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Liu J.,Kyushu University | Liu J.,North Carolina State University | Kurashiki K.,Kyushu University | Fukuta A.,Kyushu University | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

For quantitative determination of 5 triterpenoid constituents, including one ganoderma alcohol (ganodermatriol) and four ganoderma acids (ganoderic acid TR, DM, A, and D), in the products of Ganoderma lucidum, an analytical system was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The mobile phase was a linear gradient of 2% AcOH/H 2O-CH 3CN, and the elution profile was monitored at 243 and 252 nm for ganoderma alcohols and acids, respectively. This system was applied to a quantitative determination of the constituents in the different stage of G. lucidum (BMC9049 strain). The analytical results indicated that the quantity and composition of these triterpenoids differed appreciably among various stages. The stage that showed the highest concentration of ganoderic acid DM and TR also showed the strongest 5α-reductase inhibitory activity. This stage (stage 5 of 6) is thus the prime stage for harvesting this strain. Further, the contents of 5α-reductase inhibitors such as ganoderic acid TR and DM in G. lucidum extracts could be a very useful indicator to assess their 5α-reductase inhibitory activity and verify their potency. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Fujia Z.,Kyushu University | Mori Y.,Fukuoka Prefecture Forest Research and Extension Center | Kondo R.,Kyushu University | Tsutsumi Y.,Kyushu University
Nematology | Year: 2013

Understanding resistance mechanisms to pine wilt disease is essential to a successful breeding programme because plant selection cannot always guarantee absolute resistance against every isolate of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. To examine resistance factors in Japanese black pine, Pinus thunbergii, we devised a novel in vitro bioassay system in which we tested proliferation of pine wood nematodes co-cultured with wood slices or methanol extracts from pines. Proliferation of pine wood nematodes was inhibited in assays with fresh wood slices from resistant Japanese black pines but not with susceptible pine or without wood slices (control). When resistant wood slices were extracted by methanol, the inhibition effect of proliferation of pine wood nematodes was diminished, whereas methanol extraction from susceptible wood slices did not affect the proliferation. To verify whether nematode proliferation was inhibited by pine extracts, methanol extracts were loaded on paper disks and used in the assay. Populations of pine wood nematodes were significantly suppressed when methanol extracts originated from a resistant pine, but not from a susceptible pine. These results strongly suggest that methanol extracts from resistant pine trees contain the inhibitors of pine wood nematode proliferation. This bioassay system is available not only for identifying inhibitors of pine wood nematode proliferation but also for rapid screening of resistant pines. © 2013 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.


Mori Y.,Fukuoka Prefecture Forest Research and Extension Center | Ueda K.,Fukuoka Prefecture Forest Research and Extension Center | Okawa M.,Fukuoka Prefecture Forest Research and Extension Center | Miyahara F.,Fukuoka Prefecture Forest Research and Extension Center
Nihon Ringakkai Shi/Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society | Year: 2012

We conducted two questionnaires on wood characteristics to understand the demands of end-users in terms of wood properties. We asked which properties were disliked, and which properties consumers hoped will be improved. In both questionnaires, the most common response was a preference for wood that is resistant to termites. Based on the responses from potential wood end-users, we conducted a study to select termite-resistant sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) cultivars. The termites Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes speratus were cultured in Petri dishes with meals consisting of heartwood of various sugi cultivars, which were identified by DNA analysis. The cultivars Akaba and Iwao showed higher rates of termite mortality and fewer days to reach 50% termite mortality than those of the other tested cultivars. These results suggested that Akaba and Iwao had strong termiticidal activities. In Akaba, the termite mortality rates were equally high in two distinct ramets from different plantations. In contrast, Honsugi consistently showed weak termiticidal activities in all tests. When R. speratus was cultured with heartwood meals from which volatile compounds had been extracted, the termiticidal activities of all tested sugi cultivars including Akaba greatly decreased. Under culture conditions in which R. speratus was not fed sugi meals but exposed to volatile compounds extracted from the heartwood, Iwao and Akaba showed high termite mortality rates compared with the negative control. These results suggest that termiticidal activity of sugi is closely related to cultivar-specific extractives including volatile compounds. Together with reproducibility of cultivar-specific termiticidal activity, clonal forestry with termite-resistant sugi cultivars is one option for foresters to meet the demands of end-users.


Mori Y.,Fukuoka Prefecture Forest Research and Extension Center | Mori Y.,Kyushu University | Miyahara F.,Fukuoka Prefecture Forest Research and Extension Center | Tsutsumi Y.,Kyushu University | Kondo R.,Kyushu University
Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2011

Adventitious rooting is essential for cutting propagation of pine wilt-resistant Pinus thunbergii. To examine a variety of adventitious rooting potentials among donor plants, cuttings were taken from 31 seedlings within a half-sib family. Rooting abilities of cuttings from each seedling ranged from 0 to 100%. When 11 ortets and 11 ramets (clonally propagated from each ortet) were used as donor plants, there was a positive correlation between rooting abilities of cuttings from ortets and ramets, suggesting that adventitious rooting is dependent on genetic factors in the donor plants. To promote adventitious rooting of cuttings by hormonal treatment, we examined the effect of soaking time in Oxyberon (19.7 mM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) solution) on rooting. Ten minutes was the best soaking time for rooted cuttings to produce more adventitious roots without impairing normal growth. When cuttings were soaked in Ethrel diluent (69.2 μM ethephon) for 24 h before soaking in Oxyberon for 10 min, a significantly higher rooting ability was observed than those soaked in Oxyberon alone. Ethrel on its own barely affected rooting ability. The positive effect of the combinational treatment was confirmed in a similar experiment using authentic ethephon and IBA instead of Ethrel and Oxyberon. When cuttings were soaked in a mixture of ethephon and silver thiosulfate (STS), an ethylene action inhibitor, before IBA-soaking, the effect was partially diminished compared with combinational treatment without STS. These findings suggest that ethylene action caused by ethephon treatment promotes IBA-mediated adventitious rooting of P. thunbergii cuttings. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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