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Leuven, Belgium

Dornez E.,Catholic University of Leuven | Verjans P.,Catholic University of Leuven | Broekaert W.F.,Fugeia NV | Cappuyns A.M.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 4 more authors.
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2011

In situ enrichment of bread with arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) through enzymic degradation of wheat flour arabinoxylan (AX) by the hyperthermophilic xylanase B from Thermotoga maritima (rXTMB) was studied. The xylanolytic activity of rXTMB during breadmaking was essentially restricted to the baking phase. This prevented problems with dough processability and bread quality that generally are associated with thorough hydrolysis of the flour AX during dough mixing and fermentation. rXTMB action did not affect loaf volume. Bread with a dry matter AXOS content of 1.5% was obtained. Further increase in bread AXOS levels was achieved by combining rXTMB with xylanases from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis or Bacillus subtilis. Remarkably, such a combination synergistically increased the specific bread loaf volume. Assuming an average daily consumption of 180 g of fresh bread, the bread AXOS levels suffice to provide a substantial part of the AXOS intake leading to desired physiological effects in humans. ©2011 AACC International, Inc.

Pareyt B.,Catholic University of Leuven | Goovaerts M.,Catholic University of Leuven | Broekaert W.F.,Catholic University of Leuven | Broekaert W.F.,Fugeia NV | Delcour J.A.,Catholic University of Leuven
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The impact of incorporation of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS), a potential novel prebiotic, on the quality of a sugar-snap cookie type was investigated by replacing part of either the flour or the sucrose. Flour replacement by AXOS yielded unacceptable products. However, replacing up to 30% of the initial sucrose level by AXOS resulted in cookies with comparable diameter and height and only a slightly darker color than had control cookies. The present results indicate a possible role of AXOS as sucrose replacer, which has practical implications from a health point of view, since AXOS can be used to produce cookies with reduced sucrose and increased fibre levels, a reasonable consumption of which can exert beneficial physiological effects. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Damen B.,Catholic University of Leuven | Verspreet J.,Catholic University of Leuven | Pollet A.,Catholic University of Leuven | Broekaert W.F.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2011

Scope: Cereal arabinoxylan (AX) is one of the main dietary fibers in a balanced human diet. To gain insight into the importance of structural features of AX for their prebiotic potential and intestinal fermentation properties, a rat trial was performed. Methods and results: A water unextractable AX-rich preparation (WU-AX, 40% purity), water extractable AX (WE-AX, 81% purity), AX oligosaccharides (AXOS, 79% purity) and combinations thereof were included in a standardized diet at a 5% AX level. WU-AX was only partially fermented in the ceco-colon and increased the level of butyrate and of butyrate producing Roseburia/E. rectale spp. Extensive fermentation of WE-AX and/or AXOS reduced the pH, suppressed relevant markers of the proteolytic breakdown and induced a selective bifidogenic response. Compared with WE-AX, AXOS showed a slightly less pronounced effect in the colon as its fermentation was virtually complete in the cecum. Combining WU-AX and AXOS caused a striking synergistic increase in cecal butyrate levels. WU-AX, WE-AX and AXOS together combined a selective bifidogenic effect in the colon with elevated butyrate levels, a reduced pH and suppressed proteolytic metabolites. Conclusion: The prebiotic potential and fermentation characteristics of cereal AX depend strongly on their structural properties and joint presence. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Joye I.J.,Catholic University of Leuven | Lamberts L.,Catholic University of Leuven | Lamberts L.,Fugeia NV | Brijs K.,Catholic University of Leuven | Delcour J.A.,Catholic University of Leuven
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Breakfast cereals are an important part of an equilibrated diet in the Western world, making them extremely suited for carrying health benefits. Intake of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the nervous system, has been related to blood pressure lowering in hypertensive individuals. In vivo, GABA is formed from glutamic acid (GA) by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a widely distributed enzyme in prokaryotic and eukaryotic species. We here enriched breakfast cereals with GABA by recipe and process optimisation. The dynamics of GA and GABA were monitored throughout the production process. Addition of exogenous recombinantly produced GAD of Yersinia intermedia increased GABA levels by 2- to 5-fold. As only trace levels of GABA (<15 ppm) and relatively low levels of its precursor (GA, <100 ppm) are present in the wheat and rice flour used, a well-thought ingredient choice (inclusion of quinoa flour (ca. 90 ppm GABA and 700 ppm GA) or bran enrichment (ca. 66 ppm GABA and 500 ppm GA)) also significantly increases the GABA content in the final flakes. Finally, a strict control of the heating steps during the production process reduces GA and GABA losses. Consumption of one portion (30 g) of the here produced enriched breakfast cereals can even meet up to 55% of the daily intake earlier reported to lower blood pressure (ca. 10 mg). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Francois I.E.J.A.,Fugeia NV | Lescroart O.,Fugeia NV | Veraverbeke W.S.,Fugeia NV | Marzorati M.,Ghent University | And 10 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Wheat bran extract (WBE) is a food-grade soluble fibre preparation that is highly enriched in arabinoxylan oligosaccharides. In this placebo-controlled cross-over human intervention trial, tolerance and effects on colonic protein and carbohydrate fermentation were studied. After a 1-week run-in period, sixty-three healthy adult volunteers consumed 3, 10 and 0 g WBE/d for 3 weeks in a random order, with 2 weeks' washout between each treatment period. Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of the run-in period and at the end of each treatment period for analysis of haematological and clinical chemistry parameters. Additionally, subjects collected a stool sample for analysis of microbiota, SCFA and pH. A urine sample, collected over 48 h, was used for analysis of p-cresol and phenol content. Finally, the subjects completed questionnaires scoring occurrence frequency and distress severity of eighteen gastrointestinal symptoms. Urinary p-cresol excretion was significantly decreased after WBE consumption at 10 g/d. Faecal bifidobacteria levels were significantly increased after daily intake of 10 g WBE. Additionally, WBE intake at 10 g/d increased faecal SCFA concentrations and lowered faecal pH, indicating increased colonic fermentation of WBE into desired metabolites. At 10 g/d, WBE caused a mild increase in flatulence occurrence frequency and distress severity and a tendency for a mild decrease in constipation occurrence frequency. In conclusion, WBE is well tolerated at doses up to 10 g/d in healthy adults volunteers. Intake of 10 g WBE/d exerts beneficial effects on gut health parameters. Copyright © The Authors 2012.

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