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Wu S.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Wu S.,Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research | Wu S.,Fujian Medical University | Qiu Y.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 9 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of first-line antiretroviral therapy in HIV/AIDS patients in Southeast China. A total of 450 eligible patients were selected to initiate first-line antiretroviral therapy from February 2005 through August 2009. During the study period from 2009 through 2013, each subject received clinical and laboratory monitoring for effectiveness, safety and toxicity once every 3 months in the first year, and once every 6 months in the following years. The response to first-line antiretroviral therapy was evaluated through body weight gain and immunological and virological outcomes. During the mean follow-up period of 70.86 ± 28.9 months, the overall mortality was 14.2 %. The mean body weight and CD4+ counts increased significantly following antiretroviral therapy as compared to baselines across the follow-up period, and the rate of immunological effectiveness was over 85 % in all subjects at 2 to 5 years of treatment. The rate of inhibition of HIV virus was 87.67 %, 89.32 %, 91.73 %, 92.8 % and 91.63 % across the study period. In addition, significant differences were detected after treatment as compared to baselines, and Pearson correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between immunological effectiveness and viral inhibition. Forty-eight percent of the subjects changed antiretroviral drugs once, and 16.22 % twice, and 31 patients switched from first-line to second-line antiretroviral therapy. Long-term antiretroviral therapy remains effective for treatment of HIV/AIDS, resulting in higher mean body weight, effective viral inhibition and a higher CD4 count. Immunological effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy positively correlates with HIV viral inhibition. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.


Lin Q.,Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research | Li G.,Fujian Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital | Ge P.,Fujian Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital | Xu R.,Fujian Medical University | Lin G.,Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research
Chinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu) | Year: 2016

A method for the determination of trans-fatty acid isomers in human milk fat was developed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and applied to analyze TFAs in human milk fat. The fat was extracted with diethylether and petroleum ether after ammonia hydrolysis of human milk. C21: 0 internal standard and boron trifluoride methanol solution were added to the extract for fat esterification. The solution then was refluxed in 80° water bath for 15 min. Finally the trans-fatty acid methyl ester isomers were extracted with hexane, and analyzed by GC-MS. GC conditions were as follows: An HP-88 column (100 m×0.25 mm×0.2 μ m) with inlet temperature of 260°, at a split ratio of 10: 1, and a He flow rate of 1 mL/min. The initial column temperature was 140° (held for 5 min), then raised up to 240° at a rate of 4°/min (held for 15 min). The electronic ionization (EI) source energy was 70 eV, with auxiliary (AUX) temperature of 280°, ion source temperature of 230°, quadrupole temperature of 150° in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. This method can analyze the 18 TFAs. The method detection limits (MDLs) of 12 TFAs were 4.0-47.1 mg/kg, and the average recoveries were 80%-113% with the relative standard deviation (RSD, n=6) range of 2.9%-14.5%. TFAs were detected in some real samples and the contents were 9.5-46.9 mg/kg. The method is reliable and sensitive, and would be better if the background interference of fatty acids should be diminished by silver ion solid phase extraction.


Yan X.,Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research | Wu S.,Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research | Li N.,Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research | Lu H.,Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research | Fu W.,Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research
Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography / Zhongguo hua xue hui | Year: 2013

Fatty acid esters of chloropropanediols are a kinds of newly emerged food contaminants, especially 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters that have been detected in many foodstuffs such as infant formula and edible oils at relatively high levels. Based on the Tolerable Dose Intake (TDI) of 3-MCPD, the intake of 3-MCPD from 3-MCPD esters may cause the health risk to human beings. The researches for the analysis of 3-MCPD esters have been carried out in some institutes abroad, but there were only a few in China. This paper reviews the methods for the determination of 3-MCPD esters in fat-rich foods, including the extraction, hydrolysis, the derivatization of 3-MCPD esters, the total amount of 3-MCPD esters and the amounts of monoesters and diesters of 3-MCPD.


Yan Y.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Yan Y.,Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research | Yan Y.,Fujian Medical University | Wu S.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2016

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the shift in the epidemiological features of HIV/AIDS during the last three decades in Fujian Province, southeastern China, so as to provide evidence for the development of novel HIV/AIDS control strategies. Methods: Data pertaining to the conventional surveillance, sentinel surveillance and epidemiological survey in Fujian Province during the period from 1987 to 2015 were collected. The epidemiological trends were described, and the subtypes of HIV strain were genotyped. In addition, the response to antiretroviral therapy was evaluated, and HIV genotypic resistance was assayed. Results: There was an increasing trend observed in the reported cases of HIV/AIDS in Fujian Province. From 1987 to the end of 2015, a total of 8651 HIV/AIDS cases were reported across the province, with totally 1557 deaths found. Among the total cases, the ratio of male/female cases was 3.7:1, which appeared to be an increasing trend; 77.1% cases were detected in young and middle-aged populations aged 19 to 50 years, however, the new HIV infections recently tended to occur in young people aged 15 to 18 years and in populations aged 50 years and older. Among all infected individuals, 49.3% were married, however, the percentage of unmarried cases increased from 6.67% before 1994 to 40.1% in 2015; 64.8% had junior high school education or lower, however, the proportion of HIV/AIDS cases with junior college education or above gradually increased from 6.5% in 2009 to 21.4% in 2015. The reported HIV/AIDS cases were predominantly found in coastal regions; however, a rapidly increasing trend was seen in the number of HIV/AIDS cases in inland regions, and the geographical variation of the cases gradually reduced. There were multiple routes of HIV transmission found in Fujian Province, and 94.2% infections were sexually transmitted, with a large increase in the percentage of male homosexual transmission. A variety of HIV-1 subtypes were genotyped in the province during the study period, and CRF01-AE and CRF07-BC intersubtype recombinant forms were predominant; however, a declining trend in the proportion of HIV-1 CRF01-AE recombinant virus and a significant rise in the proportion of HIV-1 CRF07-BC recombinant virus were observed. Over 90% HIV inhibition was found in all cases receiving antiretroviral therapy during the period from 2011 to 2015, indicating a low prevalence of HIV drug resistance. Conclusions: An increasing trend is still observed in the HIV/AIDS epidemics in Fujian Province, southeastern China. However, the epidemiological pattern of HIV/AIDS has recently changed in the province, and effective control interventions targeting the shift in the epidemiological features of HIV/AIDS should therefore be implemented to control the spread of the epidemic. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Yan X.,Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research | Yan X.,Fuzhou University | Wu S.,Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research | Wu S.,Fuzhou University | And 5 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu) | Year: 2013

Fatty acid esters of chloropropanediols are a kinds of newly emerged food contaminants, especially 3-monochloropropane-l,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters that have been detected in many foodstuffs such as infant formula and edible oils at relatively high levels. Based on the Tolerable Dose Intake (TDI) of 3-MCPD, the intake of 3-MCPD from 3-MCPD esters may cause the health risk to human beings. The researches for the analysis of 3-MCPD esters have been carried out in some institutes abroad, but there were only a few in China. This paper reviews the methods for the determination of 3-MCPD esters in fat-rich foods, including the extraction, hydrolysis, the derivatization of 3-MCPD esters, the total amount of 3-MCPD esters and the amounts of monoesters and diesters of 3-MCPD.


Jiang D.,China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment | Chen L.,Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research | Fu W.,Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research | Qiu H.,Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2015

4,4′-Diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid based fluorescent whitening agents (DSD-FWAs) are prohibited in food-contact paper and board in many countries. In this work, a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 common DSD-FWAs in paper material. Sample preparation and extraction as well as chromatographic separation of multicomponent DSD-FWAs were successfully optimized. DSD-FWAs in prepared samples were ultrasonically extracted with acetonitrile/water/triethylamine (40:60:1, v/v/v), separated on the C18 column with the mobile phase containing tetrabutylammonium bromide, and then detected by a fluorescence detector. The limits of detection were 0.12-0.24 mg/kg, and the calibration curves showed the linear correlation (R2 ≥ 0.9994) within the range of 8.0-100 ng/mL, which was equivalent to the range of 0.80-10 mg/kg in the sample. The average recoveries and the RSDs were 81-106% and 2-9% at two fortification levels (1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) in paper bowls, respectively. The successful determination of 11 DSD-FWAs in food-contact paper and board obtained from local markets indicated that the newly developed method was rapid, accurate, and highly selective. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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