Zhu-Salzman K.,Texas A&M University |
Zeng R.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2015
Plant protease inhibitors (PIs) are natural plant defense proteins that inhibit proteases of invading insect herbivores. However, their anti-insect efficacy is determined not only by their potency toward a vulnerable insect system but also by the response of the insect to such a challenge. Through the long history of coevolution with their host plants, insects have developed sophisticated mechanisms to circumvent antinutritional effects of dietary challenges. Their response takes the form of changes in gene expression and the protein repertoire in cells lining the alimentary tract, the first line of defense. Research in insect digestive proteases has revealed the crucial roles they play in insect adaptation to plant PIs and has brought about a new appreciation of how phytophagous insects employ this group of molecules in both protein digestion and counterdefense. This review provides researchers in related fields an up-to-date summary of recent advances. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Chen G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Chen T.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University
Talanta | Year: 2014
Due to high toxicity, inorganic arsenic (iAs) species are the focus of monitoring effort worldwide. In this work arsenic was first extracted from rice by microwave-assisted digestion in HNO3-H2O2, during which AsIII was oxidized to AsV. Silica-based strong anion exchange cartridges were used to separate AsV from organic forms. After prereduction by iodide, iAs was quantified by hydride-generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). This method achieved 1.3 ng g-1 limit of detection (LOD), and 94±3% and 93±5% recoveries, respectively, for AsIII and AsV at 100 ng g-1. Validation was performed using standard reference material NIST 1568a (102 ng g-1) and ERM BC211 (124 ng g -1) rice flour. By eliminating chromatography, SPE speciation gained throughput and cost advantages. HG-AFS, at 10% budget and operation cost of a typical inductively-couple plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS), proved highly sensitive and specific for iAs quantification.
Wang W.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University |
Wang Z.-Y.,Carnegie Institution for Science
Cell Host and Microbe | Year: 2014
The tradeoff between growth and immunity is regulated by integrating hormonal cues, biotic signals, and developmental programs, and is fine-tuned to maximize organismal growth and survival. Four recent papers, including Chandran et al. (2014) in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, provide insights into the underlying mechanisms in plants. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Lai Z.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University |
Lin Y.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013
Background: Longan is a tropical/subtropical fruit tree of great economic importance in Southeast Asia. Progress in understanding molecular mechanisms of longan embryogenesis, which is the primary influence on fruit quality and yield, is slowed by lack of transcriptomic and genomic information. Illumina second generation sequencing, which is suitable for generating enormous numbers of transcript sequences that can be used for functional genomic analysis of longan.Results: In this study, a longan embryogenic callus (EC) cDNA library was sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 system. A total of 64,876,258 clean reads comprising 5.84 Gb of nucleotides were assembled into 68,925 unigenes of 448-bp mean length, with unigenes ≥1000 bp accounting for 8.26% of the total. Using BLASTx, 40,634 unigenes were found to have significant similarity with accessions in Nr and Swiss- Prot databases. Of these, 38,845 unigenes were assigned to 43 GO sub-categories and 17,118 unigenes were classified into 25 COG sub-groups. In addition, 17,306 unigenes mapped to 199 KEGG pathways, with the categories of Metabolic pathways, Plant-pathogen interaction, Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and Genetic information processing being well represented. Analyses of unigenes ≥1000 bp revealed 328 embryogenesis-related unigenes as well as numerous unigenes expressed in EC associated with functions of reproductive growth, such as flowering, gametophytogenesis, and fertility, and vegetative growth, such as root and shoot growth. Furthermore, 23 unigenes related to embryogenesis and reproductive and vegetative growth were validated by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) in samples from different stages of longan somatic embryogenesis (SE); their differentially expressions in the various embryogenic cultures indicated their possible roles in longan SE.Conclusions: The quantity and variety of expressed EC genes identified in this study is sufficient to serve as a global transcriptome dataset for longan EC and to provide more molecular resources for longan functional genomics. © 2013 Lai and Lin; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Zhan J.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University |
Thrall P.H.,CSIRO |
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2014
Plants and their pathogens are engaged in continuous evolutionary battles and sustainable disease management requires novel systems to create environments conducive for short-term and long-term disease control. In this opinion article, we argue that knowledge of the fundamental factors that drive host-pathogen coevolution in wild systems can provide new insights into disease development in agriculture. Such evolutionary principles can be used to guide the formulation of sustainable disease management strategies which can minimize disease epidemics while simultaneously reducing pressure on pathogens to evolve increased infectivity and aggressiveness. To ensure agricultural sustainability, disease management programs that reflect the dynamism of pathogen population structure are essential and evolutionary biologists should play an increasing role in their design. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.