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Yin F.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ruan Z.,Nanchang University | Huang R.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2012

The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro digestion rate and the in vivo digestibility of raw starches from selected cereals and tubers. Cereal starches with lower resistant starch content were easier to be digested than tuber starches. The rapid digestible starch levels in glutinous rice and oat were high and the proportions of which were 40.17% and 83.88%, respectively. The slowly digestible starch contents in cereals, Chinese yam and Chinese cassava were higher than 45.70%. The in vitro digestion of the selected raw flours increased along with the extension of incubation time, and more than 66.55% of which (except for that of taro and potato) was digested when the incubation time was extended to 6 hours. The jejunum is an important organ for the digestion and absorption of starch, and more than half of the starches in different selected flours (except for that of taro, potato and Chinese yam) was digested in distal jejunum. The digestibility of most of the selected flours, that were incubated for 6 hours, was close to the digestibility of these starches in the distal ileum of pigs. Source


Duan J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yin J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wu M.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Liao P.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with glutamic acid has beneficial effects on growth performance, antioxidant system, intestinal morphology, serum amino acid profile and the gene expression of intestinal amino acid transporters in growing swine fed mold-contaminated feed. Fifteen pigs (LandracexLarge White) with a mean body weight (BW) of 55 kg were randomly divided into control group (basal feed), mycotoxin group (contaminated feed) and glutamate group (2% glutamate+contaminated feed). Compared with control group, mold-contaminated feed decreased average daily gain (ADG) and increased feed conversion rate (FCR). Meanwhile, fed mold-contaminated feed impaired anti-oxidative system and intestinal morphology, as well as modified the serum amino acid profile in growing pigs. However, supplementation with glutamate exhibited potential positive effects on growth performance of pigs fed mold-contaminated feed, ameliorated the imbalance antioxidant system and abnormalities of intestinal structure caused by mycotoxins. In addition, dietary glutamate supplementation to some extent restored changed serum amino acid profile caused by mold-contaminated feed. In conclusion, glutamic acid may be act as a nutritional regulating factor to ameliorate the adverse effects induced by mycotoxins. Source


Zhang J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yin Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yin Y.,Wuhan Polytechnic University | He Q.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2012

Glutamate is extensively metabolized in small intestine epithelial cells during its transcellular transfer from the lumen to bloodstream and after its uptake from the bloodstream. In order to study the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) supplementation given either by the parenteral route or by the enteral route on the circulating amino acid concentrations in growing-finishing pigs, animals received MSG at a dose equal to 0.25 g/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection or by injection into the stomach. Up to 255 min, arterial and portal venous blood was collected and amino acid concentrations were measured. The results show that the glutamate concentrations in venous and arterial plasma increase rapidly after injection of MSG in stomach. However, glutamate concentration in both venous and arterial plasma was much higher after peritoneal than stomach injection. Aspartate and alanine concentrations in both venous and arterial plasma were higher after stomach than peritoneal injection. The results obtained are compatible with the view that i) a large part of glutamate in MSG is metabolized by the intestine in pigs; ii) at the dose used, MSG is, however, not entirely metabolized by the intestine and iii) glutamate metabolism in pig intestine leads to aspartate and alanine production. Source


Xiong X.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Yang H.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Yang H.,Fujian Aonong Biotechnology Corporation | Tan B.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology | Year: 2015

Weaning of piglets reflects intestinal dysfunction and atrophy and affected the physiological state of enterocytes. However, few studies have defined physiological state of enterocytes along the crypt-villus axis in early-weaning piglets. A total of 16 piglets from 8 litters were used in the experiment. One group of piglets was nursed by sows until age 21 days, and another group was weaned at age 14 days and then fed creep feed instead of breast milk for 7 days. Piglets were killed at 21 days, and the jejunum segments were dissected. After sequential isolation of jejunum epithelial cells along the crypt-villus axis, their proteins were analyzed through the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification, and proteins involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway and proliferating cell nuclear antigen abundances in jejunal epithelial cells of weaning or suckling group were determined by Western blotting. The differential proteins in three cell fractions were identified and analyzed. The results showed that proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, β-oxidation, and the glycolysis pathway were significantly downregulated in the upper and middle villus of the early-weaned group. However, proteins involved in glycolysis were significantly upregulated in crypt cells. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway-related proteins was decreased (P < 0.05) in the earlyweaned group. The present results showed that early-weaning differentially affect the expression of proteins involved in energy production of enterocytes along the jejunal crypt-villus axis. © 2015 the American Physiological Society. Source


Yang H.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Yang H.,Hunan Normal University | Yang H.,Hunan Agricultural University | Yang H.,Fujian Aonong Biotechnology Corporation | And 5 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2016

Epithelial cells along the crypt-villus axis (CVA) undergo continual renewal through highly coordinated proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis; however, the changes in metabolism during maturation along the CVA are still unclear. The present study investigates the global metabolite changes in intestinal epithelial cells during maturation along the CVA. Eight 21 day-old suckling piglets were used. Intestinal epithelial cells were isolated sequentially from the villus top to the bottom of the crypt with 6 fractions (F1 to F6), and GC-MS was used to identify the metabolites, whose levels changed. Three hundred metabolites were identified. PLS-DA and OPLS-DA analyses showed that the metabolism of intestinal epithelial cells gradually changed during maturation along the CVA. These analyses were also run to distinguish between two fractions of cells, and yielded good separation of F1 and F3, F1 and F4, F1 and F5, and F1 and F6 cells. Significant differences were found in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, glucose, and other metabolites between villus cells and crypt cells. These results reveal a global change in cellular metabolism during maturation along the CVA, and provide basal information for understanding the mechanism involved for specific nutrients in regulating epithelial cell renewal and identifying nutrients to regulate mucosal morphology and functions. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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