Christchurch, New Zealand
Christchurch, New Zealand

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Alabaster D.,NZ Transport Agency | Herrington P.,Opus Research | Waters J.,Fulton Hogan
Asphalt Pavements - Proceedings of the International Conference on Asphalt Pavements, ISAP 2014 | Year: 2014

The NZ Transport Agency's (NZTA) has been developing an epoxy- modified Open-Graded Porous Asphalt (OGPA) with the aim of creating a low-maintenance long-life (>30 years) low noise surfacing material. The New Zealand laboratory studies and field trials form part of a larger collaborative research programme conducted under the auspices of the OECD/ECMT (European Conference of Ministers of Transport) Joint Transport Research Centre, focused on the economic evaluation of long-life pavements. Investigations into the cohesive properties and oxidation resistance of an acid-cured, epoxy-modified OGPA were undertaken in the laboratory. The initial trials at the NZTA's Canterbury Accelerated Pavement Testing Indoor Facility (CAPTIF) demonstrated the practicality of the project. A field trial constructed on State Highway 1 in Christchurch in December 2007 demonstrated that full-scale manufacture and construction using the epoxy OGPA, could be undertaken without any significant modification to plant or operating procedures in a normal surfacing operation. The trial has been in place for 6 years and is performing well. The original 2007 work has been optimised for cost, manufacture and construction. Test sections were placed on the Christchurch Southern Motorway in 2012 and this paper reports the optimisation and findings on manufacture and construction of the 2012 test sections. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


Gray W.,Opus International Consultants | Frobel T.,Fulton Hogan | Browne A.,Highway Stabilizers | Salt G.,Tonkin and Taylor | Stevens D.,Tonkin and Taylor
7th International Conference on Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Pavements and Technological Control, MAIREPAV 2012 | Year: 2012

The stabilisation of near-surface granular pavement materials is accepted practice in transportation maintenance and capital development projects in Australasia. Stabilisation in this context involves the mechanical introduction of reactive agents, including cement and foamed bitumen, into existing or manufactured granular materials, with or without existing seal inclusion. Present-day design guides characterise stabilised granular materials as either modified or bound, depending primarily on the amount and type of reactive agent used in the stabilising process. Modified materials are modelled as unbound granular materials in a pavement. Bound (cemented) materials are modelled as layers with tensile load-carrying capacity within the pavement. Cracking in the bound pavement layer is governed by 'fatigue relationships'. This research has shown that stabilisation with smaller quantities of reactive agents (<2% by dry mass) can deliver materials that should be modelled as lightly bound, delivering cost-effective pavement solutions. The research report describes the collection and interrogation of performance data from New Zealand road pavements that utilised stabilised granular materials. The research, carried out from December 2009 to August 2011, compared actual stabilised pavement performance with the expectations in published design guidelines. A conceptual pavement performance model for near-surface 'lightly bound' stabilised granular pavement layers that better matches observed pavement behaviour is proposed.


Gonzalez A.,University for Development | Cubrinovski M.,University of Canterbury | Pidwerbesky B.,Fulton Hogan | Alabaster D.,New Zealand Transport Agency
Road and Transport Research | Year: 2012

An accelerated full-scale experiment on foamed bitumen (FB) pavements was conducted at the Canterbury Accelerated Pavement Testing Indoor Facility (CAPTIF) in New Zealand. The results of the CAPTIF experiment showed that the section with 2.8% bitumen content and 1% cement content (section B28C10) had the best performance. These results were published in a previous research paper. The current paper is the continuation of the previous work and aims to provide design and performance parameters that could be used by practitioners and researchers. The pavement strains were measured at different depths and transverse locations using pavement instrumentation. The measurements showed that subgrade strains are lower in section B28C10 and that the strain distribution in the subgrade is relatively uniform, reducing the strain concentrations in this layer. Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) measurements were used to determine an AASHTO 93 structural coefficient of 0.20 for the FB layer of section B28C10. FWD and pavement strain measurements were used to back-calculate the average elastic modulus of 1100 MPa for the FB layer. Finally, a permanent or plastic strain model was developed for the FB layer using the pavement vertical surface deformation measurements and post-mortem data.


White G.,Fulton Hogan
Road and Transport Research | Year: 2015

Bitumen supplies into Australia have become more diverse as importation of bitumen has become common and Australian refineries have been closed or reduced in their capacity. The products on which empirical links between bitumen properties and field performance were established are likely to have changed over the years. This has undermined the effectiveness of the empirical bitumen specifications used in Australia. Similar experiences in New Zealand and South Africa prompted the introduction of performance-based testing. In the USA, the multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test was developed as a high-temperature performance grading criterion. The MSCR test is performed using a dynamic shear rheometer. A number of these devices are already available in Australia. The test is simple and takes about 15 minutes to complete. The MSCR test was adopted by the USA for high temperature performance grading of binders because of its advantages over the traditional |G∗|/sin δ. The MSCR was used to evaluate three samples of multigrade M1000 bitumen retained from a number of airport overlays. The M1000 samples assessed were found to be unsuitable at 76°C but suited to very heavy and extreme traffic loadings at 70°C and 64°C respectively. The MSCR testing of binders is recommended for high shear stress asphalt applications, such as airport surfaces.


White G.,Fulton Hogan | White G.,University of The Sunshine Coast
Transportation Geotechnics | Year: 2015

As part of a broader investigation into distress in the asphalt surface layer at a major Australian airport, significant testing was performed on cores taken from both trafficked and un-trafficked zones within two different asphalt mixes. Samples were compared for aggregate orientation, relative density, resilient modulus, wheel tracking, interface shear resistance and cyclic shear creep. There was a significant difference between the results from the trafficked and un-trafficked samples. It appeared that the changes to the asphalt caused by 'straight-through' aircraft trafficking increased the asphalt surface's resistance to the severe shear forces induced by heavy braking and cornering of aircraft. It is suggested that where operationally practical, the surface should be exposed to frequent and heavy straight-through traffic for as long as possible prior to allowing harsh braking and turning operations. This would reduce the risk of early life horizontal deformations occurring in the heavy braking zones. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Mahdavi H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Fatahi B.,University of Technology, Sydney | Khabbaz H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Krzeminski M.,Menard Bachy | And 2 more authors.
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2016

Recently, the use of controlled modulus columns (CMC) has gained popularity in the support of rail and road bridge approach embankments on soft soils. If the columns are extended into a competent firm soil, and designed to take nearly all the vertical loads, they become rigid inclusions. The advantage of this design approach is that settlement will be controlled, but the drawback is that the columns will attract greater load, including bending moment and shear force in situations where non-uniform loading or ground conditions exist. The load on the composite soil-CMC is uniformly distributed by the upper layer of granular load transfer platform (LTP). In this paper, the effect of CMC length on the load transfer mechanism is numerically investigated. Coupled flow-deformation analysis has been performed for a long period to understand the system response in the long term, while interface elements capable of simulating gapping and sliding between CMC and the surrounding soil are considered. A geosynthetic reinforcement layer has been simulated using the inbuilt FLAC3D geogrid element. The force in the reinforcement layer has been evaluated, and in particular, a clear comparison is made between the stresses in CMC and the ground settlement with floating and end-bearing columns. © ASCE.


Marradi A.,University of Pisa | Costello S.B.,University of Auckland | Salt G.,Tonkin and Taylor | Frobel T.,Fulton Hogan | Wormald S.,Dynatest
7th International Conference on Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Pavements and Technological Control, MAIREPAV 2012 | Year: 2012

Rapid, low cost evaluation of the stiffness achieved is an important consideration in the quality control of pavement construction. Traditional devices for the measurement of pavement stiffness, namely the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) and the Benkelman Beam, are intended for multiple purposes (network asset evaluation, rehabilitation design and construction quality control), and collect more data than is always necessary for the targeted quality control of unbound pavement layers. Consequently, considerable effort is being devoted to the development of rapid portable pavement structural evaluation tools, in particular tools that measure fundamental engineering properties as opposed to empirical measures. In this study the performance of the Light Weight Deflectometer (LWD) is compared to the FWD for the measurement of stiffness, and to the Nuclear Density Gauge (NDG) for compaction control. Given that the majority of pavements in New Zealand are unbound granular pavements with a chipseal surface, the importance of compaction control of unbound layers is paramount if design stiffness is to be achieved and variability is to be controlled.

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