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Kōbe-shi, Japan

Tani F.,Kyoto University | Nishikawa S.,Kyoto University | Nishikawa S.,Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co. | Yokoyama I.,Kyoto University | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Immunology

We previously found that mouse inducible Hsp72 bound more extensively to lymphoblast-like lymphoid neoplastic P388D1 cells than to RAW264.7 monocyte-macrophages. In the present study, we analyzed the characteristics of the binding to P388D1 cells of recombinant HSP70 derived from different species. Recombinant mouse inducible-type Hsp72 bound extensively to P388D1cells in a saturable manner, but not to P815 mastocytoma or EL4 thymoma. Spinach Hsc70-1, highly homologous with mouse Hsp72 in the C-terminal region, also bound to P388D1 cells. In contrast, significant binding was not observed for bacterial DnaK derived from Lactobacillus acidophilus and Escherichia coli which have relatively little homology in this region. Analyses of surface antigens showed that B220, and CD19, but not CD91, LOX-1, and CD40, the HSP70 receptors reported so far, were present on P388D1 cells, suggesting a B-cell lineage for this cell line. A similar discrimination of the diversity between mouse Hsp72 and bacterial DnaK occurred for CD19+ B cells derived from mouse spleen, Peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes. The binding of HSP70 to P388D1 cells was partially, but significantly, antagonized by fucoidan and maleylated BSA, implying a few types of scavenger receptors to be responsible for the binding of HSP70 to this cell line. Furthermore, photo-affinity labeling revealed several membrane protein candidates larger than 110kDa to be involved in the recognition of HSP70 molecules. Using a NF-κB-luciferase reporter assay, we found that exogenous HSP70 did not stimulate NF-κB-dependent signal transduction in P388D1 cells. It thus follows that lymphoid neoplastic P388D1 cells express membrane protein candidates that discriminate among the C-terminal sequences of the HSP70 family. The present results indicate that several types of cells in the innate immune system may distinguish among the phylogenetically specific signals in protein molecules. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

In soybean, a number of biologically active, and thus beneficial, substances have been identified; including isoflavone, lecithin, and saponin. Some of these are currently being marketed because their health promoting functions have been publicly approved. Moreover, recent evidence has accumulated suggesting that soybeans could contain other unused compounds with valuable functions as food additives. In this review, we focus on black soybean seed coat polyphenols (BSCP) and pinitol (PI). BSCP mainly consists of procyanidin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, and epicatechin, which are all well known for their antioxidant properties. Procyanidin represents a group of oligomeric compounds formed from catechin and epicatechin molecules. BSCP is characterized by its specific composition of procyanidin, and is particularly rich in smaller oligomer forms. It is thought that procyanidin oligomer size is inversely correlated to bioavailability. PI (3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol) is an inositol derivative that chiefly exists in legumes and pines, and is characterized by its extremely high water-solubility. PI content in soybean seed was reported to be around 0.2% dry weight, while in soybean plant, it is one of the major low-molecular weight carbohydrates; moreover, it is very rich in soybean leaves (up to 2% of dry weight). Intriguingly, both BSCP and PI exert anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects. However, they have been under-utilized mainly due to a lack of efficient methods for stable and effective handling. Here we discuss both plausible mechanisms that could enable the exertion of beneficial functions and recent developments in their preparation from raw materials. Source

Kanamoto Y.,Kobe University | Yamashita Y.,Kobe University | Nanba F.,Fujicco Co. | Yoshida T.,Fujicco Co. | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Black soybean seed coat extract (BE) is a polyphenol-rich food material consisting of 9.2% cyanidin 3-glucoside, 6.2% catechins, 39.8% procyanidins, and others. This study demonstrated that BE ameliorated obesity and glucose intolerance by up-regulating uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and down-regulating inflammatory cytokines in C57BL/6 mice fed a control or high-fat diet containing BE for 14 weeks. BE suppressed fat accumulation in mesenteric adipose tissue, reduced the plasma glucose level, and enhanced insulin sensitivity in the high-fat diet-fed mice. The gene and protein expression levels of UCP-1 in brown adipose tissue and UCP-2 in white adipose tissue were up-regulated by BE. Moreover, the gene expression levels of major inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were remarkably decreased by BE in white adipose tissue. BE is a beneficial food material for the prevention of obesity and diabetes by enhancing energy expenditure and suppressing inflammation. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Yoshikawa T.,Kyoto University | Yoshikawa T.,University of Tokyo | Okumoto Y.,Kyoto University | Ogata D.,Kyoto University | And 12 more authors.
Breeding Science

Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) isoflavones have attracted considerable attention for their diverse effects on human health. To determine the genetic factors that contribute to the high isoflavone contents of the soybean varieties 'Peking' and 'Tamahomare', we conducted QTL analyses for the total content of daidzein derivatives (DAC), genistein derivatives (GEC) and glycitein derivatives (GLC), and for the total content of isoflavones (TIC) using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between 'Peking' and 'Tamahomare'. Ninety six RILs were planted in Kyoto, Osaka and Nagano in 2003 and in Osaka and Nagano in 2004. Transgressive segregation for TIC was detected in all the environments tested. Composite interval mapping for TIC revealed four QTLs: qIso1, qIso2, qIso3 and qIso4, located on LG-A1 (Chr.5), LG-A2 (Chr.8), LG-C1 (Chr.4) and LG-D2 (Chr.17), respectively. The high-isoflavone alleles were derived from Peking at qIso1 and qIso4 and from Tamahomare at qIso2 and qIso3. Several other groups have already reported the former two QTLs, but qIso2 and qIso3 are new discoveries. Our results indicate that the large variation in TIC measurements observed in the RILs could have resulted from the combined effects of alleles at the four QTLs derived from distantly related varieties. Source

Jin J.S.,RIKEN | Touyama M.,RIKEN | Kibe R.,RIKEN | Tanaka Y.,RIKEN | And 12 more authors.
Beneficial Microbes

The intestinal microbiota composition of 92 volunteers living in Japan was identified following the consumption of 'identical meals' (1,879 kcal/day) for 3 days. When faecal samples were analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism with several primer-restriction enzyme systems and then clustered, the patterns could be divided into 2 clusters. Contribution tests and partition modelling showed that OTU211 of the 35f-MspI system and OTU237 of the 35f-AluI system were key factors in the distribution of these groups. However, significant differences among these groups in terms of body mass index and age were not observed. ©2013 Wageningen Academic Publishers. Source

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