Fukuda Y.,Fukuoka Womens University
Journal of physiological anthropology | Year: 2012
The discovery of the novel photoreceptor, melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), has raised researchers' interest in photoreceptive tasks performed by the mRGC, especially in non-image-forming visual functions. In a prior study, we investigated the mRGC response to light stimuli independent of rods and cones with the four-primary illumination system, which modulates stimulus levels to the mRGC and cones independently, and mRGC baseline responses were recorded in the electroretinogram (ERG). In the present study, we used the same illumination system to compare independent responses of the mRGC and cones in five subjects (mean ± SD age, 23.0 ± 1.7 years). The ERG waveforms were examined as direct measurements of responses of the mRGCs and cones to stimulation (250 msec). Implicit times (the time taken to peaks) and peak values from 30 stimuli given to each subject were analyzed. Two distinct positive peaks appeared in the mRGC response, approximately 80 msec after the onset of the stimuli and 30 msec after their offset, while no such peaks appeared in the cone response. The response to the mRGC stimulus was significantly higher than that to the cone stimulus at approximately 80 msec (P < 0.05) and tended to be higher than the cone stimulus at approximately 280 msec (P = 0.08). Implicit time of the first peak was much longer than that to the b-wave and this delay might reflect mRGC's sluggish responses. This is the first report of amplitudes and implicit time in the ERG from the response of the mRGC that is independent of rods and cones, and obtained using the four-primary illumination system.
Ma C.-J.,Fukuoka Womens University
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010
By the application of novel double detector system of micro-PIXE that can detect light elements (Z<14), we made an attempt to provide a thorough discussion on the aging processes of Asian dust (hereafter called "AD") particle by reaction with sea-slat. The elemental spectra and maps obtained from the microbeam radiation of micro-PIXE to individual AD particles were useful for fractionating AD particles into both internally and externally mixed particles. A spatial distribution of elements in a minute domain of single particle obtained by scanning the microbeam irradiation enabled us not only to estimate the chemical mixing state of individual AD particles but also to presume their aging processes in both ambient air and cloud. By calculating the normalized micro-PIXE net count of elements, it was possible to classify individual AD particles into three distinct groups (i.e., (1) Aging type 1: AD particle coated by the gaseous Cl evaporated by the reaction between artificial acids and sea salt; (2) Aging type 2: AD particle mixed with sea salt but no additional reaction with artificial acids; and (3) Non-aged type) A relatively high transformation rate (63.3-75.9%) was shown in large particles (greater than 5.1 μm in diameter).
Irfan M.F.,University of Malaya |
Usman M.R.,University of Punjab |
Kusakabe K.,Fukuoka Womens University
Energy | Year: 2011
Numerous coal gasification studies have been found in the literature those employed various kinds of gasifying agents such as steam and carbon dioxide. These studies are featured with wide variations in the parametric conditions and the usage of equipments. Steam is frequently employed as a gasifying agent, however, in several studies carbon dioxide has also been used as a gasifying agent either pure or in combination with other gasifying agents (H2O, O2, CO, H2). This paper is a brief review of the coal gasification with CO2 as a diluent. Different factors were studied over the coal gasification with CO2 such as coal rank, pressure, temperature, gas composition, catalyst and the minerals present inside the coal, heating rate, particle size, and diverse reactor types. It also deals with the application of the gas-solid models developed in the literature and the combustion and gasification mechanisms for O2/CO2 streams. Moreover, it reviews the kinetics and the reaction rate equations (Arrhenius and Langmuir-Hinshelwood types) for coal-char gasification both in the reaction kinetic control region (low temperature) and the diffusion control region (high temperature) and at both low and high pressures. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Takahashi T.,Fukuoka Womens University
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology | Year: 2011
Digesta flow-behavior types in the intestinal lumen, such as turbulent and laminar flow, should define modes of digestion and absorption. This review presents a simulation of flow behavior in the intestinal lumen and discusses the behavior of nutrients and enzymes in the intestinal lumen under laminar-flow conditions. The significance of digesta viscosity for glucose and water absorption and digestion and fermentation in the intestine is also discussed. © 2011 by the Center for Academic Publications Japan.
Yoshimura T.,Fukuoka Womens University
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2012
The aim of the present study is to describe recent issues with Yusho disease in Japan, describe the state of dioxin accumulation and the intake of dioxin via food in Japan, and introduce the Japan Environment and Children's Study. Yusho disease manifested in western Japan in 1968. The causes of Yusho are believed to be dioxin-related compounds, mainly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), via the ingestion of rice oil produced in February 1968. As of March 31, 2011, there were 1961 registered Yusho cases, but of these 539 are deceased. A retrospective cohort study on registered Yusho cases reported that the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the major causes of death were not significantly elevated, with the exception of all-cancer (SMR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.53) and lung cancer mortality (SMR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.03-2.27) in males. The results of the Yusho mortality study show that the SMR for liver cancer in males tends to decrease over time. In 2011, the Ministry of the Environment of Japan reported that the average concentration of dioxins in the blood (2002-2010) of the Japanese people was 19 pg-TEQ/g-fat, demonstrating a range of 0.10-130 pg-TEQ/g-fat, and that the average dioxin intake from food (2002-2010) was 0.82 pg-TEQ/kg-body weight/day, demonstrating a range of 0.031-6.2 pg-TEQ/kg-body weight/day according to 2006 WHO TEFs. The Japan Environment and Children's Study Project was launched in 2011 and is supported by the Ministry of the Environment of Japan. In this project, 100,000 mother and child pairs will be recruited over 3 years from designated study areas. Follow-up examinations will be carried out from pregnancy until the children are 13 years of age (a so-called birth-cohort study). This project will be implemented by the National Center at the National Institute for Environmental Studies and is supported by the Medical Support Center at the National Center for Child Health and Development. Field operations will be performed at 15 designated regional centers nationwide. Copyright © 2012, Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.