Kawanishi, Japan
Kawanishi, Japan

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Mori R.,Fuji Pigment Co. | Ueta T.,Fuji Pigment Co. | Sakai K.,Fuji Pigment Co. | Niida Y.,Kobe University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Materials Science | Year: 2011

In order to prepare the TiO2 liquid dispersions for the electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells with industrial mass production level at a reasonable cost, the present study investigates the preparation of TiO 2 liquid dispersions by a general industrial dispersion technique using readily available P25. To determine the TiO2 dispersion offering the best light-electricity energy conversion efficiency, the suitability of various types of solvents and resins for use in TiO2 dispersion are tested. In general, organic solvent based TiO2 dispersions are found to allow the formation of more uniform thin films in comparison with water-based dispersions. A preparation using ethyl cellulose as the resin and the terpineol as the solvent is found to exhibit the best conversion efficiency. We have also found that using two kinds of resins of different molecular weights gave rise to better efficiency. Among 26 metal compounds tested in this study, the best metal dopant was Ag. XRD and XPS measurements confirm that the Ag exists as metal Ag and silver oxide. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Mori R.,Fuji Pigment Co.
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2016

To develop a semi-rechargeable aluminum–air battery, we attempted to insert various kinds of ceramic oxides between an aqueous NaCl electrolyte and an aluminum anode. From cyclic voltammetry experiments, we found that some of the ceramic oxide materials underwent an oxidation–reduction reaction, which indicates the occurrence of a faradaic electrochemical reaction. Using a TiO2 film as an internal layer, we successfully prepared an aluminum–air battery with secondary battery behavior. However, cell impedance increased as the charge/discharge reactions proceeded probably because of accumulation of byproducts in the cell components and the air cathode. Results of quantum calculations and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest the possibility of developing an aluminum rechargeable battery using TiO2 as an internal layer. © 2016 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society

Yoshioka H.,Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Technology | Mieda H.,University of Hyogo | Funahashi T.,University of Hyogo | Mineshige A.,University of Hyogo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the European Ceramic Society | Year: 2014

Apatite-type lanthanum silicate based films have attracted significant interests to use as an electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) working at intermediate temperature. We have prepared Mg doped lanthanum silicate (MDLS) films on NiO-MDLS cermet substrates by spin coating and sintering of nano-sized printable paste made by beads milling. Changes in crystal structure and microstructure of the paste films with the sintering temperature have been investigated to show that porous network structure with a grain growth evolves up to 1300°C, whereas densification occurred above 1400°C. Anode supported SOFCs using the pasted MDLS films were successfully fabricated: an open circuit voltage of 0.91V and a maximum power density of 150mWcm-2 measured at 800°C were obtained with the electrolyte film sintered at 1500°C. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Mori R.,Fuji Pigment Co.
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry | Year: 2015

By modifying the aluminium–air battery structure with placing layers of activated carbon between an aqueous NaCl electrolyte and both an aluminium anode and an air cathode, capacity recovery was observed. When the NaCl aqueous electrolyte was refilled after electrolyte evaporation, a repeatable cell capacity was obtained. It was suggested that repeatable cell capacity was obtained because by products deposited on carbon internal layer, instead of depositing on the electrodes directly. One also deducted that the large discharge current with the large cell capacity was obtained by synergetic effect of the capacitor (large electric current) and the aluminium–air battery (large cell capacity). The results suggested that aluminium-associated ions as well as sodium-associated ions may participate in the relevant electrochemical reactions. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Mieda H.,University of Hyogo | Mineshige A.,University of Hyogo | Saito A.,University of Hyogo | Yazawa T.,University of Hyogo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2014

Dense films of an oxygen-excess-type solid electrolyte (OESE) based on Mg-doped lanthanum silicate (MDLS) were fabricated and applied to electrolyte materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). To obtain dense MDLS films on NiO-MDLS porous substrates, a conventional spin-coating technique using the MDLS printable paste, obtained by mixing nano-sized MDLS particles and a dispersant, was employed. The Ni-MDLS anode supported single cells were then fabricated by printing porous cathode layer onto the electrolyte film surface. By optimizing fabrication conditions of an MDLS film and cathode, the highly active cathode/OESE interface (ASR = 0.23 Ω cm2at 873 K) were successfully obtained, which resulted in high power density of 0.166 W cm-2at 873 K in the fuel cell test when operated with argon-diluted hydrogen and pure oxygen as the fuel and the cathode gas, respectively. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mori R.,Fuji Pigment Co.
Wood Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Prunus cerasus (Japanese cherry blossom: Sakura) was liquefied in polyethylene glycol—glycerol co-solvent with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as a catalyst. The liquefied wood was blended with poly-4,4′-diphenylmethane diisocyanate to prepare polyurethane (PU) resin. In addition, inorganic–organic hybrid biodegradable polyurethane resin was prepared by adding tetraethoxysilane into liquefied-wood-derived polyurethane. It was found that the thermal stability of liquefied-wood-derived polyurethane is better than general polyurethane. Furthermore, it was ensured that Si was introduced in PU at a molecular level, while maintaining the urethane structure. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

We have developed a straightforward printing method for preparation of a lithium secondary cell. LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O 2 and Li4Ti5O12 viscous printable pastes were used for the cathode and anode, respectively. Electrochemical measurement was used to characterize the capacitance of each cell, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy and particle size measurements were used to characterize particle size and morphology. These film electrodes functioned stably both in a standard liquid electrolyte and in an Li 2SiO3 solid electrolyte, although the capacitance of the all-solid-state cell was significantly lower than that of the cell containing liquid electrolyte. When liquid electrolyte was used, the capacity decreased by 36% after 50 cycles. However, the capacity of 0.2 mA h/g remained almost the same even after 50 charge-discharge cycles, demonstrating the stability and strength of the all-solid-state lithium ion cell. It was also found that the cell resistance mostly arose from the electrode/electrolyte interface and not from the bulk electrolyte. Addition of a sol-gel to the solid electrolyte printable paste improved cell performance. © 2014 TMS.

Mori R.,Fuji Pigment. Co.
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2015

We fabricated a rechargeable aluminum-air battery by placing ceramic materials such as aluminum oxide or aluminum tungsten oxide between the aqueous electrolyte, aluminum anode, and air cathode. When NaOH or KOH was used as the electrolyte, Naor K-containing ion species might have participated in the electrochemical reaction. The cell impedance increased as the charge-discharge reaction proceeded. This increase may be due to by-product accumulation on the cell components prepared with aluminum oxide. To investigate the possibility of preventing evaporation of the liquid electrolyte in the battery, glycerin was added to the NaCl electrolyte. Because of the high boiling temperature of glycerin, the discharge reaction could continue for 5 days. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS.

« Ballard providing ten 30 kW fuel cell modules to UpPowerTech; expanding into China’s Guangxi Province | Main | Kiel nanoscale-sculpturing makes metal surfaces strong, resistant, and multifunctional; multi-material joining » Fuji Pigment Co., Ltd. is synthesizing ionic liquids for a range of applications, including its own aluminum-air battery, currently under development (earlier post); electrolytes for Li-ion batteries; and solvents for cellulose nanofibers. Ionic liquids are chemical compounds composed of organic cations such as imidazolium ions and pyridinium ions, and anions such as bromide, fluoride, and chloride. Various ionic liquids with different properties can be created by combining different cations and anions. The unlimited number of ion combinations for their synthesis leads to numerous different ionic liquids that can be created. So far, Fuji Pigment has synthesized imidazolium-, chloride-, and bromide-based ionic liquids, with a number of other ionic liquids currently under development. The company can synthesize most ionic liquids at a customer’s request. Ionic liquids remain in a liquid state over a wide temperature range, permitting their use in both high- and low-temperature conditions. These liquids are also thermally, chemically stable and exhibit low vapor pressure; they can therefore be used under extreme conditions such as a vacuum. In addition, ionic liquids are non-flammable and conductive. Al-air battery. Metal-air batteries use a catalytic air cathode in combination with an electrolyte and metal anode such as lithium, aluminum, magnesium or zinc. With very high theoretical energy densities, metal air technology is considered a promising technology candidate for “beyond Li-ion” next-generation batteries enabling future long-range battery-electric vehicles—assuming the development obstacles can be overcome. Aluminum-air batteries offer a theoretical specific energy of 8.1 kWh/kg (with respect to aluminum)—second only to the Li-air battery (13.0 kWh/kg). However, aluminum-air technology suffers from parasitic hydrogen evolution caused by anode corrosion during discharge; this has been a long-standing barrier to the commercialization of aluminum–air batteries. Not only does it cause additional consumption of the anode material, but it also increases ohmic loss in the cell. Dr. Ryohei Mori, in charge of the Al-air project at Fuji Pigment, earlier attempted to suppress anode corrosion and byproduct accumulation by modifying the aluminum-air battery structure by placing ceramic and carbonaceous materials between aqueous NaCl electrolyte and electrodes as an internal layer. From cyclic voltammetry experiments, Dr. Mori found that some of the ceramic oxide materials underwent an oxidation–reduction reaction, indicating the occurrence of a faradaic electrochemical reaction. He then tried a TiO film as an internal layer. While this approach successfully prepared an aluminum–air battery with secondary battery behavior (Dr. Mori called it semi-rechargeable), cell impedance increased as the charge/discharge reactions proceeded. In a paper published earlier this year, Dr. Mori said that results of quantum calculations and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested the possibility of developing an aluminum rechargeable battery using TiO2 as an internal layer. Now, Fuji Pigment Co., Ltd. is attempting to create a fully rechargeable aluminum–air battery by replacing the aqueous electrolyte with an ionic liquid. The company is proposing that by using an ionic liquid such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride as the electrolyte, it is possible to create a rechargeable aluminum–air battery. Electrolytes for other batteries. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using an ionic liquid as electrolyte are observed to have better electrochemical properties as compared with those using the conventional carbonate-based electrolyte. Ionic liquid electrolytes are also stable and non-flammable, countering the flammability of typical LIBs due to their carbonate-based electrolytes. Other potential applications for ionic liquids are: Dissolution of cellulose and cellulose nanofibers. Ionic liquids are able to dissolve insoluble materials such as cellulose. Formation of carbon nanotube dispersions and gels. Mixing carbon nanotubes with an ionic liquid allows the formation of a good dispersion with the resin, which is needed to create a gel that maintains the high conductivity and other interesting properties. Use as an antistatic material. Because of their non-volatility and high heat resistance, ionic liquids can be mixed with resin in a high-temperature process. In particular, optimizing the ionic liquid's structure and compatibility with the resin results in a material that has excellent antistatic property, high transparency, and high conductivity. Solvent for organic synthesis. Because of the urgent need for "green chemical processes", replacing the strongly volatile organic solvents used in syntheses with more environment-friendly solvents is necessary. Since ionic liquids exhibit almost no vapor pressure and non-flammable and safety, they have potential use in such processes. Furthermore, Ionic liquids can be easily reused and can be recyclable many times because they can be separated from other liquids by heating, distilling, and other processes. Ionic liquids can also be used as CO -absorbing materials, wetting agents or lubricants that can be used under vacuum conditions, and additives for colored products, among various other applications.

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