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Barber B.R.,University of Alberta | Biron V.L.,University of Alberta | Klimowicz A.C.,University of Calgary | Klimowicz A.C.,Functional Tissue Imaging Unit | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2013

Background: The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is increasing due to fundamenta changes in oncogenesis related to effects of the human papilomavirus (HPV). Virally-mediated tumours behave and respond to treatment differently than their classic, carcinogenically-mediated counterparts despite similar stage and grade of disease. This difference in behaviour has lead to investigation of etiologies of OPSCC at the molecular level. Molecular biomarkers offer potential insight into the behaviour of OPSCC. Identifying a subset of patients that are more likely to have recurrence and distant metastasis is valuable for prognostication and treatment planning. There is limited information regarding the profiles of these biomarkers in locoregional and distant metastases in OPSCC. Objective: This study was designed to identify biomarker profiles predictive of locoregional and distant metastases and recurrence in OPSCC. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a prospectively-collected oropharyngeal tumour database was undertaken. All patients with OPSCC presenting to the University of Alberta Hospital from 2002-2009 were included in the study. Data collection from the Alberta Cancer Registry, including demographics, nodal status, distant metastases, treatment, recurrence, and survival, was undertaken. Tissue micro-arrays (TMAs) were constructed for each tumour specimen using triplicate cores (0.6mm) of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) pre-treatment tumour tissue. TMAs were processed using immunohistochemistry for p16, EGFR, Ki67, p53, and Bcl-XL. Positivity for each biomarker was determined using quantified AQUAnalysis ® scores on histoplots. Multivariate statistics were utilized to assess the relationship between each biomarker and locoregional and distant metastases, as well as recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results: High expression of p16 (p=0.000) and Bcl-XL (p=0.039) independently demonstrated a significant association with nodal disease at presentation. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated improved RFS in patients with high p16 and decreased RFS in patients with high p53 expression. Cox regression analysis supported p16 as an independent prognosticator for improved RFS. p53 demonstrated an association with recurrence, but when compared to p16 status, nodal status, and staging, was not an independent predictor of recurrence. Conclusions: Biomarker profiling using p16, Bcl-xL, and p53 may be useful in prognostication and treatment planning in patients with OPSCC. © 2013 Barber et al.

Lee L.H.,University of Calgary | Tambasco M.,University of Calgary | Tambasco M.,San Diego State University | Otsuka S.,University of Calgary | And 7 more authors.
Micron | Year: 2014

Introduction: In recent years, differences have emerged in the treatment of squamous and non-squamous non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). This highlights the importance of accurate histopathologic classification. However, there remains inter-observer disagreement when making diagnoses based on histology. Fractal dimension (FD) is a mathematical measure of irregularity and complexity of shape. We hypothesize that the FD of carcinoma epithelial architecture can assist in differentiating adenocarcinoma (ADC) from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung. Methods: 134 resected (88 ADC and 46 SCC) cases of resected early-stage NSCLC were analyzed. Tissue micro arrays were generated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, stained with pan-cytokeratin, and digitally imaged and the FD of the epithelial structure calculated. Mean FD of ADC and SCC were compared using the independent t-test, partial correlations, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Results: A statistically significant difference ( p<. 0.001) between the mean FD of ADC ( M= 1.70, SD= 0.07) and SCC ( M= 1.78, SD= 0.07) was found. Significance remained ( p<. 0.001) when controlling for several possible confounders. ROC analysis demonstrated an area-under-the-curve of 0.81 ( p<. 0.001). Conclusions: The epithelial structure FD of NSCLC has potential as a reproducible and automated measure to help subtype NSCLCs into ADC and SCC. With further image analysis algorithm improvements, fractal analysis may be a component in computerized histomorphological assessments of lung cancer and may provide an adjunct test in differentiating NSCLCs. © 2014.

Bose P.,University of Calgary | Thakur S.S.,University of Calgary | Brockton N.T.,Alberta Health Services Cancer Care | Klimowicz A.C.,University of Calgary | And 5 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2014

The ING1 epigenetic regulator and tumor suppressor plays a central role in apoptosis. The Ing1 gene is functionally inactivated in many cancer types but is rarely mutated. Although most studies have implicated the major ING1 isoform, p33ING1b, in nuclear apoptotic signalling, we recently discovered a novel and potent apoptosis-inducing effect of p33ING1b translocation to the mitochondria in response to DNA damage. In the present study, we examined the impact of cytoplasmic/mitochondrial localization of p33ING1b in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patient samples and explored the therapeutic potential of adenovirally-overexpressed p33ING1b in OSCC cell lines in combination with ionizing radiation (IR) treatment. In contrast with previous reports, we found that p33ING1b protein and mRNA levels are higher in OSCC compared to normal epithelial cells. In OSCC patient samples, higher levels of intra-tumoral cytoplasmic p33ING1b correlated with increased apoptotic markers and significantly better patient survival. This association was strongest in patients who received post-operative radiotherapy. IR treatment induced p33ING1b translocation to the mitochondria and adenoviral-p33ING1b synergized with IR to kill OSCC cells. Our results identify a novel functional relationship between cytoplasmic p33ING1b and patient survival and highlight the potential for the use of p33ING1b as a therapeutic agent in combination with adjuvant radiotherapy in OSCC. © 2008-2014 Impact Journals, LLC.

Jagdis A.,University of British Columbia | Phan T.,Tom Baker Cancer Center | Phan T.,University of Calgary | Klimowicz A.C.,Tom Baker Cancer Center | And 13 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2013

Purpose: We sought to evaluate the prognostic/predictive value of ERCC1 and XPF in patients with nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with curative intent. Methods and Materials: ERCC1 and XPF protein expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence combined with automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) using the FL297 and 3F2 antibodies, respectively. ERCC1 and XPF protein expression levels were correlated with clinical outcomes. Results: Patient characteristics were as follows: mean age 52 years (range, 18-85 years), 67% male, 72% Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥90%, World Health Organization (WHO) type 1/2/3 = 12%/28%/60%, stage III/IV 65%. With a median follow-up time of 50 months (range, 2.9 to 120 months), the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 70.8%. Median standardized nuclear AQUA scores were used as cutpoints for ERCC1 (n=138) and XPF (n=130) protein expression. Agreement between dichotomized ERCC1 and XPF scores was high at 79.4% (kappa = 0.587, P<.001). Neither biomarker predicted locoregional recurrence, DFS, or OS after adjustment for age and KPS, irrespective of stratification by stage, WHO type, or treatment. Conclusions: Neither ERCC1 nor XPF, analyzed by quantitative immunohistochemistry using the FL297 and 3F2 antibodies, was prognostic or predictive in this cohort of NPC patients. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Bose P.,University of Calgary | Bose P.,British Columbia Cancer Agency | Brockton N.T.,CancerControl Alberta | Guggisberg K.,Calgary Laboratory Services | And 5 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2015

Background: The lack of prognostic biomarkers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has hampered treatment decision making and survival in OSCC remains poor. Histopathological features are used for prognostication in OSCC and, although useful for predicting risk, manual assessment of histopathology is subjective and labour intensive. In this study, we propose a method that integrates multiple histopathological features of the tumor microenvironment into a single, digital pathology-based biomarker using nuclear fractal dimension (nFD) analysis. Methods: One hundred and seven consecutive OSCC patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2006 in Calgary, Canada were included in the study. nFD scores were generated from DAPI-stained images of tissue microarray (TMA) cores. Ki67 protein expression was measured in the tumor using fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC) and automated quantitative analysis (AQUA®). Lymphocytic infiltration (LI) was measured in the stroma from haematoxylin-eosin (H&E)-stained TMA slides by a pathologist. Results: Twenty-five (23.4%) and 82 (76.6%) patients were classified as high and low nFD, respectively. nFD was significantly associated with pathological tumor-stage (pT-stage; P = 0.01) and radiation treatment (RT; P = 0.01). High nFD of the total tumor microenvironment (stroma plus tumor) was significantly associated with improved disease-specific survival (DSS; P = 0.002). No association with DSS was observed when nFD of either the tumor or the stroma was measured separately. pT-stage (P = 0.01), pathological node status (pN-status; P = 0.02) and RT (P = 0.03) were also significantly associated with DSS. In multivariate analysis, nFD remained significantly associated with DSS [HR 0.12 (95% CI 0.02-0.89, P = 0.04)] in a model adjusted for pT-stage, pN-status and RT. We also found that high nFD was significantly associated with high tumor proliferation (P < 0.0001) and high LI (P < 0.0001), factors that we and others have shown to be associated with improved survival in OSCC. Conclusions: We provide evidence that nFD analysis integrates known prognostic factors from the tumor microenvironment, such as proliferation and immune infiltration, into a single digital pathology-based biomarker. Prospective validation of our results could establish nFD as a valuable tool for clinical decision making in OSCC. © 2015 Bose et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

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