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Li F.,Nanjing University | Wang J.,Nanjing University | Nastold P.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland | Jiang B.,Fujian Provincial Academy of Environmental Science | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2014

Transformation of ring-14C-labelled tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) was studied in an oxic soil slurry with and without amendment with Sphingomonas sp. strain TTNP3, a bacterium degrading bisphenol-A. TBBPA degradation was accompanied by mineralization and formation of metabolites and bound-residues. The biotransformation was stimulated in the slurry bio-augmented with strain TTNP3, via a mechanism of metabolic compensation, although this strain did not grow on TBBPA. In the absence and presence of strain TTNP3, six and nine metabolites, respectively, were identified. The initial O-methylation metabolite (TBBPA-monomethyl ether) and hydroxytribromobisphenol-A were detected only when strain TTNP3 was present. Four primary metabolic pathways of TBBPA in the slurries are proposed: oxidative skeletal rearrangements, O-methylation, ipso-substitution, and reductive debromination. Our study provides for the first time the information about the complex metabolism of TBBPA in oxic soil and suggests that type II ipso-substitution could play a significant role in the fate of alkylphenol derivatives in the environment. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sun F.,Nanjing University | Kolvenbach B.A.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland | Nastold P.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland | Jiang B.,Fujian Provincial Academy of Environmental Science | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Contamination by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), the most widely used brominated flame retardant, is a matter of environmental concern. Here, we investigated the fate and metabolites of 14C-TBBPA in a submerged soil with an anoxic-oxic interface and planted or not with rice (Oryza sativa) and reed (Phragmites australis) seedlings. In unplanted soil, TBBPA dissipation (half-life 20.8 days) was accompanied by mineralization (11.5% of initial TBBPA) and the substantial formation (60.8%) of bound residues. Twelve metabolites (10 in unplanted soil and 7 in planted soil) were formed via four interconnected pathways: oxidative skeletal cleavage, O-methylation, type II ipso-substitution, and reductive debromination. The presence of the seedlings strongly reduced 14C-TBBPA mineralization and bound-residue formation and stimulated debromination and O-methylation. Considerable radioactivity accumulated in rice (21.3%) and reed (33.1%) seedlings, mainly on or in the roots. While TBBPA dissipation was hardly affected by the rice seedlings, it was strongly enhanced by the reed seedlings, greatly reducing the half-life (11.4 days) and increasing monomethyl TBBPA formation (11.3%). The impact of the interconnected aerobic and anaerobic transformation of TBBPA and wetland plants on the profile and dynamics of the metabolites should be considered in phytoremediation strategies and environmental risk assessments of TBBPA in submerged soils. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing University and Fujian Provincial Academy of Environmental Science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science & technology | Year: 2015

The fate of the most commonly used brominated flame retardant, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), in wastewater treatment plants is obscure. Using a (14)C-tracer, we studied TBBPA transformation in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS). During the 31-day incubation, TBBPA transformation (half-life 10.3 days) was accompanied by mineralization (17% of initial TBBPA). Twelve metabolites, including those with single benzene ring, O-methyl TBBPA ether, and nitro compounds, were identified. When allylthiourea was added to the sludge to completely inhibit nitrification, TBBPA transformation was significantly reduced (half-life 28.9 days), formation of the polar and single-ring metabolites stopped, but O-methylation was not significantly affected. Abiotic experiments confirmed the generation of mono- and dinitro-brominated forms of bisphenol A in NAS by the abiotic nitration of TBBPA by nitrite, a product of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOMs). Three biotic (type II ipso-substitution, oxidative skeletal cleavage, and O-methylation) and one abiotic (nitro-debromination) pathways were proposed for TBBPA transformation in NAS. Apart from O-methylation, AOMs were involved in three other pathways. Our results are the first to provide information about the complex metabolism of TBBPA in NAS, and they are consistent with a determining role for nitrifiers in TBBPA degradation by initiating its cleavage into single-ring metabolites that are substrates for the growth of heterotrophic bacteria.


Yu D.,Xiamen University | Yan W.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Chen N.,Xiamen University | Peng B.,Xiamen University | And 2 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2015

The global NEWS model was calibrated and then used to quantify the long term trend of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export from two tributaries of Jiulong River (SE China). Anthropogenic N inputs contributed 61-92% of river DIN yield which increased from 337 in 1980s to 1662kgNkm-2yr-1 in 2000s for the North River, and from 653 to 3097kgNkm-2yr-1 for the West River. North River and West River contributed 55% and 45% respectively of DIN loading to the estuary. Rapid development and poor management driven by national policies were responsible for increasing riverine N export. Scenario analysis and source tracking suggest that reductions of anthropogenic N inputs of at least 30% in the North River (emphasis on fertilizer and manure) and 50% in the West River (emphasis on fertilizer) could significantly improve water quality and mitigate eutrophication in both river and coastal waters. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research, Fujian Provincial Academy of Environmental Science and Xiamen University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Marine pollution bulletin | Year: 2015

The global NEWS model was calibrated and then used to quantify the long term trend of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export from two tributaries of Jiulong River (SE China). Anthropogenic N inputs contributed 61-92% of river DIN yield which increased from 337 in 1980s to 1662 kg N km(-2) yr(-1) in 2000s for the North River, and from 653 to 3097 kg N km(-2) yr(-1) for the West River. North River and West River contributed 55% and 45% respectively of DIN loading to the estuary. Rapid development and poor management driven by national policies were responsible for increasing riverine N export. Scenario analysis and source tracking suggest that reductions of anthropogenic N inputs of at least 30% in the North River (emphasis on fertilizer and manure) and 50% in the West River (emphasis on fertilizer) could significantly improve water quality and mitigate eutrophication in both river and coastal waters.


PubMed | ETH Zurich, Nanjing University and Fujian Provincial Academy of Environmental Science
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2016

Little is known about the effects of biochar on the fate and behavior of micropollutants in soil, especially in the presence of soil macrofauna. Using a 14C-tracer, we studied the fate of 2,4-dichlorophenol and phenanthrene, after 30 days in soil in the presence of a biochar (0-5%, dry weight) produced from China fir at 400 C and/or the earthworm Metaphire guillelmi. Application of the biochar significantly reduced the degradation and mineralization of both pollutants and strongly increased the accumulation of their metabolites in soil. The earthworm had no significant effects on the degradation of parent molecules of the pollutants but it significantly reduced the mineralization of the pollutants independent of the presence of the biochar. Although at an application rate of <1% the biochar strongly sorbed both pollutants, it did not significantly decrease the bioaccumulation of free dichlorophenol and phenanthrene and their metabolites by the earthworm. Our results demonstrate the complex effects of biochar on the fate, transformation, and earthworm bioaccumulation of organic pollutants in soil. They show that biochar application may not be an appropriate strategy for treating soil contaminated with hydrophobic organic pollutants and underline the importance of soil-feeding earthworms in risk assessments of biochar effects on soil remediation.


Wu H.-Z.,Fuzhou University | Qiu L.-F.,Fuzhou University | Su M.-P.,Fuzhou University | Chen Y.-M.,Fujian Provincial Academy of Environmental Science
Environment, Energy and Sustainable Development - Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Frontier of Energy and Environment Engineering, ICFEEE 2013 | Year: 2014

This paper reported a study on controlling alkalinity method in partial nitrification to produce the correct influent for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process. The start-up of the partial nitrification realized within 8 days at a high temperature (35±0.1 °C) and free ammonia (17.7 mg/L). And the bacteria were almost coccus, so the Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) affiliated to Nitrosococcus in a preliminary estimate. When the molar ratio of bicarbonate to ammonium was 1:1, the effluent of the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) could be effectively suitable for a subsequent anammox process with the molar ratio of ammonium to nitrite of 1:1. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


Wang S.,Nanjing University | Cao S.,Nanjing University | Wang Y.,Nanjing University | Jiang B.,Fujian Provincial Academy of Environmental Science | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2016

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the brominated flame retardant with the highest production volume and its bioaccumulation in environment has caused both human health and environmental concerns, however the fate and metabolism of TBBPA in plants is unknown. We studied the fate, metabolites, and transformation of 14C-labeled TBBPA in rice cell suspension culture. During the incubation for 14 days, TBBPA degradation occurred continuously in the culture, accompanied by formation of one anisolic metabolite [2,6-dibromo-4-(2-(2-hydroxy)-propyl)-anisole] (DBHPA) (50% of the degraded TBBPA) and cellular debris-bound residues (46.4%) as well as mineralization (3.6%). The cells continuously accumulated TBBPA in the cytoplasm, while a small amount of DBHPA (2.1% of the initially applied TBBPA) was detectable inside the cells only at the end of incubation. The majority of the accumulated residues in the cells was attributed to the cellular debris-bound residues, accounting for 70-79% of the accumulation after the first incubation day. About 5.4% of the accumulation was associated with cell organelles, which contributed 7.5% to the cellular debris-bound residues. Based on the fate and metabolism of TBBPA in the rice cell suspension culture, a type II ipso-substitution pathway was proposed to describe the initial step for TBBPA degradation in the culture and balance the fate of TBBPA in the cells. To the best of our knowledge, our study provides for the first time the insights into the fate and metabolism of TBBPA in plants and points out the potential role of type II ipso-hydroxylation substitution in degradation of alkylphenols in plants. Further studies are required to reveal the mechanisms for the bound-residue formation (e.g., binding of residues to specific cell wall components), nature of the binding, and toxicological effects of the bound residues and DBHPA. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Nanjing University and Fujian Provincial Academy of Environmental Science
Type: | Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) | Year: 2016

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the brominated flame retardant with the highest production volume and its bioaccumulation in environment has caused both human health and environmental concerns, however the fate and metabolism of TBBPA in plants is unknown. We studied the fate, metabolites, and transformation of (14)C-labeled TBBPA in rice cell suspension culture. During the incubation for 14 days, TBBPA degradation occurred continuously in the culture, accompanied by formation of one anisolic metabolite [2,6-dibromo-4-(2-(2-hydroxy)-propyl)-anisole] (DBHPA) (50% of the degraded TBBPA) and cellular debris-bound residues (46.4%) as well as mineralization (3.6%). The cells continuously accumulated TBBPA in the cytoplasm, while a small amount of DBHPA (2.1% of the initially applied TBBPA) was detectable inside the cells only at the end of incubation. The majority of the accumulated residues in the cells was attributed to the cellular debris-bound residues, accounting for 70-79% of the accumulation after the first incubation day. About 5.4% of the accumulation was associated with cell organelles, which contributed 7.5% to the cellular debris-bound residues. Based on the fate and metabolism of TBBPA in the rice cell suspension culture, a type II ipso-substitution pathway was proposed to describe the initial step for TBBPA degradation in the culture and balance the fate of TBBPA in the cells. To the best of our knowledge, our study provides for the first time the insights into the fate and metabolism of TBBPA in plants and points out the potential role of type II ipso-hydroxylation substitution in degradation of alkylphenols in plants. Further studies are required to reveal the mechanisms for the bound-residue formation (e.g., binding of residues to specific cell wall components), nature of the binding, and toxicological effects of the bound residues and DBHPA.


Chen Y.,Fujian Provincial Academy of Environmental Science
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

The impact of SRT on simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) in the Carrousel Oxidation Ditch was carried out based on pilot-scale to treat low COD/TN municipal sewage. The impact factor, sludge retention time (SRT), was investigated on the occurrence of SND. The experiment results showed that in the oxygen-deficient environment whose DO was 0.3 mg/L, R of 50%, MLSS of 4000 mg/L, the treatment efficiency achieved the best with SRT of 20 d, the COD, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen (TN) of effluent were lower than 32 mg/L, 5 mg/L, 13 mg/L, respectively, which was observed efficient phenomenon of SND. Overall, these results demonstrated that the Carrousel Oxidation Ditch with the occurrence of SND could have the potential to treat low C/N sewage. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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