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Tisserat B.,Functional Foods Research Unit | O'Kuru R.H.,Bio Oils Research Unit | Hwang H.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Mohamed A.A.,King Saud University | Holser R.,Richard Russell Research Center
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2012

The influence of various heating methods without catalysis to prepare polyesters from citric acid: glycerol blends were studied. In the presence of short-term microwave treatments, i.e., 60 s at 1200 W, blends of glycerol and citric acid invariably formed solid amorphous polyesters. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that citric acid and glycerol blends can form highly stable polymers composed of ester bonds. The glycerol citrate polyester polymers exhibited the least degradation in water, more in acid solutions (0.1-1.0M HCl), and the most deterioration in strong alkaline solutions (0.1-1.0M NaOH) after 72 h soakings. Polyesters of glycerol and citric acid were studied with differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis. The polyesters were found to be thermally stable (up to 313°C). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Bakota E.L.,Functional Foods Research unit | Winkler-Moser K.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Hwang H.-S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Lipid Technology | Year: 2014

Lipid ingredients that demonstrate high stability and positive health profiles without the use of trans-fats are needed in the food supply. Rice bran oil can be fractionated at low temperatures to create a series of spreads that show promise as functional ingredients. A rice bran oil-derived spread can extend the fry life of soybean oil and can also be incorporated into baked goods such as bread and granola as a trans-fat free alternative to butter or shortening. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Boydston R.A.,Washington State University | Morra M.J.,University of Idaho | Borek V.,University of Idaho | Clayton L.,University of Idaho | Vaughn S.F.,Functional Foods Research Unit
Weed Science | Year: 2011

Weed control in organic onion production is often difficult and expensive, requiring numerous cultivations and extensive hand weeding. Onion safety and weed control with mustard seed meal (MSM) derived from Sinapis alba was evaluated in greenhouse and field trials. MSM applied at 110, 220, and 440 g m -2 severely injured onions and reduced onion stand by 25% or more when applied from planting to the one-leaf stage of onions in greenhouse trials. MSM derived from mustard cultivars 'IdaGold' and 'AC Pennant' reduced plant dry weight of redroot pigweed with an effective dose that provided 90% weed control (ED 90) of 14.5 and 3.2 g m -2, respectively, in greenhouse trials, whereas the ED90 of MSM from a low-glucosinolate cultivar '00RN29D10' was 128 g m -2, suggesting that glucosinolate content and ionic thiocyanate (SCN -) production contribute to phytotoxicity of MSM. In field trials, weed emergence, onion injury, and onion yield were recorded following single or three sequential applications of MSM from 1.1 to 4.5 MT ha -1 beginning at the two-leaf stage of onions in 2008, 2009, and 2010. By 8 wk after treatment (WAT), onion injury following MSM sequential applications was 10% or less in all 3 yr. Combined over 2008 and 2009, 48 and 68% fewer weeds emerged 3 WAT with MSM at 2.2 and 4.5 MT ha -1, respectively. In 2010, MSM at 2.2 and 4.5 MT ha -1 reduced the number of weeds emerged 4 WAT by 91 and 76%, respectively. MSM treatment did not significantly affect onion yield or size in 2008 and 2009, but in 2010 onion total yield was reduced by 29% by three sequential applications of MSM at 2.2 MT ha -1. MSM has potential to be used as a weed-suppressive amendment in organic production systems, but the risk of crop injury is substantial. Copyright © 2011 BioOne All rights reserved.


Fanta G.F.,Plant Polymer Research Unit | Felker F.C.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Selling G.W.,Plant Polymer Research Unit
Starch/Staerke | Year: 2016

Water-soluble amylose-inclusion complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and the sodium salts of lauric (C12), palmitic (C16), and stearic (C18) acid by steam jet cooking. Cast films plasticized with glycerol were prepared by combining solutions of the amylose complexes and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) at ratios varying from 100:0 to 0:100. All amylose complex formulations up to 60% incorporation had percent elongations equivalent to or greater than the PVOH control. Tensile strength was similar to control films up to 40% incorporation of the C16 complex. All films prepared from these amylose complexes had tensile properties superior to composite films containing uncomplexed corn starch. Contact angles of water droplets showed that incorporation of as little as 20% amylose complex yielded films with increased surface hydrophobicity. Microscopy of iodine-stained films showed that the films contained a starch-rich phase and a continuous unstained background of PVOH. Surface roughness and the close proximity of the micron-sized areas of starch complex may contribute to the high contact angles observed at low concentrations of complex. This study enables production of PVOH films containing substantial levels of biobased starch, a good balance of physical properties, and greatly increased surface hydrophobicity relative to the PVOH control. Published 2016.


Compton D.L.,Renewable Product Technology Research Unit | Laszlo J.A.,Renewable Product Technology Research Unit | Appell M.,Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens and Mycology Research Unit | Vermillion K.E.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Evans K.O.,Renewable Product Technology Research Unit
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2014

2-Monoricinoleoylglycerol (2-MRG) was synthesized by the Novozym 435 catalyzed alcoholysis of castor oil in excess ethanol (1:70 mol:mol) at ambient temperature. Due to the fatty acid C12-OH group, conventional liquid-liquid extraction methods developed for less polar, non-hydroxylated 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAG) proved inadequate for 2-MRG purification. Alternatively, 2-MRG was purified by normal-phase flash chromatography (FC) on silica gel using a binary acetone-hexane gradient mobile phase. Gram quantities of 2-MRG were isolated in 63 % yield and contained no residual diacylglycerol (DAG), which fail to separate using liquid-liquid extraction methods. The 2-MRG was obtained at ~90 mol% relative to 1-MRG, proving that the FC method did not appreciably catalyze acyl migration. 1H-NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the spontaneous acyl migration of isolated 2-MRG from 20 to 80 C. The relative energy of activation calculated from the Arrhenius relationship of the 2-MRG acyl migration rate constants was 82.9 kJ/mol. This was ~two-fold higher than the theoretical ΔG 298.15 calculated from molecular modeling using density functional calculations (B3LYP/6-31 + G*) of 2-MRG, the ketal ring transition state, and 1-monoricinoleoylglycerol (1-MRG). The synthesis and isolation methods reported herein provide a convenient means to access useful intermediates for functionalized structured lipids. © 2013 AOCS (outside the USA).


Compton D.L.,Renewable Product Technology Research Unit | Laszlo J.A.,Renewable Product Technology Research Unit | Appell M.,Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens and Mycology Research Unit | Vermillion K.E.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Evans K.O.,Renewable Product Technology Research Unit
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2012

The effect of desaturation from the C9 to the C15 carbon of 2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) fatty acids on spontaneous acyl migration is described. Three 2-MAG species, 2-monooleoylglycerol (C18:1 cis-Δ9), 2-monolinoleoylglycerol (C18:2 cis-Δ9,12), and 2-monolinolenoylglycerol (C18:3 cis-Δ9,12,15) were synthesized by lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis of their respective triacylglycerols and isolated in >60 % yield and at 2-MAG purities of >95 % relative to 1-monoacylglycerol (1-MAG). 1H-NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the spontaneous acyl migration of the 2-MAG species over a temperature range from 20 to 80 °C. The relative energies of activation calculated from the Arrhenius relationships of the 2-MAG acyl migration rate constants were 73.3, 68.0, and 72.9 kJ mol-1 for the three 2-MAG species, respectively. Density functional calculations performed using the B3LYP functional at the 6-31+G* basis set on the three ketal ring intermediate of the three 2-MAG species followed a similar trend with a lack of relative energetic preference associated with the degree of desaturation. The kinetically determined relative activation energies were approximately twofold higher than the theoretical relative Gibbs free energies of the intermediates, suggesting that other factors influence acyl migration. In general, increasing desaturation after the C9 carbon of 2-MAG fatty acids had no appreciable effect on acyl migration rates. © AOCS (outside the USA) 2012.


Tisserat B.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Reifschneider L.,Illinois State University | Grewell D.,Iowa State University | Srinivasan G.,Iowa State University
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites | Year: 2014

Studies aimed at improving the tensile, flexural, impact, thermal, and physical characteristics of wood-plastic composites composed of Paulownia wood flour derived from 36-month-old trees blended with polypropylene were conducted. Composites of 25% and 40% w/w of Paulownia wood were produced by twin-screw compounding and injection molding. Composites containing 0-10% by weight of maleated polypropylene were evaluated and an optimum maleated polypropylene concentration determined, i.e., 5%. The particle size distribution of Paulownia wood filler is shown to have an effect on the tensile and flexural properties of the composites. Novel combination composites of dried distiller's grain with solubles mixed with Paulownia wood (up to 40% w/w) were produced and their properties evaluated. Depending on the composite tested, soaking composites for 872 h alters mechanical properties and causes weight gain. © 2014 The Author(s).


Dowd P.F.,Crop Bioprotection Research Unit | Johnson E.T.,Crop Bioprotection Research Unit | Vermillion K.E.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Berhow M.A.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Palmquist D.E.,1815 iversity St
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2011

Tropical plants are often more resistant to insects than temperate plants due to evolution of robust defenses to cope with a more constant insect threat. Coconut [Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae)] has very few chewing-type leaf feeding insect pests and was tested for feeding suitability against two generalist leaf feeding caterpillar species, corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (both Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Feeding on leaf tissues from the most recently expanded leaves of a coconut variety caused significant mortality and reduced growth rates (as indicated by survivor weights) of S. frugiperda and H. zea compared to when they fed on leaves from a typical host, maize [Zea mays L. (Poaceae)], or the standard artificial diet. Proteins or other polymers did not appear to be responsible for the bioactivity noted against the caterpillars. Components responsible for activity were acetone extractable and separable by thin layer chromatography. Extracts from multiple areas of the thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates caused significant reductions in growth rates of S. frugiperda. The most bioactive TLC-separated component, identified as pheophytin a, caused oxidative browning of test diets, suggesting that cytotoxicity of reactive oxygen species is a likely mode of action against H. zea and S. frugiperda. © 2011 The Netherlands Entomological Society.


Rose D.J.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Kim S.,National United University | Inglett G.E.,Functional Foods Research Unit
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2010

Food processing conditions may affect the extractability and molecular weight of β-glucans and arabinoxylans in cereal products. This can dramatically affect the functional and physiological properties of the final products. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to explore the effects of jet cooking on the content, extractability, and molecular weights of these polymers in barley flour from a high β-glucan, waxy barley genotype, Prowashonupana. Barley flours were jet cooked without pH adjustment or after adjusting to pH 7, 9, or 11. Jet cooking without pH adjustment increased the extractability of β-glucans from 15.4 to 38.0% when extracted with water at 30°C. As pH during jet cooking increased, the extractability further increased to 63.5% at pH 11. Arabinoxylan extractability was only substantially affected when the pH of jet cooking was alkaline (extractability increased from 11.4 to 48.5% when jet cooked at pH 11). Jet cooking without pH adjustment resulted in slight increases in peak molecular weights for both polymers (β-glucan increased from 420,000 to 443,000; arabinoxylan increased from 119,000 to 125,000); higher pH values during jet cooking resulted in minor decrease in molecular weights. © 2010 AACC International, Inc.


Byars J.A.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Singh M.,Functional Foods Research Unit
Starch/Staerke | Year: 2016

The properties of starch gels from black beans, chickpeas, lentils, and navy beans were investigated. Differences were shown among starch sources, and the effect of starch concentration was studied. Navy bean starch had the highest peak and final viscosities in pasting tests, while black bean starch had the strongest concentration dependence. The viscosity of all starches had similar shear rate dependence at concentrations of 6 and 8%. Navy and black bean starch gels had the highest storage modulus, and black bean starch had the strongest concentration dependence. In creep, navy bean starch had the lowest steady state compliance at 6 and 8%, but there were no significant differences among starches at 10%. Texture analysis showed that navy bean starch gels were the hardest, and black bean starch gels again had the largest concentration dependence. Navy and black bean starch gels had the highest syneresis index after one day, but the syneresis index became similar for all starches at each concentration at longer times. © 2016.

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