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Gomez-Caravaca A.M.,University of Granada | Gomez-Caravaca A.M.,Research and Development of Functional Food Center | Verardo V.,University of Bologna | Berardinelli A.,University of Bologna | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2014

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a cereal crop that has been cultivated since ancient times. However, its interest as nutritional food and as food ingredient is relatively new. Thus, in this study, the phenolic compounds of eighteen different varieties of barley (4 waxy and 14 non-waxy) grown under the same agronomic conditions in the same experimental field have been determined by HPLC-DAD-MS. Two new methodologies were developed using new generation superficially porous HPLC columns with different stationary phases: C18 and pentafluorophenyl (PFP). Twelve free phenolic compounds and eight bound phenolic compounds could be identified in barley samples in less than 22. min. The study of different method parameters showed that C18 column was more suitable for the analysis of phenolic compounds of barley. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was conducted in order to assess the different ability of the two different core shell HPLC columns in the discrimination between "waxy" and "non-waxy" varieties, and only HCA of C18 column could separate waxy and non-waxy genotypes.Significant differences in the content of phenolic compounds between waxy and non-waxy samples were found, being waxy barley samples the ones which presented higher content of free and bound phenolic compounds. Once the best discriminant HPLC column was established, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied and it was able to discriminate between "waxy" and "non-waxy" varieties; however it discriminated the barley samples based only in free phenolic compounds. Because of that, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were carried out. PLS-DA and ANN permitted the classification of waxy and non-waxy genotypes from both free and bound phenolic compounds. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Gomez-Caravaca A.M.,University of Granada | Gomez-Caravaca A.M.,Research and Development of Functional Food Center | Maggio R.M.,National University of Rosario | Cerretani L.,University of Bologna
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2016

Today virgin and extra-virgin olive oil (VOO and EVOO) are food with a large number of analytical tests planned to ensure its quality and genuineness. Almost all official methods demand high use of reagents and manpower. Because of that, analytical development in this area is continuously evolving. Therefore, this review focuses on analytical methods for EVOO/VOO which use fast and smart approaches based on chemometric techniques in order to reduce time of analysis, reagent consumption, high cost equipment and manpower.Experimental approaches of chemometrics coupled with fast analytical techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence, vibrational spectroscopies (NIR, MIR and Raman fluorescence), NMR spectroscopy, and other more complex techniques like chromatography, calorimetry and electrochemical techniques applied to EVOO/VOO production and analysis have been discussed throughout this work. The advantages and drawbacks of this association have also been highlighted.Chemometrics has been evidenced as a powerful tool for the oil industry. In fact, it has been shown how chemometrics can be implemented all along the different steps of EVOO/VOO production: raw material input control, monitoring during process and quality control of final product. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Corominas-Faja B.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Corominas-Faja B.,Girona Biomedical Research Institute | Quirantes-Pine R.,University of Granada | Quirantes-Pine R.,Research and Development of Functional Food Center | And 14 more authors.
Aging | Year: 2012

Metabolomic fingerprint of breast cancer cells treated with the antidiabetic drug metformin revealed a significant accumulation of 5-formimino-tetrahydrofolate, one of the tetrahydrofolate forms carrying activated one-carbon units that are essential for the de novo synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. De novo synthesis of glutathione, a folate-dependent pathway interconnected with one-carbon metabolism was concomitantly depleted in response to metformin. End-product reversal studies demonstrated that thymidine alone leads to a significant but incomplete protection from metformin's cytostatic effects. The addition of the substrate hypoxanthine for the purine salvage pathway produces major rightward shifts in metformin's growth inhibition curves. Metformin treatment failed to activate the DNA repair protein ATM kinase and the metabolic tumor suppressor AMPK when thymidine and hypoxanthine were present in the extracellular milieu. Our current findings suggest for the first time that metformin can function as an antifolate chemotherapeutic agent that induces the ATM/AMPK tumor suppressor axis secondarily following the alteration of the carbon flow through the folate-related onecarbon metabolic pathways. © Corominas-Faja et al.

Cadiz-Gurrea M.L.,University of Granada | Cadiz-Gurrea M.L.,Research and Development of Functional Food Center | Fernandez-Arroyo S.,Rovira i Virgili University | Segura-Carretero A.,University of Granada | Segura-Carretero A.,Research and Development of Functional Food Center
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2014

The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Gallina Toschi T.,University of Bologna | Bendini A.,University of Bologna | Lozano-Sanchez J.,University of Bologna | Lozano-Sanchez J.,University of Granada | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The first commercial differentiation of edible oils, from a technological point of view, distinguishes them as non-refined (e.g., virgin) and refined, due to the higher commercial value of the former. From this basic quality originates one of the most diffused oils' fraud, the misdeclaration of one or all the phases of the refining process (i). However there are many other ways in which an oil can be misdescribed, such as by: (ii) substituting all or a part of it with a similar but cheaper oil and (iii) declaring a false geographical or botanical origin. The present review addresses the problem of authenticity and misdescriptions of the oils (i-iii) through analytical schemes that can be followed and then used in a forensic view, to provide clues or evidence of fraud. It mentions official methods, known and innovative approaches, from chromatographic or derived methods to spectrometric, spectroscopic, DNA-based, thermogravimetric, and calorimetric procedures for discriminating genuine from defrauded olive and seed oils. Practical applications: The forensic use of a chemical marker of a fraud, or of an analytical method is questionable if a legal limit or range is not yet defined, or when an official procedure has not been published at least in one State. On the other hand, a validated procedure or evidence can be used for legal purposes when it is possible to demonstrate that the scientific knowledge is more advanced than the existing official methods. In this paper known or promising methods, to discover and prove the most common misdescription of edible oils, which could be useful for a forensic application, are reported and reviewed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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