Chikushino-shi, Japan
Chikushino-shi, Japan

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Kai H.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Takata K.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Tsukazaki M.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Furusho M.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Baba T.,Fukuoka Prefectural Office
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

PK23-2, a line of six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) originating from Pakistan, has resistance to Japanese strains I and III of the barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV). To identify the source of resistance in this line, reciprocal crosses were made between the susceptible cultivar Daisen-gold and PK23-2. Genetic analyses in the F 1 generation, F 2 generation, and a doubled haploid population (DH45) derived from the F 1 revealed that PK23-2 harbors one dominant and one recessive resistance genes. A linkage map was constructed using 61 lines of DH45 and 127 DNA markers; this map covered 1268. 8 cM in 10 linkage groups. One QTL having a LOD score of 4. 07 and explaining 26. 8% of the phenotypic variance explained (PVE) for resistance to BaYMV was detected at DNA marker ABG070 on chromosome 3H. Another QTL having a LOD score of 3. 53 and PVE of 27. 2% was located at marker Bmag0490 on chromosome 4H. The resistance gene on chromosome 3H, here named Rym17, showed dominant inheritance, whereas the gene on chromosome 4H, here named rym18, showed recessive inheritance in F 1 populations derived from crosses between several resistant lines of DH45 and Daisen-gold. The BaYMV recessive resistance genes rym1, rym3, and rym5, found in Japanese barley germplasm, were not allelic to rym18. These results revealed that PK23-2 harbors two previously unidentified resistance genes, Rym17 on 3H and rym18 on 4H; Rym17 is the first dominant BaYMV resistance gene to be identified in primary gene pool. These new genes, particularly dominant Rym17, represent a potentially valuable genetic resource against BaYMV disease. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Li J.-C.,Okayama University | Yamaguchi S.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Funahashi H.,Okayama University
Theriogenology | Year: 2012

The objective was to determine the effects of boar seminal plasma and hen's egg yolk on chemotaxis and phagocytosis of porcine and bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in vitro. Chemotactic activity of PMNs was determined following culture for 90 min in a blind well chamber. Phagocytosis was assayed after co-culture of PMNs with sperm for 60 min. In the presence of ≥ 5% boar seminal plasma, chemotactic activity of PMNs was reduced (P < 0.05) in both pigs (from 1126.1 to 934.2-1009.1 cells/mm 2) and in cows (from 1067.1 to 768.9-800.0 cells/mm 2). Furthermore, ≥ 5% boar seminal plasma reduced (P < 0.05) leukocyte phagocytosis in pigs (26.2-32.1%) and cows (27.2-30.0%) compared to controls (41.7 and 42.1%, respectively). Although 20% hen's egg yolk increased (P < 0.05) chemotactic activity of PMNs in pigs (from 790.4 to 1006.1 cells/mm 2) and cows (from 789.9 to 953.5 cells/mm 2), egg yolk increased (P < 0.05) phagocytotic activity of porcine PMNs (from 24.3 to 33.8%), but not the activity of bovine PMNs (15.1 vs 15.8% in controls). Boar seminal plasma and caffeine reduced (P < 0.05) the egg yolk-induced increase in chemotaxis in both species (from 988.6 to 795.2 or 813.2 cells/mm 2 in pigs and from 953.5 to 779.4 or 833.8 cells/mm 2 in cows), and phagocytotic activities of PMN (from 33.8% to 15.2 or 13.3%) only in pigs (but not in cows; 11.2-15.1%). In conclusion, hen's egg yolk increased chemotactic activity of PMNs in both pigs and cows, whereas egg yolk increased only phagocytosis of PMNs in pigs, but not in cows. Even in the presence of egg yolk, boar seminal plasma and caffeine significantly reduced chemotactic activity of PMNs in pigs and cows, and phagocytotic activity of porcine PMNs. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Tabata J.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Teshiba M.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Shimizu N.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Sugie H.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences
Journal of Essential Oil Research | Year: 2015

A characteristic constituent of lavender essential oils, lavandulol (2-isopropenyl-5-methyl-4-hexen-1-ol), and its relatives have been frequently discovered in the pheromones of mealybugs. Synthetic pheromones to interfere with their mate-finding communication are a potential management tool for these pests. The sex pheromone of the Japanese mealybug (Planococcus kraunhiae) is 2-isopropyliden-5-methyl-4-hexen-1-yl butyrate (isolavandulyl butyrate), and its alcohol moiety can easily be synthesized from lavandulol by means of acid-promoted double-bond migration. In this study, we synthesized isolavandulyl butyrate from natural lavandulol without isolating it from lavender essential oil. The resulting oil included both the pheromone and insect repellants, and the oils attractiveness was inferior to that of pure synthetic pheromone. However, the lavender oil-derived pheromone displayed a copulation-interference performance equivalent to that of the pure pheromone when large amounts were released around mealybug colonies. This study proposes a unique strategy for mealybug management using the pheromone derived from lavender essential oil. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Shimizu N.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Tsutsumi T.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center
Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2011

We investigated the attractiveness of adult males of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Linnaeus) and the oriental green stink bug, N. antennata Scott in the field in Fukuoka Prefecture in 2008 and 2009. In traps baited with males of N. viridula, adult males and females of N. antennata in addition to adults of N. viridula were captured. Similarly, in traps baited with males of N. antennata, adult males and females of N. viridula in addition to adults of N. antennata were captured. These results indicate that adult males of N. viridula and N. antennata emit pheromones and attract not only conspecifics but also individuals of other species.

We have reported that artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed boar semen supplemented with caffeine increased the number of uterine sperm by inhibiting the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the uterine lumen, thereby improving the fertility of gilts and sows. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of the addition of the antioxidant beta-mercaptoethanol (bME) and caffeine to the thawing solution on the function of frozen-thawed sperm, on the phagocytic activity of PMNs for sperm, and on the fertility of sows after AI. When frozen-thawed sperm were cultured in the presence of 25 or 50 μm bME, sperm capacitation and spontaneous acrosome reactions were inhibited (P < 0.01). There was no effect of bME on phagocytic activity of PMNs for sperm in vitro. When hormonally treated (400 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin + 200 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin) weaned sows experienced a single intrauterine insemination with frozen-thawed sperm (25 × 10 8 sperm per 50 ml dose) 40 h after subsequent hCG administration, pregnancy and farrowing rates were unaffected by the addition of 50 μm bME (pregnancy rate, 20 vs 21% in controls; farrowing rate, 20 vs 21%; n = 15 and 14, respectively). However, litter size tended to be higher than in the presence of 50 μm bME compared to its absence (10.0 ± 1.0 vs 5.7 ± 1.5, respectively; P < 0.07). Thus, the addition of bME to the thawing solution containing caffeine could be of benefit for improving the function of frozen-thawed sperm without influencing the phagocytic activity of PMNs for sperm. Although there were no statistically significant effects of bME on pregnancy or farrowing rates, the litter size tended to be higher in the sows subjected to a fixed-time single AI treatment with synchronized ovulation. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..

Teshiba M.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Sugie H.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Tsutsumi T.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Tabata J.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2012

We previously discovered that (2,4,4-trimethyl-2-cyclohexenyl)-methyl butyrate (cyclolavandulyl butyrate, CLB) is an attractant for the mealybug-parasitic wasp Anagyrus sawadai Ishii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae: Anagyrini). This wasp is not likely to parasitize the Japanese mealybug, Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), under natural conditions. In this study, we showed that this 'non-natural' enemy wasp can parasitize P. kraunhiae in the presence of CLB in field experiments. Laboratory-reared mealybugs placed on persimmon trees with CLB-impregnated rubber septa were parasitized significantly more often by endoparasitic wasps than those on non-treatment trees (18.1-40.3 vs. 0-6.3%). Anagyrus sawadai accounted for 20% of the wasps that emerged from mealybugs placed on CLB-treated trees. Moreover, CLB attracted another minor parasitoid, Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae: Anagyrini), which also parasitized more P. kraunhiae in the presence of CLB. All wasps that emerged from the mealybugs on control trees were Anagyrus fujikona Tachikawa, a major parasitoid of P. kraunhiae around the test location. These results demonstrated that CLB can recruit an indigenous, but 'non-natural' enemy that does not typically attack P. kraunhiae under natural conditions, as well as a minor natural enemy, for biological control of this mealybug species. © 2012 The Authors. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata © 2012 The Netherlands Entomological Society.

Hamanaka D.,Kyushu University | Norimura N.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Baba N.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Mano K.,EMINET Co. | And 3 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2011

The application of single and sequential treatments of infrared radiation (IR) heating and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation to surface decontamination was investigated in relation to extending the shelf life of fig fruits. In addition, the inactivation effects of IR heating or UV irradiation, and their sequential treatments on fig fruit related yeast were also investigated. The sequential treatment of IR heating and UV irradiation was effective in the surface decontamination of fig fruits. The fungal counts detected after sequential treatments were lower than those obtained after a single treatment or in control samples. The number of fruits damaged by the growth of mold and yeast was also reduced after 30 s IR heating followed by 30 s UV irradiation. The sequential treatment was found to be highly suitable for decontamination of fig fruit surface, since few unfavorable effects were observed with regard to the surface color, hardness score, and respiration of fruits during storage. Single treatment with IR heating or UV irradiation had little effect on the inactivation of isolated Rhodotorula mucilaginosa cells. However, R. mucilaginosa cells were successfully inactivated by sequential treatment with IR and UV. The killing efficiencies appeared to be independent of the order in which IR heating and UV irradiation were applied to the samples. It was hypothesized that the DNA damage caused by UV irradiation and the inhibition of its repair might be enhanced by the thermal energy of IR heating to a sub-lethal level, since the temperature monitored during IR heating was considerably lower than the lethal level of R. mucilaginosa cells. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Li J.-C.,Okayama University | Yamaguchi S.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Kondo Y.,Okayama University | Funahashi H.,Okayama University
Theriogenology | Year: 2011

The objective was to examine the effects of caffeine, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, and heparin on the chemotaxis and/or phagocytosis of PMNs for porcine sperm. The chemotactic activity of PMNs, determined in a blind well chamber, increased (P < 0.05) when fresh serum was added to the medium (control containing BSA, 1109.5 cells/mm2 vs serum, 1226.3 cells/mm2), regardless of the presence of sperm (control, 1121.1 cells/mm2 vs serum, 1245.8 cells/mm2), whereas heat-inactivated serum did not affect activity (without sperm, 1099.4 cells/mm2 and with sperm, 1132.6 cells/mm2). Regardless of live and dead sperm and of the origin of PMNs (boars vs sows), the phagocytotic activity of PMNs, as determined by co-culture of PMNs with sperm for 60 min, increased (P < 0.05) in the presence of fresh serum containing active complement (46.7 and 43.0%, respectively), but stimulation was decreased (P < 0.05) when 1 mM or higher concentrations of caffeine was added to the medium (from 40.7 to 20.8-31.6%). The origin of PMNs (sows vs boars) did not significantly affect phagocytotic activity. The percentage of PMNs that phagocytized polystyrene latex beads decreased when 2 mM caffeine was added to the medium containing porcine serum (from 43.7 to 21.5%). Serum-stimulated chemotactic activity of PMNs (1089.9 cells/mm2) was also reduced (P < 0.05) with 2 mM caffeine (942.5 cells/mm2). Furthermore, dibutyryl cAMP at ≥ 0.1 mM or heparin at ≥ 100 μg/mL decreased phagocytotic activity, in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Supplementation of PMNs with heparin at 100 or 500 μg/mL decreased (P < 0.05) chemotactic activity in the presence of serum (from 1137.1 cells/mm2 to 1008.8-1026.3 cells/mm2). We inferred that opsonization in the presence of active complement stimulated phagocytotic and chemotactic activities of PMNs, whereas supplementation with caffeine and dibutyryl cAMP (which could be associated with the intracellular cAMP level of PMNs) or adding heparin decreased serum-stimulated phagocytotic and chemotactic activities. © 2011.

Shiraishi M.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Fujishima H.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Chijiwa H.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center
Euphytica | Year: 2010

Variations in the sugar, organic acid, and amino acid composition of table grape berries were determined in three successive years in 129 grape cultivars. Three regional groups were represented among these cultivars; European, North American, and Japanese. All cultivars are conserved at the Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center in Japan. Three representative ripe average-sized bunches were selected from one vine per cultivar. Ripeness was judged by visual observation of seed color change to dark brown, without senescence of berry tissue. Soluble solids content (SSC) was weakly correlated with other berry traits, but strongly correlated with total sugar content. Genotypic variance (σg 2) was significant for all berry traits, especially for α ratio (sugar composition) and γ ratio (amino acid composition). The yearly effect (σy 2) was significant for SSC, total sugar content, and total amino acid content but not for α ratio, titratable acidity, β ratio (organic acid composition) and γ ratio. Repeatabilities over the 3 years were very high for α ratio and γ ratio, while they were low for SSC, total sugar content, titratable acidity, β ratio, and amino acid content. Correlation coefficients between the values of each individual year and the 3-year mean were relatively high for the α ratio and γ ratio. We highlight the varietal differences in the α ratio and γ ratio because of the low environmental variation. Two types of grape were distinguished on the basis of sugar composition: hexose accumulators (α ratio ≥ 0.81) and sucrose accumulators (α ratio ≤ 0.80). The hexose- and sucrose-accumulating traits were related to genetic or regional differences. Cultivars were classified into five types on the basis of the γ ratio. Like the α ratio, variation in the γ ratio is closely related to cultivar parentage and regional differences. Vitis vinifera cultivars exhibited a skewed distribution with a γ ratio below 1.0 because they contain low levels of sweet amino acids. In contrast, the γ ratio frequently exceeded 1.5 in American hybrid cultivars because they contain high levels of sweet amino acids. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

Purnomo A.S.,Kyushu University | Purnomo A.S.,Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology | Koyama F.,Kyushu University | Koyama F.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of cattle manure compost (CMC) to degrade 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT). DDT was degraded during composting and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) was detected as a metabolic product. Degradation of DDT at 60. °C was the most effective of all the stages of composting. Fourteen strains of fungi were isolated and identified from CMC, and most of them were closely related to Mucor circinelloides and Galactomyces geotrichum. These fungi demonstrated a high ability to degrade DDT both at 30 and 60. °C in potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium. DDD and 4,4-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP) were detected as metabolic products. Degradation of DDT-contaminated soil was also investigated. Composting materials in the mesophilic stage exhibited the highest ability to degrade DDT in un-sterilized (USL) contaminated soil during a 28. d incubation period. The isolated fungi possessed the ability to degrade DDT in sterilized (SL) and un-sterilized (USL) soils. These results indicated that CMC contains fungi that can be potentially used for bioremediation in DDT-contaminated environments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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