. The largest vertical movements of the spray booms were observed for the self-propelled specimen 3. The impact/collision route type showed the highest deviations and, in undulating and gentle to undulating types, there was no significant difference in deviation values. © 2016 Departamento de Engenharia Agricola - UFCG/Cnpq. All rights reserved.


Vieira R.C.B.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Fontoura S.M.V.,Fundacao Agraria de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | Bayer C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | de Moraes R.P.,Fundacao Agraria de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | Carniel E.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2015

Although the State of Parana, Brazil, has adopted crop rotation and no-till (NT) systems, fertilizer application is still based on recommendations developed more than 30 years ago for monocropping under conventional tillage because fertilizer recommendations developed specifically for crop rotation under NT are lacking. The objective of our study was to consolidate P calibration and evaluate crop responses to P fertilization so as to propose a system of technical recommendations for P fertilization for soybean, maize, wheat, and barley grown in a crop rotation system in Oxisols under long-term (>30 years) NT systems in the high yield potential South-Central region of Parana. Three calibration trials were conducted from 2008 to 2013, consisting of P broadcast application rates of up to 640 kg ha-1 P2O5. Forty-four P fertilization trials were carried out over the 2011-2012/13 growing seasons to evaluate yield response to P fertilization rates in Oxisols with different levels of P availability. Relative crop yield [RR = (yield without P/maximum yield) × 100] and soil P availability (Mehlich-1) were compared to obtain P critical levels and generate soil P availability classes based on crop response. For soils in the Low and Medium availability classes, recommended P fertilizer application rates were based on the yield response curve following the nutrient sufficiency approach. For soils in the High and Very High availability classes, P fertilizer recommendations were based on P removal through grain harvest. The winter cereal crops were more demanding to achieve maximum yields - the soil critical P level for the crop rotation system was determined at 8 mg dm-3 based on the requirement of these crops, considering the 0-20 cm soil layer. The recommended P fertilization rates for soybean, maize, wheat, and barley in Oxisols under long-term NT developed in our study are higher than the current P fertilization rates used in Parana, which is explained in part by the high crop yields and high P adsorption capacity of soils in the region. Although the nutrient sufficiency approach was used to determine P fertilization rates in the soils below the critical level, it is estimated that the P rates recommended for the crops will raise soil P availability above the critical level after a full crop-rotation cycle (3 years). © 2015, Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo. All rights reserved.


Vieira R.C.B.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Fontoura S.M.V.,Fundacao Agraria de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | Bayer C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | de Moraes R.P.,Fundacao Agraria de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | Carniel E.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2016

Fertilization programs for annual crops in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil, are based on studies that focused on conventional tillage and were established more than 30 years ago. The primary purpose of this study was to assess potassium (K) fertilization on long-term (>30 years) no-tillage soybean, corn, wheat, and barley crops grown in rotation on Oxisols in the central-southern region of Paraná. A total of 47 experiments were carried out from 2008 to 2013, three of which addressed K calibration and the other 44, crop response to K fertilization. Critical K soil-test value and interpretation classes were established from the ratio between relative crop yield [RY = (yield without K/max yield) × 100] and soil K levels. Winter cereals were found to be more demanding of K than were soybean and corn; also, the former governed critical K soil-test value for crop rotation: 0.23 cmolc dm-3 in the 0.00-0.20 m soil layer. Recommended fertilization rates for soils in the low and medium soil K levels were established by using the build-up approach for soil correction; and those for the high and very high soil K levels were established by removing K at harvest and assessing economic return in crop response experiments. The K rates calculated for the high yield classes exceeded those currently recommended for use in Paraná. © 2016, Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo. All rights reserved.

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