Isawa K.,Fukuyama University
Buildings | Year: 2015
To obtain a basic understanding of the resultant changes in the human body exergy balance (input, consumption, storage, and output) accompanying outdoor air temperature fluctuations, a "human body system and a built environmental system" coupled with numerical analysis was conducted. The built environmental system assumed a wooden room equipped with passive cooling strategies, such as thermal insulation and solar shading devices. It was found that in the daytime, the cool radiation exergy emitted by surrounding surfaces, such as walls increased the rate of human body exergy consumption, whereas the warm radiant exergy emitted by the surrounding surfaces at night decreased the rate of human body exergy consumption. The results suggested that the rates and proportions of the different components in the exergy balance equation (exergy input, consumption, storage, and output) vary according to the outdoor temperature and humidity conditions. © 2015 by the authors.
Sato J.J.,Fukuyama University |
Wolsan M.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Naturwissenschaften | Year: 2012
Umami is one of basic tastes that humans and other vertebrates can perceive. This taste is elicited by Lamino acids and thus has a special role of detecting nutritious, protein-rich food. The T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer acts as the principal umami receptor. The T1R1 protein is encoded by the Tas1r1 gene. We report multiple inactivating (pseudogenizing) mutations in exon 3 of this gene from four phocid and two otariid species (Pinnipedia). Jiang et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:4956-4961, 2012) reported two inactivating mutations in exons 2 and 6 of this gene from another otariid species. These findings suggest lost or greatly reduced umami sensory capabilities in these species. The widespread occurrence of a nonfunctional Tas1r1 pseudogene in this clade of strictly carnivorous mammals is surprising. We hypothesize that factors underlying the pseudogenization of Tas1r1 in pinnipeds may be driven by the marine environment to which these carnivorans (Carnivora) have adapted and may include: the evolutionary change in diet from tetrapod prey to fish and cephalopods (because cephalopods and living fish contain little or no synergistic inosine 5′-monophosphate that greatly enhances umami taste), the feeding behavior of swallowing food whole without mastication (because the T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is distributed on the tongue and palate), and the saltiness of sea water (because a high concentration of sodium chloride masks umami taste). © Springer-Verlag 2012.
Kurakake M.,Fukuyama University
Journal of food science | Year: 2011
Arabinoxylans, which are comprised of a xylan backbone to which are attached glycosyl units that are primarily L-arabinofuranosyl units, are ubiquitous among plant species where it is a constituent of the cell wall. Arabinoxylan has attracted much attention as a potential biomass resource and L-arabinose has recently been reported to possess functional properties that are effective in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we report an α-L-arabinofuranohydrolase, isolated from the soil microbe Arthrobacter aurescens strain MK5, effective in releasing L-arabinose from corn hull arabinoxylan. When A. aurescens strain MK5 was grown in a liquid medium, corn hull arabinoxylan, which has a higher arabinose content (Ara/Xyl = 0.6) than oat spelts xylan (Ara/Xyl = 0.12), induced more efficient arabinoxylan hydrolase production. Analysis of enzyme activity in the culture broth revealed that arabinoxylan hydrolase activity was high, and α-L-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase activities were low. The optimum pH of the MK5 arabinoxylan hydrolase at 40 °C was around 7 and enzyme activity was relatively stable at an alkaline pH up to 9.5. The optimum temperature at pH 7 was around 50 °C and enzyme activity was stable under 50 °C. During the hydrolysis of corn hull arabinoxylan, only L-arabinose was released and 45.1% maximum sugar recovery was achieved. The A. aurescens MK5 enzyme was a typical arabinoxylan α-L-arabinofuranohydrolase and was most effective at releasing L-arabinose from corn hull arabinoxylan, which has a high arabinose content. This enzyme may have important industrial applications.
Inoue T.,Fukuyama University
Acta Mechanica | Year: 2010
Tatara, a traditional steel-making system developed in Japan, and the Japanese sword are briefly introduced from a technological point of view, followed by some comments on scientific aspects. Attention is paid to the comparison with methods developed in foreign countries. The quenching process being operated in the final stage of sword making is focused on, and results of a computer simulation by a code COSMAP based on metallo-thermo-mechanics are presented to know how the temperature, metallic structure and stress/distortion vary in the process. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Inoue T.,Fukuyama University
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2011
A phenomenological mechanism of transformation plasticity, or TP, is discussed, in the first part of the paper, to identify the characteristics of mechanical behavior of material. This is based on an assumption that the TP strain it is also a kind of plastic strain, a unified plastic flow theory is derived by introducing the effect of progressing new phase into the yield function of stress, temperature and plasticity related parameters. Thus obtained strain rate reveals to include the transformation plastic part in addition to mechanical and thermal plastic components. Applying the (2) formulated constitutive law with data of TP coefficient K identified, simulation of several cases of coupled metallo-thermo-mechanical processes by use of developed simulation code COSMAP. Special attention is paid on the effect of transformation plasticity to demonstrate that the effect makes a drastic influence for proper numerical simulation results. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.