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Chikushino-shi, Japan

Li J.-C.,Okayama University | Yamaguchi S.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Funahashi H.,Okayama University
Theriogenology | Year: 2012

The objective was to determine the effects of boar seminal plasma and hen's egg yolk on chemotaxis and phagocytosis of porcine and bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in vitro. Chemotactic activity of PMNs was determined following culture for 90 min in a blind well chamber. Phagocytosis was assayed after co-culture of PMNs with sperm for 60 min. In the presence of ≥ 5% boar seminal plasma, chemotactic activity of PMNs was reduced (P < 0.05) in both pigs (from 1126.1 to 934.2-1009.1 cells/mm 2) and in cows (from 1067.1 to 768.9-800.0 cells/mm 2). Furthermore, ≥ 5% boar seminal plasma reduced (P < 0.05) leukocyte phagocytosis in pigs (26.2-32.1%) and cows (27.2-30.0%) compared to controls (41.7 and 42.1%, respectively). Although 20% hen's egg yolk increased (P < 0.05) chemotactic activity of PMNs in pigs (from 790.4 to 1006.1 cells/mm 2) and cows (from 789.9 to 953.5 cells/mm 2), egg yolk increased (P < 0.05) phagocytotic activity of porcine PMNs (from 24.3 to 33.8%), but not the activity of bovine PMNs (15.1 vs 15.8% in controls). Boar seminal plasma and caffeine reduced (P < 0.05) the egg yolk-induced increase in chemotaxis in both species (from 988.6 to 795.2 or 813.2 cells/mm 2 in pigs and from 953.5 to 779.4 or 833.8 cells/mm 2 in cows), and phagocytotic activities of PMN (from 33.8% to 15.2 or 13.3%) only in pigs (but not in cows; 11.2-15.1%). In conclusion, hen's egg yolk increased chemotactic activity of PMNs in both pigs and cows, whereas egg yolk increased only phagocytosis of PMNs in pigs, but not in cows. Even in the presence of egg yolk, boar seminal plasma and caffeine significantly reduced chemotactic activity of PMNs in pigs and cows, and phagocytotic activity of porcine PMNs. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


We have reported that artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed boar semen supplemented with caffeine increased the number of uterine sperm by inhibiting the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the uterine lumen, thereby improving the fertility of gilts and sows. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of the addition of the antioxidant beta-mercaptoethanol (bME) and caffeine to the thawing solution on the function of frozen-thawed sperm, on the phagocytic activity of PMNs for sperm, and on the fertility of sows after AI. When frozen-thawed sperm were cultured in the presence of 25 or 50 μm bME, sperm capacitation and spontaneous acrosome reactions were inhibited (P < 0.01). There was no effect of bME on phagocytic activity of PMNs for sperm in vitro. When hormonally treated (400 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin + 200 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin) weaned sows experienced a single intrauterine insemination with frozen-thawed sperm (25 × 10 8 sperm per 50 ml dose) 40 h after subsequent hCG administration, pregnancy and farrowing rates were unaffected by the addition of 50 μm bME (pregnancy rate, 20 vs 21% in controls; farrowing rate, 20 vs 21%; n = 15 and 14, respectively). However, litter size tended to be higher than in the presence of 50 μm bME compared to its absence (10.0 ± 1.0 vs 5.7 ± 1.5, respectively; P < 0.07). Thus, the addition of bME to the thawing solution containing caffeine could be of benefit for improving the function of frozen-thawed sperm without influencing the phagocytic activity of PMNs for sperm. Although there were no statistically significant effects of bME on pregnancy or farrowing rates, the litter size tended to be higher in the sows subjected to a fixed-time single AI treatment with synchronized ovulation. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.. Source


Purnomo A.S.,Kyushu University | Purnomo A.S.,Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology | Koyama F.,Kyushu University | Koyama F.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of cattle manure compost (CMC) to degrade 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT). DDT was degraded during composting and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) was detected as a metabolic product. Degradation of DDT at 60. °C was the most effective of all the stages of composting. Fourteen strains of fungi were isolated and identified from CMC, and most of them were closely related to Mucor circinelloides and Galactomyces geotrichum. These fungi demonstrated a high ability to degrade DDT both at 30 and 60. °C in potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium. DDD and 4,4-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP) were detected as metabolic products. Degradation of DDT-contaminated soil was also investigated. Composting materials in the mesophilic stage exhibited the highest ability to degrade DDT in un-sterilized (USL) contaminated soil during a 28. d incubation period. The isolated fungi possessed the ability to degrade DDT in sterilized (SL) and un-sterilized (USL) soils. These results indicated that CMC contains fungi that can be potentially used for bioremediation in DDT-contaminated environments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Tabata J.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Teshiba M.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Shimizu N.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Sugie H.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences
Journal of Essential Oil Research | Year: 2015

A characteristic constituent of lavender essential oils, lavandulol (2-isopropenyl-5-methyl-4-hexen-1-ol), and its relatives have been frequently discovered in the pheromones of mealybugs. Synthetic pheromones to interfere with their mate-finding communication are a potential management tool for these pests. The sex pheromone of the Japanese mealybug (Planococcus kraunhiae) is 2-isopropyliden-5-methyl-4-hexen-1-yl butyrate (isolavandulyl butyrate), and its alcohol moiety can easily be synthesized from lavandulol by means of acid-promoted double-bond migration. In this study, we synthesized isolavandulyl butyrate from natural lavandulol without isolating it from lavender essential oil. The resulting oil included both the pheromone and insect repellants, and the oils attractiveness was inferior to that of pure synthetic pheromone. However, the lavender oil-derived pheromone displayed a copulation-interference performance equivalent to that of the pure pheromone when large amounts were released around mealybug colonies. This study proposes a unique strategy for mealybug management using the pheromone derived from lavender essential oil. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source


Shimizu N.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center | Tsutsumi T.,Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center
Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2011

We investigated the attractiveness of adult males of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Linnaeus) and the oriental green stink bug, N. antennata Scott in the field in Fukuoka Prefecture in 2008 and 2009. In traps baited with males of N. viridula, adult males and females of N. antennata in addition to adults of N. viridula were captured. Similarly, in traps baited with males of N. antennata, adult males and females of N. viridula in addition to adults of N. antennata were captured. These results indicate that adult males of N. viridula and N. antennata emit pheromones and attract not only conspecifics but also individuals of other species. Source

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