Ohta S.,Fukui Prefectural University
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2017
Aegilops geniculata Roth, a wild relative of wheat (2n = 4x = 28, genome UUMM), is distributed over the Mediterranean basin and nearby areas. The species consists of two subspecies, subsp. geniculata and subsp. gibberosa (Zhuk.) Hammer. The former is distributed over the whole species area and has been genetically analyzed, and the latter is endemic to Spain and North Africa and has not been genetically evaluated. In this study, to clarify the genetic variation and delineation of the two subspecies from a biosystematic viewpoint, morphological variation among 23 accessions of subsp. geniculata and three of subsp. gibberosa and chromosome pairing at meiosis and fertility in their intra- and inter-subspecific F1 hybrids were examined. A principal component analysis based on the 11 spike characteristics clearly divided the 26 accessions into two groups representing the two subspecies. The inter-subspecific F1 hybrids showed significantly lower frequencies of chromosome pairing, significantly higher frequencies of multivalents, and significantly lower fertilities relative to those of the intra-subspecific F1 hybrids. It was concluded that wide-ranging cytogenetic variation is included in subsp. geniculata, that subsp. gibberosa, the intra-subspecific variation of which is small, is morphologically and cytogenetically differentiated from subsp. geniculata beyond the range of the intra-subspecific variation of subsp. geniculata, and that the two subspecies are effectively isolated reproductively by hybrid sterility. The results strongly suggested that western North Africa is one of the important diversity centers of Ae. geniculata, where two subspecies were differentiated in the past and grow together in the present. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
Murakami S.,Fukui Prefectural University
Life Sciences | Year: 2017
Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. It is established that obesity is a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, which is characterized by enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and marked changes in the secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. The effects of taurine on the pathogenesis of obesity have been reported in animals and humans. Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-obesity action of taurine remain to be defined, taurine seems to ameliorate obesity through stimulation of energy expenditure, modulation of lipid metabolism, anorexic effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Recent studies revealed that taurine supplementation reduces the infiltration of macrophages and modulates the polarization of adipose tissue macrophages in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. In addition, taurine downregulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by adipocytes, suggesting that taurine plays an anti-inflammatory role in adipose tissue. This article reviews the effects and mechanisms of taurine on the development of obesity, focusing on the role of taurine in white adipose tissue. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.
JNC Corporation and Fukui Prefectural University | Date: 2013-01-09
The invention provides a promoter derived from a genome of an actinomycete, Streptomyces species, and can specifically induce expression of a transgene in an actinomycete, Streptomyces species, in and after a logarithmic growth phase, and an actinomycete host having a high secondary metabolite production ability and a high precursor supply ability in and after the logarithmic growth phase, and a method for producing useful substances in which the promoter and the actinomycete host are combined.
Kokita T.,Fukui Prefectural University |
Nohara K.,Fukui Prefectural University |
Nohara K.,Japan National Research Institute of Fisheries And Environment of Inland Sea
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2011
Phylogeographical patterns of marine and diadromous organisms are often influenced by dynamic ocean histories. For example, the marine realm around the Japanese Archipelago is an interesting area for phylogeographical research because of the wide variation in the environments driven by repeated shifts in sea level in the Quaternary. We analysed mitochondrial cyt b gene and nuclear myh6 gene sequences for individuals collected from throughout the range of the anadromous fish Leucopsarion petersii to assess the lineage divergence, phylogeographical pattern and historical demography in relation to geological history and oceanographic features around the archipelago. Leucopsarion petersii has two major lineages (the Japan Sea and Pacific Ocean lineages), which diverged during the late-early to middle Pleistocene. Geographical distributions of the two lineages were closely related to the pathways of the two warm currents, the Tsushima Current and the Kuroshio Current, that flow past the archipelago. Evidence of introgressive hybridization between these lineages was found at two secondary contact zones. Demographic tests suggested that the Japan Sea and Pacific Ocean lineages carried the genetic signal of different historical demographic processes, and these signals are probably associated with differences in habitat stability during recent glacial periods. The Japan Sea lineage has a larger body-size and more vertebrae, probably in relation to severe habitat conditions through Pleistocene climatic oscillations. Thus, the two lineages have long independent evolutionary histories, and the phylogeographical structure and demography of this species have been influenced both by historical events and the present-day oceanography around the Japanese Archipelago. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Miura K.,Fukui Prefectural University |
Ashikari M.,Nagoya University |
Matsuoka M.,Nagoya University
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2011
Food shortages have once again become a serious problem, not only because of world population growth but also as a result of escalating demand for crops as a substrate for biofuels. The production of improved plant varieties, especially major crops such as rice, is urgently required to increase yield. The completion of the sequencing of the rice genome has made it possible to clone and analyze quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Furthermore, the development of high-throughput sequencing and genotyping technologies has improved spectacularly the accuracy of QTL analysis. In this review article, we focus on the potential roles of major QTLs in the selection for agronomic traits in rice and discuss the application of high-throughput technologies for high-resolution genetic analysis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Ikeda T.,Fukui Prefectural University
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2012
A mediated amperometric enzyme electrode, which is constructed by immobilizing an enzyme behind a semipermeable membrane on the surface of a carbon paste electrode containing a mediator compound, has allowed a variety of bioelectrochemical studies in both applied and fundamental aspects such as biosensors, biofuel cells, and enzyme kinetics. This paper describes such bioelectrochemical studies in which we have been involved in these 40 years. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Nakamura T.K.,Fukui Prefectural University
Progress of Theoretical Physics | Year: 2012
It has been shown three different views in relativistic thermodynamics can be derived from the basic formulation proposed by van Kampen and Israel. The way to decompose energy-momentum into work and heat is not uniquely determined; the different choices result in different views. Also the definition of three dimensional volume causes ambiguity of thermodynamical quantities. The present paper shows various theories are obtained depending on the choice of these two factors. Copyright © Progress of Theoretical Physics 2012 All rights reserved.
Hamano Y.,Fukui Prefectural University
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011
ε-Poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) consists of 25-35 L-lysine residues with linkages between theα-carboxyl groups and the ε-amino groups. It exhibits antimicrobial activity against a spectrum of microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. Because of its high levels of safety and biodegradability, it is used as a food preservative in several countries. We recently identified an ε-PL synthetase (Pls) as a membrane protein,and investigated the catalytic mechanism. Pls was found to be an unusual non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-like peptide synthetase producing ε-PL with chain-length diversity. In addition, transcriptional analysis of pls and a kinetic study of Pls further suggested that the Pls catalytic function is regulated by intracellular ATP, high levels of which are required for full enzymatic activity. Furthermore, it was found that acidic pH conditions during ε-PL fermentation are necessary for the accumulation of intracellular ATP, rather than inhibition of the ε-PL-degrading enzyme.
Matsuoka Y.,Fukui Prefectural University
Plant and Cell Physiology | Year: 2011
The evolution of the polyploid Triticum wheats is distinctive in that domestication, natural hybridization and allopolyploid speciation have all had significant impacts on their diversification. In this review, I outline the phylogenetic relationships of cultivated wheats and their wild relatives and provide an overview of the recent progress and remaining issues in understanding the genetic and ecological factors that favored their evolution. An attempt is made to view the evolution of the polyploid Triticum wheats as a continuous process of diversification that was initiated by domestication of tetraploid emmer wheat and driven by various natural events ranging from interploidy introgression via hybridization to allopolyploid speciation of hexaploid common wheat, instead of viewing it as a group of discrete evolutionary processes that separately proceeded at the tetraploid and hexaploid levels. This standpoint underscores the important role of natural hybridization in the reticulate diversification of the tetraploid-hexaploid Triticum wheat complex and highlights critical, but underappreciated, issues that concern the allopolyploid speciation of common wheat. © 2011 The Author.
Mori Y.,Fukui Prefectural University
Archives of microbiology | Year: 2013
This study investigated the spatiotemporal abundance and diversity of the α-subunit of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) in the meromictic Lake Suigetsu for assessing the sulfur-oxidizing bacterial community. The density of dsrA in the chemocline reached up to 3.1 × 10(6) copies ml(-1) in summer by means of quantitative real-time PCR and it was generally higher than deeper layers. Most of the dsrA clones sequenced were related to green sulfur bacteria such as Chlorobium phaeovibrioides, C. limicola, and C. luteolum. Below the chemocline of the lake, we also detected other dsrA clones related to the purple sulfur bacterium Halochromatium salexigens and some branching lineages of diverse sequences that were related to chemotrophic sulfur bacterial species such as Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense, Candidatus Ruthia magnifica, and Candidatus Thiobios zoothamnicoli. The abundance and community compositions of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria changed depending on the water depth and season. This study indicated that the green sulfur bacteria dominated among sulfur-oxidizing bacterial population in the chemocline of Lake Suigetsu and that certain abiotic environmental variables were important factors that determined sulfur bacterial abundance and community structure.