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Yang L.,Huaiyin Normal University | Tian D.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Tian D.,Fujian Academy of Agricultural science | Todd C.D.,University of Saskatchewan | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2013

Acidic soils inhibit crop yield and reduce grain quality. One of the major contributing factors to acidic soil is the presence of soluble aluminum (Al 3+) ions, but the mechanisms underlying plant responses to Al 3+ toxicity remain elusive. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important messenger and participates in various plant physiological responses. Here, we demonstrate that Al3+ induced an increase of NO in rice seedlings; adding exogenous NO alleviated the Al3+ toxicity related to rice growth and photosynthetic capacity, effects that could be reversed by suppressing NO metabolism. Comparative proteomic analyses successfully identified 92 proteins that showed differential expression after Al3+ or NO treatment. In particular, some of the proteins are involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) metabolism. Further analyses confirmed that NO treatment reduced Al3+-induced ROS and RNS toxicities by increasing the activities and protein expression of antioxidant enzymes, as well as S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). Suppressing GSNOR enzymatic activity aggravated Al3+ damage to rice and increased the accumulation of RNS. NO treatment altered the expression of proteins associated with cell wall synthesis, cell division and cell structure, calcium signaling and defense responses. On the basis of these results, we propose that NO activates multiple pathways that enhance rice adaptation to Al3+ toxicity. Such findings may be applicable to crop engineering to enhance yield and improve stress tolerance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Hunt A.G.,University of Kentucky | Xing D.,Miami University Ohio | Li Q.Q.,Fujian Academy of Agricultural science | Li Q.Q.,Xiamen University
BMC Genomics | Year: 2012

Background: Polyadenylation, an essential step in eukaryotic gene expression, requires both cis-elements and a plethora of trans-acting polyadenylation factors. The polyadenylation factors are largely conserved across mammals and fungi. The conservation seems also extended to plants based on the analyses of Arabidopsis polyadenylation factors. To extend this observation, we systemically identified the orthologs of yeast and human polyadenylation factors from 10 plant species chosen based on both the availability of their genome sequences and their positions in the evolutionary tree, which render them representatives of different plant lineages.Results: The evolutionary trajectories revealed several interesting features of plant polyadenylation factors. First, the number of genes encoding plant polyadenylation factors was clearly increased from " lower" to " higher" plants. Second, the gene expansion in higher plants was biased to some polyadenylation factors, particularly those involved in RNA binding. Finally, while there are clear commonalities, the differences in the polyadenylation apparatus were obvious across different species, suggesting an ongoing process of evolutionary change. These features lead to a model in which the plant polyadenylation complex consists of a conserved core, which is rather rigid in terms of evolutionary conservation, and a panoply of peripheral subunits, which are less conserved and associated with the core in various combinations, forming a collection of somewhat distinct complex assemblies.Conclusions: The multiple forms of plant polyadenylation complex, together with the diversified polyA signals may explain the intensive alternative polyadenylation (APA) and its regulatory role in biological functions of higher plants. © 2012 Hunt et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Liu B.,Fujian Academy of Agricultural science | Liu G.-H.,Fujian Academy of Agricultural science | Hu G.-H.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | Chen M.-C.,Fujian Academy of Agricultural science
International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology | Year: 2014

A Gram-stain-positive, short rod-shaped and motile, mildly halotolerant, endospore-forming bacterium, FJAT-13985(T), was isolated from the internal tissues of Mesona chinensis root. Strain FJAT-13985(T) grew at 20-45 °C (optimum 30 °C) and pH 5.7-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-2% (w/v) NaCl [optimum 1% (w/v)]. The strain was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. The cell wall of strain FJAT-13985(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 (97.4%). The major fatty acids of the strain were anteiso-C15:0 (23.3%) and iso-C15:0 (40.8%). The DNA G+C content was 41.64 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain FJAT-13985(T) is a member of the genus Bacillus and is most closely related to Bacillus drentensis DSM 15600(T) (98.4%), Bacillus vireti DSM 15602(T) (98.2%) and Bacillus novalis DSM 15603(T) (98.3%). DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that relatedness between strain FJAT-13985(T) and its closest relative, B. drentensis DSM 15600(T), was 36.63%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties clearly indicate that strain FJAT-13985(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus mesonae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJAT-13985(T) ( = DSM 25968(T) = CGMCC1.12238(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

Sun X.,Shandong Agricultural University | Yang Q.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Deng Z.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ye X.,Fujian Academy of Agricultural science
Plant Physiology | Year: 2014

Alternative splicing is an essential biological process to generate proteome diversity and phenotypic complexity. Recent improvements in RNA sequencing accuracy and computational algorithms have provided unprecedented opportunities to examine the expression levels of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transcripts. In this article, we analyzed 61 RNA sequencing samples from 10 totally independent studies of Arabidopsis and calculated the transcript expression levels in different tissues, treatments, developmental stages, and varieties. These data provide a comprehensive profile of Arabidopsis transcripts with single-base resolution. We quantified the expression levels of 40,745 transcripts annotated in The Arabidopsis Information Resource 10, comprising 73% common transcripts, 15% rare transcripts, and 12% nondetectable transcripts. In addition, we investigated diverse common transcripts in detail, including ubiquitous transcripts, dominant/subordinate transcripts, and switch transcripts, in terms of their expression and transcript ratio. Interestingly, alternative splicing was the highly enriched function for the genes related to dominant/subordinate transcripts and switch transcripts. In addition, motif analysis revealed that TC motifs were enriched in dominant transcripts but not in subordinate transcripts. These motifs were found to have a strong relationship with transcription factor activity. Our results shed light on the complexity of alternative splicing and the diversity of the contributing factors. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Chu S.S.,China Agricultural University | Feng Hu J.,Fujian Academy of Agricultural science | Liu Z.L.,China Agricultural University
Pest Management Science | Year: 2011

Background: In a screening programme for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. was found to possess strong fumigant activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.). Essential oil of C. ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation, and the constituents were determined by GC-MS analysis. The active compounds were isolated and identified by bioassay-directed fractionation. Results: Five active compounds [(Z)-ascaridole, 2-carene, ρ-cymene, isoascaridole and α-terpinene] were isolated and identified from the essential oil from Chinese C. ambrosioides. The LC 50 values (fumigation) of the crude essential oils and the active compound (Z)-ascaridole against S. zeamais adults were 3.08 and 0.84 mg L -1 air respectively. The LD 50 values (contact toxicity) of the crude essential oil and (Z)-ascaridole against S. zeamais adults were 2.12 and 0.86 μg g -1 body weight respectively. Conclusion: The findings suggested that the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides and its main active constituent, (Z)-ascaridole, may be explored as a natural potential fumigant. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

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