Yoshida J.,Iwate Medical University |
Uesugi S.,Iwate University |
Kawamura T.,Iwate University |
Kimura K.-I.,Iwate University |
And 5 more authors.
Lipids | Year: 2017
Many uncommon non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMI FA) are present in limpet gonads, but their biological properties remain unknown. To investigate new biological effects of naturally occurring NMI FA in eukaryotic cells, the biological activities of structurally analogous (4Z,15Z)-octadecadienoic acid (1), (9Z,20Z)-tricosadienoic acid (2), and (12Z,23Z)-hexacosadienoic acid (3) were examined by using a yeast-based drug-screening system using the Ca2+-sensitive mutant strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (zds1Δ erg3Δ pdr1Δ pdr3Δ). Among 1–3, 1 showed restored growth activity at a dose of 80 µg/disc in the mutant yeast strain. This phenotype suggests that 1 suppresses Ca2+-signaling of the mutant yeast through inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) or calcineurin pathways or both. From this result, the inhibitory activity of 1–3 against GSK-3β was further determined. 1–3 showed potent inhibitory activity against GSK-3β with IC50 values ranging from 8.7 to 21.9 µM. Inhibition of GSK-3β reduces gene expression of the gluconeogenic key enzymes in liver, so we analyzed glucose production in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells to assess GSK-3β inhibitory activity of 1–3. Acid 1 inhibited glucose production at 25 µM in H4IIE cells. Our results would open up new possibilities for an anti-diabetic effect of 1 and might provide important insights into understanding the biological properties of naturally occurring NMI FA. © 2017 AOCS
Shimazaki K.-I.,Fuji University |
Kawai K.,Azabu University
Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2017
Lactoferrin is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and other exocrine secretions. Lactoferrin in milk plays vital roles in the healthy development of newborn mammals, and is also an innate resistance factor involved in the prevention of mammary gland infection by microorganisms. Inflammation of the udder because of bacterial infection is referred to as mastitis. There have been many investigations into the relationships between lactoferrin and mastitis, which fall into several categories. The main categories are fluctuations in the lactoferrin concentration of milk, lactoferrin activity against mastitis pathogens, elucidation of the processes underlying the onset of mastitis, participation of lactoferrin in the immune system, and utilization of lactoferrin in mastitis treatment and prevention. This minireview describes lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis. In the 1970s, many researchers reported that the lactoferrin concentration fluctuates in milk from cows with mastitis. From the late 1980s, many studies clarified the infection-defense mechanism in the udder and the contribution of lactoferrin to the immune system. After the year 2000, the processes underlying the onset of mastitis were elucidated in vivo and in vitro, and lactoferrin was applied for the treatment and prevention of mastitis. © 2017 Published by NRC Research Press.
Komatsu E.,Fuji University |
Morita M.,Hokkaido University of Education |
Okamura S.,Hokkaido University of Education |
Yahata M.,Geological Survey of Japan |
Ikuno H.,Tokyo Gakugei University
Sen'i Gakkaishi | Year: 2011
We dyed cotton fabric samples using colored clay pigments, which can be recovered from dyehouse effluent and be reused. The Lab color space (CIE L*a*b*) values of both the clay pigments and the fabric samples after dying were measured. The compounds in the pigments, and the compounds adhering to the dyed fabrics, were analyzed using XRF, XRD, SEM and EDS. We then determined which minerals affected the color of the clay pigments and the dyed fabrics and discussed their interrelationships in our analyses.
Takahashi A.,Hokkaido University |
Shimizu H.,Fuji University |
Okazaki Y.,Fuji University |
Sakaguchi H.,Nihonshinyaku Co. |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Oleo Science | Year: 2015
Aronia fruits (chokeberry: Aronia melanocarpa E.) containing phenolic phytochemicals, such as cyanidin 3-glycosides and chlorogenic acid, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential human health benefits in humans including antioxidant activities and ability to improved vision. In the present study, the effects of anthocyanin-rich phytochemicals from aronia fruits (aronia phytochemicals) on visceral fat accumulation and fasting hyperglycemia were examined in rats fed a high-fat diet (Experiment 1). Total visceral fat mass was significantly lower in rats fed aronia phytochemicals than that in both the control group and bilberry phytochemicals-supplemented rats (p < 0.05). Moreover, perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue mass in rats fed aronia phytochemicals was significantly lower than that in both the control and bilberry phytochemicals group. Additionally, the mesenteric adipose tissue mass in aronia phytochemicals-fed rats was significantly low (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the fasting blood glucose levels significantly decreased in rats fed aronia phytochemicals for 4 weeks compared to that in the control rats (p < 0.05). Therefore, we investigated the effects of phytochemicals on postprandial hyperlipidemia after corn oil loading in rats, pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and the plasma glycemic response after sucrose loading in order to elucidate the preventive factor of aronia phytochemical on visceral fat accumulation. In the oral corn oil tolerance tests (Experiment 2), aronia phytochemicals significantly inhibited the increases in plasma triglyceride levels, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.50 mg/mL. However, the inhibitory activity was similar to that of bilberry and tea catechins. In the sucrose tolerance tests (Experiment 3), aronia phytochemicals also significantly inhibited the increases in blood glucose levels that were observed in the control animals (p < 0.05). These results suggest that anthocyanin-rich phytochemicals in aronia fruits suppress visceral fat accumulation and hyperglycemia by inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity and/or intestinal lipid absorption. © 2015 by Japan Oil Chemists’ Society.
Osaki A.,Hiroshima University |
Okazaki Y.,Fuji University |
Kimoto A.,Hiroshima University |
Izu H.,Japanese National Research Institute of Brewing |
Kato N.,Hiroshima University
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology | Year: 2014
This study investigated the effects of the consumption of 1% or 2% (v/v) ethanol in drinking water for 12 wk on rats fed a high-fat diet. Body weight gain, food intake, and fluid intake were unaffected by ethanol intake. Adipose tissue weight, and serum glucose and lipids were unaffected. Compared to the control (no ethanol), 1% ethanol intake significantly reduced serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ammonia (p<0.05), whereas 2% ethanol intake did so to a lesser extent. Serum urate was significantly lower in both the 1% and 2% ethanol groups than that in the control group (p<0.05). The results suggest a low dose of ethanol has beneficial effects on liver function and serum urate in rats fed a high-fat diet. © 2014, Center for Academic Publications Japan. All Rights Reserved.
Haraguchi H.,Nippon Flour Mills Co. |
Haraguchi H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology |
Yamada K.,Tokyo Institute of Technology |
Miyashita R.,Nippon Flour Mills Co. |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Oleo Science | Year: 2014
The ceramide (Cer) content of skin and glucosylceramide (GlcCer) intake affect skin moisture conditions, but their mutual relation in skin remains unclear. For clarification of that mutual relation, carbon stable isotopes (12C and 13C) are useful as a tracer. However, carbon isotopic measurement has not been applied to the study of clarifying their skin moisturizing effects. Therefore, we used gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) to ascertain the appropriate conditions for carbon isotopic measurements using synthesized Cer (SCer) in substitution for very low concentrations of Cer in skin. SCer was derivatized to trimethylsilylated SCer (TMS-SCer) quantitatively using N-trimethylsilylimidazole (TMSI) depending on the amount of SCer. The derivatization rates were 75-85%. Excess TMSI was removed using three cycles of hexane-water distribution. Under these conditions, carbon isotopic measurements of TMS-SCer conducted using GC-C-IRMS showed high repeatability and good inter-day variation (S.D. < 0.3‰). The carbon stable isotope ratio value (δ13C) of SCer calculated using a mass balance equation was compared with δ13C of underivatized SCer, which was regarded as the actual δ13C of SCer obtained using sealed tube combustion method. The difference between the calculated δ13C of SCer and δ13C of the underivatized SCer depended on the TMSI reagent supplier and on the number of hydroxyl groups to be derivatized in SCer. For accurate δ13C of Cer in skin using GC-C-IRMS, the measured δ13C of a target TMS-Cer must be calculated using a correction factor representing the difference in δ13C of underivatized standard SCer from that of TMS-standard SCer having a structure resembling that of the target Cer in skin. In addition, we show that the same lot of TMSI reagent from a specific supplier must be used throughout the experiments. © 2014 by Japan Oil Chemists’ Society.
Okazaki Y.,Fuji University |
Sekita A.,Fuji University |
Chiji H.,Fuji University |
Kato N.,Hiroshima University
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2016
It has been recently suggested a high ratio of fecal Firmicutes and reduction in the Bacteroidetes in obese animals. This study investigated the effect of dietary lily bulb (LB) on fecal Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. In experiment 1, rats were fed an HF diet with or without 7% raw (R) or steamed (S) LB. In experiment 2, rats were fed the HF diet with or without 7% RLB, 0.9% ethanol extract of LB, or 6.1% ethanol extract residue of LB. In experiment 1, fecal Firmicutes was reduced and Bacteroidetes was increased in both the RLB and SLB groups. In experiment 2, the fecal Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was not affected by the ethanol extract or ethanol extract residue of LB. These results suggest that LB in its entirety modulates colonic microflora, regardless of heat treatment. © 2016, The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Morisaki M.,Hirosaki University |
Morita M.,Hokkaido University of Education |
Fujimoto T.,Hokkaido University of Education |
Shiraishi E.,Hokkaido University of Education |
Komatsu E.,Fuji University
Journal of the Japan Research Association for Textile End-Uses | Year: 2011
Cotton woven fabrics were treated with ultrasonic and ultraviolet irradiation to prepare a fabric modified by two types of titanium dioxide (TiO2). The specimens modified by TiO2 were investigated on the wash durability and aesthetic properties. The specimen fabrics prepared by irradiation of ultrasonic and ultraviolet (UV) light increased supporting TiO2 compared to that modified only by ultrasonic irradiation. The prepared cotton fabrics, i.e., TiO2 stably-maintained on the cotton fabric, had a resistance to washing. On the measure of aesthetic properties, untreated cotton fabrics changed their properties to the rougher surface, lager "SHARI" and smaller "FUKURAMI". However, cotton fabrics modified by TiO2 reduced deterioration of aesthetic properties by the effect of UV light. Cotton fabrics modified by anatase TiO2 - SiO2 complex show the less effects on damage of fabrics. In the case that anatase TiO2 fabrics were applied to the degradation system of Orange II dye, the degradation rate of Orange II was 100% under UV light irradiation for 24 hours. © 2011 Jpn.Res.Assn.Text.End-Uses.
Mueller C.M.,Fuji University |
Jacobsen N.D.,George Washington University
ReCALL | Year: 2015
Qualitative research focusing primarily on advanced-proficiency second language (L2) learners suggests that online corpora can function as useful reference tools for language learners, especially when addressing phraseological issues. However, the feasibility and effectiveness of online corpus consultation for learners at a basic level of L2 proficiency have been relatively unexplored. The current study of Japanese-L1 (first language) learners in an EFL (English as a foreign language) context (N=117) addresses these gaps in research. A preliminary investigation (Experiment 1) examined EFL learners (n=78) as they used the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA: Davies, 2008–) to revise essays. Experiment 2 (n=39) used a within-subjects comparison to determine whether participants attained greater accuracy in supplying the missing word in a gap-fill test when using an electronic dictionary or COCA. The survey results from the two experiments revealed that participants generally found using an online corpus difficult. In Experiment 2, a paired-samples t-test showed that participants, at an alpha of p=.05 two-tailed, were marginally better able to answer test questions when using the online corpus than they were when using an electronic dictionary, p=0.030. The implications of the study within the context of previous research are discussed along with pedagogical recommendations and possible avenues for future research. Copyright © European Association for Computer Assisted Language Learning 2015