Functional Foods Research unit

Peoria, IL, United States

Functional Foods Research unit

Peoria, IL, United States
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Lubeckyj R.A.,University of Michigan-Flint | Winkler-Moser J.K.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Fhaner M.J.,University of Michigan-Flint
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2017

There has been an increase in the use of electrochemical methods for monitoring antioxidant levels in a variety of disciplines due to the sensitivity, low detection limits, ease of use, low cost and rapid analysis time offered by these techniques. One technique that has received specific attention is differential pulse voltammetry. We describe a novel application of differential pulse voltammetry to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the efficiency of removing tocopherols from commercial fish oil via column chromatographic separation. The relative limits of detection and quantitation of differential pulse voltammetry are compared to HPLC for determining the removal of tocopherols from commercial fish oil. It was determined that differential pulse voltammetry can monitor the separation of commercially added antioxidants from the bulk sample via a decrease in antioxidant oxidation currents. Furthermore, the limits of detection and quantitation were found to be comparable with values obtained using HPLC for tocopherol identification and quantitation. © 2017, AOCS.

Naumann T.A.,Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research Unit | Bakota E.L.,Renewable Product Technology Research Unit | Price N.P.J.,Functional Foods Research Unit
Protein Science | Year: 2017

Polyglycine hydrolases (PGH)s are secreted fungal endoproteases that cleave peptide bonds in the polyglycine interdomain linker of ChitA chitinase, an antifungal protein from domesticated corn (Zea mays ssp. mays). These target-specific endoproteases are unusual because they do not cut a specific peptide bond but select one of many Gly-Gly bonds within the polyglycine region. Some Gly-Gly bonds are cleaved frequently while others are never cleaved. Moreover, we have previously shown that PGHs from different fungal pathogens prefer to cleave different Gly-Gly peptide bonds. It is not understood how PGHs selectively cleave the ChitA linker, especially because its polyglycine structure lacks peptide sidechains. To gain insights into this process we synthesized several peptide analogs of ChitA to evaluate them as potential substrates and inhibitors of Es-cmp, a PGH from the plant pathogenic fungus Epicoccum sorghi. Our results showed that part of the PGH recognition site for substrate chitinases is adjacent to the polyglycine linker on the carboxy side. More specifically, four amino acid residues were implicated, each spaced four residues apart on an alpha helix. Moreover, analogous peptides with selective Gly->sarcosine (N-methylglycine) mutations or a specific Ser->Thr mutation retained inhibitor activity but were no longer cleaved by PGH. Additonally, our findings suggest that peptide analogs of ChitA that inhibit PGH activity could be used to strengthen plant defenses. © 2017 The Protein Society.

Byars J.A.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Singh M.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Kenar J.A.,Functional Foods Research Unit
Starch/Staerke | Year: 2017

The effects of hydrocolloid replacement on the pasting properties of navy bean starch and on the properties of navy bean starch gels were studied. Navy bean starch was isolated, and blends were prepared with β-glucan, guar gum, pectin, and xanthan gum solutions. The total solids concentration was maintained at 8%, and starch was replaced with 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% of each hydrocolloid. Guar gum led to an increase in the peak viscosity during pasting as well as an increase in the final viscosity. Each of the other hydrocolloids decreased the peak and final viscosities, with xanthan gum causing the largest decrease. β-Glucan and pectin reduced the water solubility and absorption indices at low temperatures, and each hydrocolloid reduced the enthalpy of gelatinization. Gels were also prepared at each concentration, and the storage modulus decreased for xanthan gum, while both guar gum and xanthan gum gels had higher loss tangents. The hardness of the gels decreased for guar gum, and much more for xanthan gum. Each of the hydrocolloids improved the freeze-thaw stability, with guar gum having the largest effect. These results show the possibility of improving navy bean starch and flour properties through the addition of hydrocolloids. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA

Tisserat B.,Functional Foods Research Unit | O'Kuru R.H.,Bio Oils Research Unit | Hwang H.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Mohamed A.A.,King Saud University | Holser R.,Richard Russell Research Center
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2012

The influence of various heating methods without catalysis to prepare polyesters from citric acid: glycerol blends were studied. In the presence of short-term microwave treatments, i.e., 60 s at 1200 W, blends of glycerol and citric acid invariably formed solid amorphous polyesters. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that citric acid and glycerol blends can form highly stable polymers composed of ester bonds. The glycerol citrate polyester polymers exhibited the least degradation in water, more in acid solutions (0.1-1.0M HCl), and the most deterioration in strong alkaline solutions (0.1-1.0M NaOH) after 72 h soakings. Polyesters of glycerol and citric acid were studied with differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis. The polyesters were found to be thermally stable (up to 313°C). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Boydston R.A.,Washington State University | Morra M.J.,University of Idaho | Borek V.,University of Idaho | Clayton L.,University of Idaho | Vaughn S.F.,Functional Foods Research Unit
Weed Science | Year: 2011

Weed control in organic onion production is often difficult and expensive, requiring numerous cultivations and extensive hand weeding. Onion safety and weed control with mustard seed meal (MSM) derived from Sinapis alba was evaluated in greenhouse and field trials. MSM applied at 110, 220, and 440 g m -2 severely injured onions and reduced onion stand by 25% or more when applied from planting to the one-leaf stage of onions in greenhouse trials. MSM derived from mustard cultivars 'IdaGold' and 'AC Pennant' reduced plant dry weight of redroot pigweed with an effective dose that provided 90% weed control (ED 90) of 14.5 and 3.2 g m -2, respectively, in greenhouse trials, whereas the ED90 of MSM from a low-glucosinolate cultivar '00RN29D10' was 128 g m -2, suggesting that glucosinolate content and ionic thiocyanate (SCN -) production contribute to phytotoxicity of MSM. In field trials, weed emergence, onion injury, and onion yield were recorded following single or three sequential applications of MSM from 1.1 to 4.5 MT ha -1 beginning at the two-leaf stage of onions in 2008, 2009, and 2010. By 8 wk after treatment (WAT), onion injury following MSM sequential applications was 10% or less in all 3 yr. Combined over 2008 and 2009, 48 and 68% fewer weeds emerged 3 WAT with MSM at 2.2 and 4.5 MT ha -1, respectively. In 2010, MSM at 2.2 and 4.5 MT ha -1 reduced the number of weeds emerged 4 WAT by 91 and 76%, respectively. MSM treatment did not significantly affect onion yield or size in 2008 and 2009, but in 2010 onion total yield was reduced by 29% by three sequential applications of MSM at 2.2 MT ha -1. MSM has potential to be used as a weed-suppressive amendment in organic production systems, but the risk of crop injury is substantial. Copyright © 2011 BioOne All rights reserved.

Fanta G.F.,Plant Polymer Research Unit | Felker F.C.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Selling G.W.,Plant Polymer Research Unit
Starch/Staerke | Year: 2016

Water-soluble amylose-inclusion complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and the sodium salts of lauric (C12), palmitic (C16), and stearic (C18) acid by steam jet cooking. Cast films plasticized with glycerol were prepared by combining solutions of the amylose complexes and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) at ratios varying from 100:0 to 0:100. All amylose complex formulations up to 60% incorporation had percent elongations equivalent to or greater than the PVOH control. Tensile strength was similar to control films up to 40% incorporation of the C16 complex. All films prepared from these amylose complexes had tensile properties superior to composite films containing uncomplexed corn starch. Contact angles of water droplets showed that incorporation of as little as 20% amylose complex yielded films with increased surface hydrophobicity. Microscopy of iodine-stained films showed that the films contained a starch-rich phase and a continuous unstained background of PVOH. Surface roughness and the close proximity of the micron-sized areas of starch complex may contribute to the high contact angles observed at low concentrations of complex. This study enables production of PVOH films containing substantial levels of biobased starch, a good balance of physical properties, and greatly increased surface hydrophobicity relative to the PVOH control. Published 2016.

Compton D.L.,Renewable Product Technology Research Unit | Laszlo J.A.,Renewable Product Technology Research Unit | Appell M.,Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens and Mycology Research Unit | Vermillion K.E.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Evans K.O.,Renewable Product Technology Research Unit
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2014

2-Monoricinoleoylglycerol (2-MRG) was synthesized by the Novozym 435 catalyzed alcoholysis of castor oil in excess ethanol (1:70 mol:mol) at ambient temperature. Due to the fatty acid C12-OH group, conventional liquid-liquid extraction methods developed for less polar, non-hydroxylated 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAG) proved inadequate for 2-MRG purification. Alternatively, 2-MRG was purified by normal-phase flash chromatography (FC) on silica gel using a binary acetone-hexane gradient mobile phase. Gram quantities of 2-MRG were isolated in 63 % yield and contained no residual diacylglycerol (DAG), which fail to separate using liquid-liquid extraction methods. The 2-MRG was obtained at ~90 mol% relative to 1-MRG, proving that the FC method did not appreciably catalyze acyl migration. 1H-NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the spontaneous acyl migration of isolated 2-MRG from 20 to 80 C. The relative energy of activation calculated from the Arrhenius relationship of the 2-MRG acyl migration rate constants was 82.9 kJ/mol. This was ~two-fold higher than the theoretical ΔG 298.15 calculated from molecular modeling using density functional calculations (B3LYP/6-31 + G*) of 2-MRG, the ketal ring transition state, and 1-monoricinoleoylglycerol (1-MRG). The synthesis and isolation methods reported herein provide a convenient means to access useful intermediates for functionalized structured lipids. © 2013 AOCS (outside the USA).

Compton D.L.,Renewable Product Technology Research Unit | Laszlo J.A.,Renewable Product Technology Research Unit | Appell M.,Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens and Mycology Research Unit | Vermillion K.E.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Evans K.O.,Renewable Product Technology Research Unit
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2012

The effect of desaturation from the C9 to the C15 carbon of 2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) fatty acids on spontaneous acyl migration is described. Three 2-MAG species, 2-monooleoylglycerol (C18:1 cis-Δ9), 2-monolinoleoylglycerol (C18:2 cis-Δ9,12), and 2-monolinolenoylglycerol (C18:3 cis-Δ9,12,15) were synthesized by lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis of their respective triacylglycerols and isolated in >60 % yield and at 2-MAG purities of >95 % relative to 1-monoacylglycerol (1-MAG). 1H-NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the spontaneous acyl migration of the 2-MAG species over a temperature range from 20 to 80 °C. The relative energies of activation calculated from the Arrhenius relationships of the 2-MAG acyl migration rate constants were 73.3, 68.0, and 72.9 kJ mol-1 for the three 2-MAG species, respectively. Density functional calculations performed using the B3LYP functional at the 6-31+G* basis set on the three ketal ring intermediate of the three 2-MAG species followed a similar trend with a lack of relative energetic preference associated with the degree of desaturation. The kinetically determined relative activation energies were approximately twofold higher than the theoretical relative Gibbs free energies of the intermediates, suggesting that other factors influence acyl migration. In general, increasing desaturation after the C9 carbon of 2-MAG fatty acids had no appreciable effect on acyl migration rates. © AOCS (outside the USA) 2012.

Dowd P.F.,Crop Bioprotection Research Unit | Johnson E.T.,Crop Bioprotection Research Unit | Vermillion K.E.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Berhow M.A.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Palmquist D.E.,1815 iversity St
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2011

Tropical plants are often more resistant to insects than temperate plants due to evolution of robust defenses to cope with a more constant insect threat. Coconut [Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae)] has very few chewing-type leaf feeding insect pests and was tested for feeding suitability against two generalist leaf feeding caterpillar species, corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (both Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Feeding on leaf tissues from the most recently expanded leaves of a coconut variety caused significant mortality and reduced growth rates (as indicated by survivor weights) of S. frugiperda and H. zea compared to when they fed on leaves from a typical host, maize [Zea mays L. (Poaceae)], or the standard artificial diet. Proteins or other polymers did not appear to be responsible for the bioactivity noted against the caterpillars. Components responsible for activity were acetone extractable and separable by thin layer chromatography. Extracts from multiple areas of the thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates caused significant reductions in growth rates of S. frugiperda. The most bioactive TLC-separated component, identified as pheophytin a, caused oxidative browning of test diets, suggesting that cytotoxicity of reactive oxygen species is a likely mode of action against H. zea and S. frugiperda. © 2011 The Netherlands Entomological Society.

Byars J.A.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Singh M.,Functional Foods Research Unit
Starch/Staerke | Year: 2016

The properties of starch gels from black beans, chickpeas, lentils, and navy beans were investigated. Differences were shown among starch sources, and the effect of starch concentration was studied. Navy bean starch had the highest peak and final viscosities in pasting tests, while black bean starch had the strongest concentration dependence. The viscosity of all starches had similar shear rate dependence at concentrations of 6 and 8%. Navy and black bean starch gels had the highest storage modulus, and black bean starch had the strongest concentration dependence. In creep, navy bean starch had the lowest steady state compliance at 6 and 8%, but there were no significant differences among starches at 10%. Texture analysis showed that navy bean starch gels were the hardest, and black bean starch gels again had the largest concentration dependence. Navy and black bean starch gels had the highest syneresis index after one day, but the syneresis index became similar for all starches at each concentration at longer times. © 2016.

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