Isawa K.,Fukuyama University
Buildings | Year: 2015
To obtain a basic understanding of the resultant changes in the human body exergy balance (input, consumption, storage, and output) accompanying outdoor air temperature fluctuations, a "human body system and a built environmental system" coupled with numerical analysis was conducted. The built environmental system assumed a wooden room equipped with passive cooling strategies, such as thermal insulation and solar shading devices. It was found that in the daytime, the cool radiation exergy emitted by surrounding surfaces, such as walls increased the rate of human body exergy consumption, whereas the warm radiant exergy emitted by the surrounding surfaces at night decreased the rate of human body exergy consumption. The results suggested that the rates and proportions of the different components in the exergy balance equation (exergy input, consumption, storage, and output) vary according to the outdoor temperature and humidity conditions. © 2015 by the authors.
Sato J.J.,Fukuyama University |
Wolsan M.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Naturwissenschaften | Year: 2012
Umami is one of basic tastes that humans and other vertebrates can perceive. This taste is elicited by Lamino acids and thus has a special role of detecting nutritious, protein-rich food. The T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer acts as the principal umami receptor. The T1R1 protein is encoded by the Tas1r1 gene. We report multiple inactivating (pseudogenizing) mutations in exon 3 of this gene from four phocid and two otariid species (Pinnipedia). Jiang et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:4956-4961, 2012) reported two inactivating mutations in exons 2 and 6 of this gene from another otariid species. These findings suggest lost or greatly reduced umami sensory capabilities in these species. The widespread occurrence of a nonfunctional Tas1r1 pseudogene in this clade of strictly carnivorous mammals is surprising. We hypothesize that factors underlying the pseudogenization of Tas1r1 in pinnipeds may be driven by the marine environment to which these carnivorans (Carnivora) have adapted and may include: the evolutionary change in diet from tetrapod prey to fish and cephalopods (because cephalopods and living fish contain little or no synergistic inosine 5′-monophosphate that greatly enhances umami taste), the feeding behavior of swallowing food whole without mastication (because the T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is distributed on the tongue and palate), and the saltiness of sea water (because a high concentration of sodium chloride masks umami taste). © Springer-Verlag 2012.
Kurakake M.,Fukuyama University
Journal of food science | Year: 2011
Arabinoxylans, which are comprised of a xylan backbone to which are attached glycosyl units that are primarily L-arabinofuranosyl units, are ubiquitous among plant species where it is a constituent of the cell wall. Arabinoxylan has attracted much attention as a potential biomass resource and L-arabinose has recently been reported to possess functional properties that are effective in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we report an α-L-arabinofuranohydrolase, isolated from the soil microbe Arthrobacter aurescens strain MK5, effective in releasing L-arabinose from corn hull arabinoxylan. When A. aurescens strain MK5 was grown in a liquid medium, corn hull arabinoxylan, which has a higher arabinose content (Ara/Xyl = 0.6) than oat spelts xylan (Ara/Xyl = 0.12), induced more efficient arabinoxylan hydrolase production. Analysis of enzyme activity in the culture broth revealed that arabinoxylan hydrolase activity was high, and α-L-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase activities were low. The optimum pH of the MK5 arabinoxylan hydrolase at 40 °C was around 7 and enzyme activity was relatively stable at an alkaline pH up to 9.5. The optimum temperature at pH 7 was around 50 °C and enzyme activity was stable under 50 °C. During the hydrolysis of corn hull arabinoxylan, only L-arabinose was released and 45.1% maximum sugar recovery was achieved. The A. aurescens MK5 enzyme was a typical arabinoxylan α-L-arabinofuranohydrolase and was most effective at releasing L-arabinose from corn hull arabinoxylan, which has a high arabinose content. This enzyme may have important industrial applications.
Choshi T.,Fukuyama University |
Hibino S.,Fukuyama University
Heterocycles | Year: 2011
Syntheses of carbazole alkaloids and indoles by an allene-mediated electrocyclic reaction of a 6π-electron system (II) through a tautomeric process, and syntheses of several fused pyridine ring systems including alkaloids by a thermal electrocyclic reaction of an aza 6π-electron system having an oxime or isocyanate (III) through either the elimination of a small molecule or a tautomeric process are described. © 2011 The Japan Institute of Heterocyclic Chemistry.
Inoue T.,Fukuyama University
Acta Mechanica | Year: 2010
Tatara, a traditional steel-making system developed in Japan, and the Japanese sword are briefly introduced from a technological point of view, followed by some comments on scientific aspects. Attention is paid to the comparison with methods developed in foreign countries. The quenching process being operated in the final stage of sword making is focused on, and results of a computer simulation by a code COSMAP based on metallo-thermo-mechanics are presented to know how the temperature, metallic structure and stress/distortion vary in the process. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Kotani T.,Fukuyama University |
Fushimi H.,Fukuyama University
Aquaculture | Year: 2011
In finfish larviculture, feeding regimes and schedules vary with hatchery and species. They have no biological or technological foundation and are dependent of operator expediency and previous experience. Inadequate feeding regimes and/or inappropriate food intake, especially during early larval stages, may result in a decline in health and/or quality and high mortalities. Fish have species-specific diel feeding rhythms; therefore, feeding schedules in larviculture cannot be determined uniformly among target species. To improve survival and quality, it is important to establish feeding schedules corresponding to the diel feeding rhythms of larval fish species. In fish, the feeding and circadian rhythms are linked; most species have diurnal feeding peaks, especially at dusk and dawn, such as flat fishes, groupers, sparids, devil stinger Inimicus japonicas and ayu Plecoglossus altivelis. These fish do not ingest food at night and the larvae actively feed at dawn and dusk. Differences in this trend have not been reported during the co-feeding period of rotifer and Artemia nauplii. Although ocellate puffer larvae also have diurnal peaks of food intake, they commenced ingestion before day break. The delay in first feeding causes serious problems in finfish larviculture and in many cases, it is performed to prevent this delay. After mouth opening, larvae do not have a well-developed functional jaw and, thus, rotifers or Artemia nauplii remain in the rearing water. They metabolize the enriched nutriments, resulting in deterioration in the nutritional quality of the residual live food. Therefore, the timing of first feeding is important. In conclusion, the feeding schedule of a particular fish species should be determined on active diel ingestion. Delays in active ingestion result in un-ingested live food remaining in the rearing water and consequent nutritional deterioration. Therefore, feeding schedules in finfish larvae and juveniles should be matched to the peak of food intake. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Inoue T.,Fukuyama University
Quenching Control and Distortion - Proceedings of the 6th International Quenching and Control of Distortion Conference, Including the 4th International Distortion Engineering Conference | Year: 2012
The first part of this paper motivates to review the general aspect of traditional steelmaking system, tatara, and the Japanese sword in the framework of science and technology. Emphasis is placed on the quenching provided in almost final part of sword making process, followed by the quenching simulation for long sword. Special application is made, in the final part, on the quenched short swords with same dimension made of several kinds of steels including both traditional and modern steels. Discussions are attached to the pattern of hamon, or martensite transformed area and residual stresses simulated by developed code COSMAP in comparison with experimental data. Copyright © 2012 ASM International® All rights reserved.
Tojo S.,Fukuyama University |
Hirooka K.,Fukuyama University |
Fujita Y.,Fukuyama University
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2013
Bacillus subtilis cells were exposed to decoyinine to trigger stringent transcription control through inhibition of GMP synthase; amino acid starvation results in the same control through inhibition of GMP kinase by 5′-diphosphate 3′-diphosphate guanosine. The positive and negative transcription control of the stringent genes involves adenine and guanine at the transcription initiation sites, whereby they sense an increase and a decrease in the in vivo ATP and GTP pools, respectively. Decoyinine also induces sporulation in minimum medium. DNA microarray analysis revealed that decoyinine induced two major sensor kinase genes, kinA and kinB, involved in the phosphorelay leading to spore formation. lacZ fusion experiments involving the core promoter regions of kinA and kinB, whose transcription initiation bases are adenines, indicated that decoyinine induced their expression. This induction was independent of CodY and AbrB. When the adenines were replaced with guanines or cytosines, the induction by decoyinine decreased. The in situ replacement of the adenines with guanines actually affected this decoyinine-induced sporulation as well as massive sporulation in nutrient medium. These results imply that operation of the positive stringent transcription control of kinA and kinB, which is mediated by an increase in the ATP pool, is likely a prerequisite for the phosphorelay to transfer the phosphoryl group to Spo0A to initiate sporulation. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.
Inoue T.,Fukuyama University
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2011
A phenomenological mechanism of transformation plasticity, or TP, is discussed, in the first part of the paper, to identify the characteristics of mechanical behavior of material. This is based on an assumption that the TP strain it is also a kind of plastic strain, a unified plastic flow theory is derived by introducing the effect of progressing new phase into the yield function of stress, temperature and plasticity related parameters. Thus obtained strain rate reveals to include the transformation plastic part in addition to mechanical and thermal plastic components. Applying the (2) formulated constitutive law with data of TP coefficient K identified, simulation of several cases of coupled metallo-thermo-mechanical processes by use of developed simulation code COSMAP. Special attention is paid on the effect of transformation plasticity to demonstrate that the effect makes a drastic influence for proper numerical simulation results. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Wolsan M.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Sato J.J.,Fukuyama University
Cladistics | Year: 2010
Missing data are commonly thought to impede a resolved or accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships, and probabilistic analysis techniques are increasingly viewed as less vulnerable to the negative effects of data incompleteness than parsimony analyses. We test both assumptions empirically by conducting parsimony and Bayesian analyses on an approximately 1.5 × 106-cell (27 965 characters × 52 species) mustelid-procyonid molecular supermatrix with 62.7% missing entries. Contrary to the first assumption, phylogenetic relationships inferred from our analyses are fully (Bayesian) or almost fully (parsimony) resolved topologically with mostly strong support and also largely in accord with prior molecular estimations of mustelid and procyonid phylogeny derived with parsimony, Bayesian, and other probabilistic analysis techniques from smaller but complete or nearly complete data sets. Contrary to the second assumption, we found no compelling evidence in support of a relationship between the inferior performance of parsimony and taxon incompleteness (i.e. the proportion of missing character data for a taxon), although we found evidence for a connection between the inferior performance of parsimony and character incompleteness (i.e. no overlap in character data between some taxa). The relatively good performance of our analyses may be related to the large number of sampled characters, so that most taxa (even highly incomplete ones) are represented by a sufficient number of characters allowing both approaches to resolve their relationships.© The Willi Hennig Society 2009. © The Willi Hennig Society 2009.