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Fu F.,Fuzhou University | Tian B.,Fuzhou University | Lin G.,Fuzhou University | Chen Y.,Fuzhou University | Zhang J.,Fujian Environmental Monitoring Center
Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association | Year: 2010

To obtain the characteristic factors or signatures of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to help identify the sources of particulate PAHs in the atmosphere, different carbonaceous aerosols were generated by burning different fossil fuels and biomass under different conditions in the laboratory, and the chemical characteristics of 14 PAHs were studied in detail. The results showed that (1) carbonaceous aerosols derived from domestic burning of coal, diesel fuel, and gasoline have much higher concentrations of PAHs than those derived from domestic burning of biomass; (2) carbonaceous aerosols derived from domestic burning of diesel fuel/gasoline have similar PAH components as those derived from high-temperature combustion of diesel fuel/gasoline, although the former have much higher concentrations of PAHs than the latter, suggesting that the burning temperature obviously affects the emitting amount of particulate PAHs, but only slightly influences the PAHs components; and (3) the ratios of benzo[b]fluoranthene/acenaphthylene, benzo-[b]fluoranthene/fluorene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene/acenaphthylene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene/fluorine, and benzo[b]fluoranthene/benzo[k]fluoranthene in carbonaceous aerosols are sensitively dependent on their sources, indicating that these ratios are suitable for use as characteristic factors or signatures of particulate PAHs in the atmosphere. Copyright 2010 Air & Waste Management Association. Source

Lin Z.,Fuzhou University | Zhang J.,Fuzhou University | Zhang J.,Fujian Environmental Monitoring Center | Cui H.,Fuzhou University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

A novel method of microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) coupled with hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) was developed for determination of six aromatic amines including 4-methylaniline, 3-nitroaniline, 2,4-dimethylaniline, 4-chloroaniline, 3,4-dichloraniline and 4-aminobiphenyl. Baseline separation of six aromatic amines was achieved within 8. min by using the microemulsion buffer containing a 10. mM borate buffer at pH 9.0, 0.8% (v/v) ethyl acetate as oil droplets, 60. mM sodium cholate as surfactant, 5.0% (v/v) 1-butanol as co-surfactant. The influence factors relevant to the HF-LPME process were systemically investigated. The obtained enrichment factors were ranged between 70 and 157 in a 30. min extraction time, and the limits of detection ranged between 0.0021 and 0.0048 μg/mL. This purposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of aromatic amines in water sample and the recoveries were ranged from 87.2% to 99.8%. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Wang H.,Fujian Institute of Meteorological Science | Chen X.,Fujian Environmental Monitoring Center | Yu Y.,Fujian Institute of Meteorological Science | Lin C.,Fujian Institute of Meteorological Science | Bai L.,Fujian Environmental Monitoring Center
Journal of Natural Disasters | Year: 2012

Based on the observation data of ozone in near surface layer of Fuzhou urban area from 2009 to 2010, the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of ozone were studied. The correlation between ozone and related meteorological parameters, and the synoptic weather patterns which were prone to induce ozone concentrations to exceed the national air quality standard, were analyzed. Results indicate that; the ozone concentrations are higher in stations that are close to industrial zones and traffic hubs ; two peaks of ozone concentrations in a year appear in May and October respectively, and the valley appears in January. The sequence of seasonal ozone concentration distribution is autumn > summer > spring > winter. The ozone pollution days always appear in late spring and summer. Diurnal variations of ozone concentration show the characteristic of a single peak, which begin to rise obviously in the early morning and reach peak values in the afternoon, and maintain low values at night. The ozone concentration has obvious positive correlation with temperature, sunshine hours and solar radiation, and has obvious negative correlation with cloud amount, relative humidity and precipitation. Ozone concentration is high while under the influence of southern wind and eastern wind, and the probability of hourly exceedance of the national air quality standard is the highest in the SSE azimuth. The typical synoptic situations that lead the ozone concentrations to exceed the standard are weathers that are warm and unfavorable for pollutants to disperse, such as the trans formed cold high pressure, the ground inverse trough, and the warm sector ahead of fronts . Source

Wang X.,Xiamen University | Chen W.,Xiamen University | Zhang L.,Xiamen University | Guo W.,Fujian Environmental Monitoring Center
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2010

Coastal zones cover only 10% of the earth's surface but are inhabited by over 50% of the world's population and become regions with diverse, essential, and extensive economic activities. In China, to resolve the conflict between economic development and land shortage, reclaiming land from sea has become increasingly intense in many coastal cities from the 1980s. While expanding land areas for economic production of various types, construction of factories and dwellings, and increasing economic benefits, sea reclamation activities have nevertheless caused a series of negative effects on coastal ecosystems by either displacing or destroying them. Unfortunately, some decision-makers and others, such as developers, often pay more attention to short-term direct economic benefits while ignoring ecological damages and environmental degradation from sea reclamation projects. To account for those damages, therefore, it is necessary to monetarily evaluate the losses of coastal ecosystem services induced by sea reclamation activities and to integrate that information into the planning, exploitation and management decisions affecting coastal zones. Tong'an Bay, located to the north of Xiamen Island, has a sea area of 89.9 km2, featuring a half-closed sea bay with a narrow entrance exemplifies the assessment of those damages. Since 1950, the reclamation projects in Tong'an Bay have added 33.65 km2 of land. As a result of the urbanization of Tong'an district and the development of the West Side Economic Zone of the Taiwan Strait, the sea reclamation demand in Tong'an Bay continues to exist. This paper focuses on the four sea reclamation planning projects to be developed in Tong'an Bay, Xiamen. Based on the analysis of the adverse effects of sea reclamation projects on coastal ecosystems, and considering the characteristics of coastal ecosystem services, the paper establishes the monetary valuation models to estimate the losses of coastal ecosystem services associated with sea reclamation projects. The methods for building these models include: Conventional Market Approach, Replacement Value Approach, Experimental Market (Pseudo-Market) Approach, and the Benefit Transfer Approach. These models are applied to the case study of Tong'an Bay, and are used to quantify the losses of coastal ecosystem services likely to be associated with each of four planning projects. The estimated results show that the ecological losses from four planned projects would be: 1.36 × 108 yuan/a, 5.44 × 108 yuan/ a, 6.79 × 108yuan/a and 1.48 × 109 yuan/a, respectively, and the ecological losses per unit area would be 68. 65 yuan/ (m2 • a), 70. 36 yuan/(m2 • a), 72.43 yuan/(m2 • a) and 76. 84 yuan/(m2 • a), respectively. The ecological costs are larger than the project costs and they increase with the sea reclamation area. Based on the valuation results, the relevant recommendations about sea reclamation in Xiamen's bays are also provided. The conclusions are that, on the one hand, Strategic Environmental Assessment should be carried out within sea reclamation planning in order to minimize the damage on coastal ecosystem. On the other hand, the standard user fee for sea reclamation should be adjusted so that the government can optimally regulate the level of reclamation while safeguarding the sustainable development of the coastal zone. Source

Xu L.,Fujian Normal University | Chen F.,Fujian Normal University | Chen F.,Fuzhou Environmental Monitoring Station | Chen W.,Fujian Environmental Monitoring Center | And 7 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2014

Hourly data of near-ground carbon monoxide (CO) concentration of 76 cities in China in May and July 2013 were collected from Chinese government air quality-monitoring network and employed to analyze the spatial and temporal variation in the Eight Economic Regions in China. It is clear that the diurnal variations of near-ground CO concentration are consistent among 76 cities in May and July. The lowest CO concentrations appear at 5 p.m., whereas the highest CO concentrations appear at 8-10 a.m. for most cities but at 1 a.m. for cities located in the southern coastal region. However, the near-ground CO concentration distribution reveals significant seasonal variations; the CO concentrations in May are higher than that in July except for the cities in northwest region. The seasonal diversities of CO concentration in northwest region and the middle reach of the Yangtze River are much higher while that in southern coastal region is lower. It is also shown that CO concentration in middle reach of the Yellow River and northern coastal region is relatively higher and that in northeast region is relatively lower. Emission load from vehicle is one of the causes of CO spatial distribution. Source

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