Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station

Fukui-shi, Japan

Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station

Fukui-shi, Japan
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Teixeira da Silva J.A.,Kagawa University | Shinoyama H.,Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station | Aida R.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Matsushita Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 2 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

Chrysanthemum is globally the second most important ornamental in terms of socioeconomic importance. Even though the vast range of flower colors, shapes and forms were initially created using conventional and mutation breeding, transgenic strategies are now more frequently used with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation being the most popular form of introducing foreign genes into chrysanthemums. Even so, transformation efficiency remains dependent on cultivar and regeneration procedure. Transgenic molecular breeding has seen the introduction of important traits such as novel flower color and form and plant architecture, prolonged cut-flower vase-life, resistance to biotic stresses such as viruses/viroids, pathogens and insects. However, chimerism and transgene silencing continue to be limiting factors. Transgenic strategies, despite opening up new avenues for creating new cultivars with improved agronomic and horticultural traits, may be limited due to the risk of transgenic pollen escaping into the wild. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Ishimaru T.,International Rice Research Institute | Ishimaru T.,Japan International Research Center for Agricultural science | Hirabayashi H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Sasaki K.,University of Tokyo | And 3 more authors.
Plant Production Science | Year: 2016

Global warming is predicted to aggravate the risk of unstable crop production. It is of great concern that damage to rice spikelet sterility and grain quality will increase, resulting in yield and economic losses. To secure the global food supply and farmers’ income, the development of rice cultivars with heat resilience is a pressing concern. Regarding spikelet sterility, rice cultivars with heat tolerance at different growth stages have been identified in recent years. The early-morning flowering (EMF) trait is effective in heat escape because it shifts the time of day of flowering to earlier in the morning when it is cooler. Although varietal differences are very small, there are some genetic resources for EMF in wild rice accessions. Regarding heat-induced grain chalkiness, heat-tolerant Japonica-type cultivars for mitigating white-back type of chalky grains (WBCG) were found. Quantitative trait loci for heat tolerance at flowering, EMF, and for WBCG in grain quality have been mapped on the rice chromosomes. Further genetic efforts have been successfully connected to the development of near-isogenic lines for each trait with tagged molecular markers. These breeding materials are quite unique and useful in facilitating marker-assisted breeding toward the development of heat-resilient rice in terms of spikelet sterility and grain quality. © 2016 The Author(s).


Shinoyama H.,Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station | Aida R.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Ichikawa H.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Nomura Y.,Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station | Mochizuki A.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences
Plant Biotechnology | Year: 2012

We give an overview of the advances of an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system, clarifying its problems and their solutions, and then show the latest version of our transformation system and examples of the introduction of agronomically important traits into chrysanthemums. Typical problems with the Agrobacterium- mediated transformation in chrysanthemum include low transformation efficiency, high chimerism and cultivar specificity. Using a co-cultivation medium containing acetosyringone and casamino acids for high transformation efficiency and an antibioticselection step for transgenic calli before plant regeneration to eliminate the chimerism, we established an efficient and stable transformation system for chrysanthemum. In addition, this system was used to successfully introduce useful agronomical traits, such as insect resistance and new flower color, into chrysanthemums. These traits have been stably and highly expressed to confer the expected characteristics upon the transgenic chrysanthemums. Before applying a field trial of the genetically modified (GM) chrysanthemums, male and female sterility were introduced into the transformants to exclude the transgene flow from the GM plants to their wild relatives. So far, using RNAi technology, some of the transgenic chrysanthemums have displayed complete male sterility with very weak female fertility. © 2012 The Japanese Society for Plant Cell and Molecular Biology.


Shinoyama H.,Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station | Sano T.,University of Tsukuba | Saito M.,Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station | Ezura H.,University of Tsukuba | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) is one of the most popular ornamental flowers in the world, and many agronomic traits have recently been introduced to chrysanthemum cultivars by gene transformation. Concerns have been raised, however, regarding transgene flow from transgenic plants to wild plants. In early studies, ethylene receptor genes have been used for genetic modification in plants, such as flower longevity and fruit ripening. Recently, overexpression of ethylene receptor genes from melon (CmETR1/H69A) caused delayed tapetum degradation of the anther sac and a reduction in pollen grains. We therefore introduced the ethylene receptor gene into chrysanthemums to induce male sterility and prevent transgene flow via pollen. The chrysanthemum cultivar Yamate shiro was transformed using a disarmed strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, EHA105, carrying the binary vector pBIK102H69A, which contains the CmETR1/H69A gene. A total of 335 shoots were regenerated from 1,282 leaf discs on regeneration medium (26. 1%). The presence of the Cm-ETR1/H69A gene was confirmed in all of the regenerated plantlets by Southern blot analysis. These genetically modified (GM) plants and their non-GM counterparts were grown in a closed greenhouse and flowered at temperatures between 10 and 35°C. In 15 of the 335 GM chrysanthemum lines, the number of mature pollen grains was significantly reduced, particularly in three of the lines (Nos. 91, 191 and 324). In these three lines, pollen grains were not observed at temperatures between 20 and 35°C but were observed at 10 and 15°C, and mature pollen grains were formed only at 15°C. In northern blot analyses, expression of the CmETR1/H69A gene was suppressed at low temperatures. This phenomenon was observed as a result of both the suppression of CmETR1/H69A expression at low temperatures and the optimal growth temperature of chrysanthemums (15-20°C). Furthermore, the female fertility of these three GM lines was significantly lower than that of the non-GM plants. Thus, the mutated ethylene receptor is able to reduce both male and female fertility significantly in transgenic chrysanthemums, although the stability of male and/or female sterility at varying growth temperatures is a matter of concern for its practical use. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Kobayashi A.,Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station | Sonoda J.,Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development | Sugimoto K.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Kondo M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 6 more authors.
Breeding Science | Year: 2013

Decline in the apparent quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain due to high temperatures during ripening recently became a major concern in many areas in Japan. The occurrence of white-back kernels (WBK) is one of the main problems of heat-induced quality decline. We identified QTLs associated with the occurrence of WBK using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and verified their effects using near-isogenic lines (NILs). The QTL analysis used F7 and F8 RILs derived from 'Hana-echizen' (HE), which is tolerant to high temperature, × 'Niigata-wase' (NW), which is sensitive to high temperature. Four QTLs were identified on chromosomes 3, 4, 6, and 9 (qWB3, qWB4, qWB6 and qWB9). To verify the effects of qWB6 and qWB9, we developed two NILs in which qWB6 or both were introduced from HE into the NW background. The HE allele at qWB6 significantly decreased WBK under multiple environments. The combination of qWB6 and qWB9 in an F2 population derived from a cross between a NIL and NW showed that the NW allele at qWB9 significantly decreased WBK if the qWB6 allele was HE. These results will be of value in marker-assisted selection for the breeding of rice with tolerance to heat-induced quality decline.


Skaptsov M.,Altai State University | Kutsev M.,Altai State University | Filipenko M.,Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine | Khrapov E.,Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine | Shinoyama H.,Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2016

Detergents represent a unique class of chemical compounds. They can alter surface and interphase bonds, and form micellar systems. These detergent properties allow to alter wettability of surfaces, stabilize or destabilize dispersed systems, and modify the properties of liquid phases. Therefore, the use of detergents is virtually unlimited in chemical synthesis and processing, medicine, biological systems and agricultural biology. The article includes the studies of the feasibility of application of 1,1,1,3,5,5,5-heptamethyltrisiloxane modified by polyalkylene oxide in combination with allyloxypolyethyleneglycol in the ratio of 10:1 as a detergent for agrobacterialmediated transformation. Tween 20 detergent was used as a means of control in the concentration of 5%. As a result of histochemical analysis of transformed tissues, a significant difference was determined in expression of beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. The study of gene expression by calculating the relative content of mRNA showed that the initial number of mRNA copies of genetic makers transfected by co-culturing in a liquid medium with addition of Tween 20 is on the average 32% lower than when using modified heptamethyltrisiloxane. © Copyright 2016 Trans Tech Publications Ltd, Switzerland.


Matsushima R.,Okayama University | Maekawa M.,Okayama University | Kusano M.,University of Tsukuba | Kusano M.,RIKEN | And 6 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2016

Starch is a biologically and commercially important polymer of glucose. Starch is organized into starch grains (SGs) inside amyloplasts. The SG size differs depending on the plant species and is one of the most important factors for industrial applications of starch. There is limited information on genetic factors regulating SG sizes. In this study, we report the rice (Oryza sativa) mutant substandard starch grain6 (ssg6), which develops enlarged SGs in endosperm. Enlarged SGs are observed starting at 3 d after flowering. During endosperm development, a number of smaller SGs appear and coexist with enlarged SGs in the same cells. The ssg6 mutation also affects SG morphologies in pollen. The SSG6 gene was identified by map-based cloning and microarray analysis. SSG6 encodes a protein homologous to aminotransferase. SSG6 differs from other rice homologs in that it has a transmembrane domain. SSG6-green fluorescent protein is localized in the amyloplast membrane surrounding SGs in rice endosperm, pollen, and pericarp. The results of this study suggest that SSG6 is a novel protein that controls SG size. SSG6 will be a useful molecular tool for future starch breeding and applications. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.


Hayashi T.,Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station | Kobayashi A.,Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station | Tomita K.,Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station | Shimizu T.,Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station
Breeding Science | Year: 2015

We developed and evaluated the effectiveness of a new method to detect differences among rice cultivars in their resistance to kernel cracking. The method induces kernel cracking under laboratory controlled condition by moisture absorption to brown rice. The optimal moisture absorption conditions were determined using two japonica cultivars, ‘Nipponbare’ as a cracking-resistant cultivar and ‘Yamahikari’ as a cracking-susceptible cultivar: 12% initial moisture content of the brown rice, a temperature of 25°C, a duration of 5 h, and only a single absorption treatment. We then evaluated the effectiveness of these conditions using 12 japonica cultivars. The proportion of cracked kernels was significantly correlated with the mean 10-day maximum temperature after heading. In addition, the correlation between the proportions of cracked kernels in the 2 years of the study was higher than that for values obtained using the traditional late harvest method. The new moisture absorption method could stably evaluate the resistance to kernel cracking, and will help breeders to develop future cultivars with less cracking of the kernels. © 2015, Japanese Society of Breeding. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Breeding science | Year: 2013

Decline in the apparent quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain due to high temperatures during ripening recently became a major concern in many areas in Japan. The occurrence of white-back kernels (WBK) is one of the main problems of heat-induced quality decline. We identified QTLs associated with the occurrence of WBK using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and verified their effects using near-isogenic lines (NILs). The QTL analysis used F7 and F8 RILs derived from Hana-echizen (HE), which is tolerant to high temperature, Niigata-wase (NW), which is sensitive to high temperature. Four QTLs were identified on chromosomes 3, 4, 6, and 9 (qWB3, qWB4, qWB6 and qWB9). To verify the effects of qWB6 and qWB9, we developed two NILs in which qWB6 or both were introduced from HE into the NW background. The HE allele at qWB6 significantly decreased WBK under multiple environments. The combination of qWB6 and qWB9 in an F2 population derived from a cross between a NIL and NW showed that the NW allele at qWB9 significantly decreased WBK if the qWB6 allele was HE. These results will be of value in marker-assisted selection for the breeding of rice with tolerance to heat-induced quality decline.


PubMed | Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Breeding science | Year: 2015

We developed and evaluated the effectiveness of a new method to detect differences among rice cultivars in their resistance to kernel cracking. The method induces kernel cracking under laboratory controlled condition by moisture absorption to brown rice. The optimal moisture absorption conditions were determined using two japonica cultivars, Nipponbare as a cracking-resistant cultivar and Yamahikari as a cracking-susceptible cultivar: 12% initial moisture content of the brown rice, a temperature of 25C, a duration of 5 h, and only a single absorption treatment. We then evaluated the effectiveness of these conditions using 12 japonica cultivars. The proportion of cracked kernels was significantly correlated with the mean 10-day maximum temperature after heading. In addition, the correlation between the proportions of cracked kernels in the 2 years of the study was higher than that for values obtained using the traditional late harvest method. The new moisture absorption method could stably evaluate the resistance to kernel cracking, and will help breeders to develop future cultivars with less cracking of the kernels.

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