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Fukuyama, Japan

Umemura S.,Sumitomo Besshi Hospital | Tsubouchi K.,Kurashiki Central Hospital | Yoshioka H.,Kurashiki Central Hospital | Hotta K.,Okayama University | And 10 more authors.
Lung Cancer

Objective: We examined the prognosis of patients with leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and that stratified by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status in LM patients receiving EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a series of 91 consecutive NSCLC patients with LM between 2001 and 2010. Results: Most of the LM patients had adenocarcinoma histology and a poor performance status (PS). The median survival time (MST) for all patients was 3.6 months. Adenocarcinoma and TKI treatment were associated with a better prognosis. Among the patients, 51 received EGFR-TKIs. Of these, the EGFR mutation status was assessed in 30 patients; 7 (23%) showed no mutation (group 1), 10 (33%) had a mutation in exon 21 (group 2), and 13 (43%) had deletions in exon 19 (group 3). Interestingly, PS was significantly improved in groups 2 and 3 but not in group 1. The MST in these subgroups was 1.4, 7.1, and 11.0 months in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p< 0.001). The median time to progression or symptom deterioration was 0.9, 2.0, and 7.8 months for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p< 0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that EGFR-mutant tumors were associated with a better prognosis in patients receiving EGFR-TKIs. Conclusions: The prognosis for patients with LM from NSCLC was still poor. Survival after the initiation of EGFR-TKI treatment differed according to the type of EGFR mutation, suggesting the potential benefit of TKIs for patients with EGFR mutations, even though they suffered from LM. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Sasako M.,Hyogo College of Medicine | Terashima M.,Shizuoka Cancer Center | Ichikawa W.,Showa University | Ochiai A.,Research Center for Innovative Oncology | And 6 more authors.
Gastric Cancer

Background: The efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5FU)-based therapy, which remains the cornerstone of gastrointestinal cancer treatment, depends upon the expression of enzymes involved in pyrimidine metabolism, including thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT). We analyzed the expression of these genes in patients enrolled in the Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial of S-1 for Gastric Cancer (ACTS-GC) and their possible roles as biomarkers for treatment outcomes. Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens were available for 829 of a total of 1,059 (78.3 %) patients. TS, DPD, TP, and OPRT expression was measured by RT-PCR in manually microdissected tumor specimens and normalized to the reference gene, β-actin. The expression level of each gene was categorized as low or high using cutoffs at the 33.3rd, 50th, or 66.7th percentiles. Results: The hazard ratio (HR) for overall survival (OS) after S-1 treatment versus surgery alone was significantly lower in high (>66.7th percentile; HR = 0.370; 95 % CI 0.221–0.619) compared to low (<66.7th percentile; HR = 0.757; 95 % CI 0.563–1.018) TS expression groups (P = 0.015). Similarly, the HR for OS after S-1 therapy versus surgery alone was significantly lower in high (>33.3rd percentile; HR = 0.520, 95 % CI 0.376–0.720) compared to low (<33.3rd percentile; HR = 0.848, 95 % CI 0.563–1.276) DPD expression groups (P = 0.065). There was no interaction between TP or OPRT expression and OS. Conclusions: This large biomarker study showed that high TS and DPD gene expression in tumors was associated with enhanced benefit from postoperative adjuvant S-1 treatment in gastric cancer. There was no interaction between TP and OPRT expression and S-1 treatment. © 2014, The Author(s). Source

Hosogi M.,Hosogi Childrens Clinic | Hosogi M.,Fukuyama Medical Center | Hosogi M.,Okayama University | Okada A.,Okayama University | And 3 more authors.
BioPsychoSocial Medicine

Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for adult include Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Janis-Field Feeling of Inadequacy Scale, and these for children include Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Pope's 5-Scale Test of Self-Esteem for children, and Kid- KINDL ®. Other methods include Ziller Social Self-Esteem Scale and Implicit Association Test. The development of children's self-esteem is heavily influenced by their environment, that is, their homes, neighborhoods, and schools. Children with damaged self-esteem are at risk of developing psychological and social problems, which hinders recovery from low self-esteem. Thus, to recover low self-esteem, it is important for children to accumulate a series of successful experiences to create a positive concept of self. Evaluating children's self-esteem can be an effective method for understanding their past and present circumstances, and useful to treat for children with psychosomatic disorders. © 2012 Hosogi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Uraoka T.,Keio University | Uraoka T.,Okayama University | Uraoka T.,National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center | Higashi R.,Okayama University of Science | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Gastroenterology

Background: Differentiating sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) from hyperplastic polyp (HP) is clinically important in determining the necessity of endoscopic resection or recommending appropriate surveillance. There are few reports of characterization of SSA/P using narrowband imaging and chromoendoscopy with and without magnification. We aimed to establish imaging criteria to aid real-time diagnosis of SSA/P. Methods: Patients with pale sessile or flat lesions of 6 mm or greater were prospectively enrolled in this multicenter trial. Nine endoscopic criteria, determined in real time, were investigated for possible association with SSA/P. Endoscopic mucosal resection was performed; specimens were retrieved and analyzed by histopathological examination. Results: In 63 patients, 89 lesions were detected, including 41 HP, 38 SSA/P, five mixed polyps, and five other lesions. Right-side colon location, lesion size of 10 mm or greater, excessive mucus, the presence of a varicose microvascular vessel (VMV) noted with high-magnification narrowband imaging, and type IIIH pit pattern were each commonly associated with SSA/P compared with HP. Multivariate analysis substantiated three independent endoscopic criteria for SSA/P: the presence of VMV (p = 0.001), lesion size of 10 mm or greater (p = 0.0017), and right-side location (p = 0.0041), with odds ratios of 8.2, 7.2, and 6.1, respectively. The presence of VMV had a significantly higher specificity (87.8 %) than the other two independent endoscopic criteria (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0008, respectively), but a lower sensitivity (57.9 %), whereas a combination of the three criteria (two or more positive) increased the sensitivity significantly (89.5 % and p = 0.0033) and had a higher degree of accuracy (82.3 %). Conclusions: Three endoscopic criteria individually and in combination were effective in predicting a diagnosis of SSA/P without the need for chromoendoscopy. © 2014, Springer Japan. Source

Toyokawa T.,Fukuyama Medical Center | Inaba T.,Kagawa Prefectural Hospital | Ishikawa S.,Kagawa Prefectural Hospital | Nakatsu M.,Mitoyo General Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology

Objective. After implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES), two or more anti-thrombotic agents are required. The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in cases of DES implantation is thought to be significant. However, the incidence of UGIB has not yet been investigated in DES-implanted patients. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of UGIB after DES implantation and the awareness among cardiologists about this complication. Material and methods. Subjects were 397 consecutive patients implanted with DES from August 2004 to September 2007 at two institutions. Endoscopic examinations were performed on DES-implanted patients who presented with hematemesis and/or tarry stools. The concomitant use of acid-suppressing agents was left to the cardiologists. In addition, 37 cardiologists were administered a questionnaire regarding UGIB after DES implantation. Results. Low-dose aspirin and ticlopidine were prescribed in all patients. Forty-six patients had a past history of peptic ulcer. Acid-suppressing agents were concomitantly prescribed to 224 patients (56%) including 32 patients (70%) with a past history of peptic ulcer. UGIB due to gastric ulcers developed in 5 cases (1.3%). One case had received a half dose of H2-RA. No bleeding occurred in patients who received proton pump inhibitors (PPI). The incidence of UGIB was 4.0 per 1000 patient-years. The cardiologists who were surveyed recognized the risk of UGIB after DES implantation and the necessity for its prevention. However, they indicated that adequate management for preventing this complication has not been established. Conclusions. This study reassuringly demonstrated a low incidence of UGIB after DES implantation. Further study regarding the prophylaxis for UGIB after DES implantation is necessary. © 2010 Informa Healthcare. Source

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