Fukushima-shi, Japan
Fukushima-shi, Japan

Fukushima Medical University is a public university, located in the city of Fukushima, Japan. Wikipedia.

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Kobayashi S.,Fukushima Medical University
Frontiers in Neuroscience | Year: 2012

The avoidance of aversive events is critically important for the survival of organisms. It has been proposed that the medial pain system, including the amygdala, periaqueductal gray (PAG), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), contains the neural circuitry that signals pain affect and negative value.This system appears to have multiple defense mechanisms, such as rapid stereotyped escape, aversive association learning, and cognitive adaptation. These defense mechanisms vary in speed and flexibility, reflecting different strategies of self-protection.Over the course of evolution, the medial pain system appears to have developed primitive, associative, and cognitive solutions for aversive avoidance.There may be a functional grading along the caudal-rostral axis, such that the amygdala-PAG system underlies automatic and autonomic responses, the amygdala-orbitofrontal system contributes to associative learning, and the ACC controls cognitive processes in cooperation with the lateral prefrontal cortex. A review of behavioral and physiological studies on the aversive system is presented, and a conceptual framework for understanding the neural organization of the aversive avoidance system is proposed. © 2012 Kobayashi.


The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, releasing a large amount of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Questions were raised regarding the health effects of radiation exposure, which led to increased anxiety among the Fukushima residents about the possible development of thyroid cancer. Thus, thyroid ultrasound examinations began for those who were from the areas where the radiation doses were highest, and will continue for the long term. In total, 300 476 subjects aged 18 years or younger at the time of the disaster were screened from 9 October 2011 to 31 March 2014. The participation rate was 81.7% of the total population of this age and in the affected area. Among them, the proportions of those who fell into the categories A1 (no nodules or cysts present), A2 (nodule ≤ 5 mm or cyst ≤ 20 mm diameter), B (nodule > 5 mm or cyst > 20 mm diameter) and C (immediate need for further investigation) were 51.5, 47.8, 0.8 and 0%, respectively; 2294 subjects in categories B and C were recommended to undergo a confirmatory examination; 113 were subsequently diagnosed with malignancy or suspected malignancy by fine needle aspiration cytology. The full-scale survey (second round survey) began in April 2014, and was completed by 30 June 2015, and comprised 169 455 subjects (participation rate; 44.7%). The proportions of those who fell into the categories A1, A2, B and C were 41.6, 57.6, 0.8 and 0% (no case), respectively; 1223 subjects in category B were recommended to undergo a confirmatory examination, 25 of these were subsequently diagnosed with malignancy or suspected malignancy by fine needle aspiration cytology. The thyroid cancers identified in this survey so far are unlikely to be due to radiation exposure, and are more likely to be the result of screening using highly sophisticated ultrasound techniques. However, it would be advisable to continue long-term screening to determine whether the risk of childhood and adolescent thyroid cancer due to radiation exposure increases or not. © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists.


Aluminum-induced copper-catalyzed coupling of aryl iodides with selenium or sulfur element could afford the corresponding diaryl selenides or sulfides in good yields. When magnesium chloride as an additive was employed, diaryl monoselenides and monosulfides were selectively obtained. On the contrary, the use of sodium carbonate produced diaryl diselenides and disulfides. The preparation of diaryl diselenides was necessary for magnesium as a reductant. Regrettably, tellurium was very low reactivity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Alkenyl sulfones can be stereoselectively synthesized from alkenes or alkynes using sodium sulfinates. The reaction can be performed by a copper-catalyzed oxidation of sodium sulfinates in air. The reaction of alkenes gives (E)-alkenyl sulfones via anti addition of sulfonyl cation and elimination process. Furthermore, the employment of alkynes produces (E) β- haloalkenyl sulfones in the presence of potassium halides. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.


Jodo E.,Fukushima Medical University
Journal of Physiology Paris | Year: 2013

Phencyclidine (PCP) is a psychotomimetic drug that induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy individuals and exacerbates pre-existing symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. PCP also induces behavioral and cognitive abnormalities in non-human animals, and PCP-treated animals are considered a reliable pharmacological model of schizophrenia. However, the exact neural mechanisms by which PCP modulates behavior are not known. During the last decade several studies have indicated that disturbed activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may be closely related to PCP-induced psychosis. Systemic administration of PCP produces long-lasting activation of medial PFC (mPFC) neurons in rats, almost in parallel with augmentation of locomotor activity and behavioral stereotypies. Later studies have showed that such PCP-induced behavioral abnormalities are ameliorated by prior administration of drugs that normalize or inhibit excess excitability of PFC neurons. Similar activation of mPFC neurons is not induced by systemic injection of a typical psychostimulant such as methamphetamine, even though behavioral hyperactivity is induced to almost the same level. This suggests that the neural circuits mediating PCP-induced psychosis are different to those mediating methamphetamine-induced psychosis. Locally applied PCP does not induce excitation of mPFC neurons, indicating that PCP-induced tonic excitation of mPFC neurons is mediated by inputs from regions outside the mPFC. This hypothesis is strongly supported by experimental results showing that local perfusion of PCP in the ventral hippocampus, which has dense fiber projections to the mPFC, induces tonic activation of mPFC neurons with accompanying augmentation of behavioral abnormalities. In this review we summarize current knowledge on the neural mechanisms underlying PCP-induced psychosis and highlight a possible involvement of the PFC and the hippocampus in PCP-induced psychosis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Taniguchi N.,Fukushima Medical University
Synlett | Year: 2012

Copper-catalyzed hydrosulfonylations of alkynes can be carried out using sodium sulfinates in air. The procedure affords syn-selectively (E)-alkenyl sulfones in good yields. Then, both terminal and internal alkynes are available. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.


Copper-catalyzed sulfonylation of alkynes using sodium sulfinates in air produced regio- and stereoselectively (E)-alkenyl sulfones. When a CuCl catalyst was employed, the hydrosulfonylation proceeded syn-selectively, and (E)-alkenyl sulfones were synthesized in excellent yields. In contrast, the reaction using CuI catalyst produced (E)-β-haloalkenyl sulfones anti-selectively in the presence of potassium halides. Furthermore, the (E)-β-bromoalkenyl sulfones are possible to convert into various alkenyl sulfones by Suzuki-Miyaura coupling.© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Patent
Fukushima Medical University | Date: 2016-07-13

[Problem to be Solved] To provide a porous plate for medical use which can suppress bending along a row direction and, even if a local crack occurs, can inhibit the crack from growing and leading to a fracture [Solution] One aspect of the present invention is a porous plate for medical use which is a thin-plate substrate 61 provided with a pore perforation section 63 having a plurality of pores 62 perforated therein and a frame section 64 surrounding the pore perforation section. In this porous plate 60, the pore perforation section 63 has crosspieces 65 which extend lengthwise and crosswise in continuity with the frame section 64 and partition the pore perforation section into a plurality of parts, and a plurality of pore perforation cells 66 each surrounded by the crosspieces 65. The pores 62 perforated in the pore perforation cells 66 have a pore diameter calculated as an equivalent circular pore diameter of 1 to 50 m, and the center-to-center distance between the adjacent pores is 2 to 200 m.


Patent
Fukushima Medical University | Date: 2014-09-01

To provide a porous plate for medical use which can suppress bending along a row direction and, even if a local crack occurs, can inhibit the crack from growing and leading to a fracture. One aspect of the present invention is a porous plate for medical use which is a thin-plate substrate provided with a pore perforation section having a plurality of pores perforated therein and a frame section surrounding the pore perforation section. In this porous plate, the pore perforation section has crosspieces which extend lengthwise and crosswise in continuity with the frame section and partition the pore perforation section into a plurality of parts, and a plurality of pore perforation cells each surrounded by the crosspieces. The pores perforated in the pore perforation cells have a pore diameter calculated as an equivalent circular pore diameter of 1 to 50 m, and the center-to-center distance between the adjacent pores is 2 to 200 m.


A method for analyzing a protein and a peptide, includes: providing a capillary for isoelectric focusing; providing a capillary device for separation and analysis having the capillary and a solid-phase extraction column being unified as a single tube-like structure; providing an electrophoresis instrument having the capillary device and the mechanism regulating the pressure difference at both ends of the capillary device; introducing a sample containing a target protein or peptide into the solid-phase extraction column to let the target protein or peptide be adsorbed on the column, and filling the capillary device with a carrier ampholyte solution; starting separation by isoelectric focusing after eluting the target protein or peptide by filling the solid-phase extraction column with electrode solution or acid or base solution, or after firstly eluting the target protein or peptide with an eluting solution containing carrier ampholyte and secondly filling the solid-phase extraction column with electrode solution or acid or base solution; and focusing the eluted target protein or peptide in the capillary for isoelectric focusing.

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