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Lake Worth Corridor, FL, United States

Amer M.W.,Monash University | Marshall M.,Monash University | Fei Y.,Monash University | Roy Jackson W.,Monash University | And 3 more authors.
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2015

Oil shales from two different continents (Australia and North America) of different ages (100 and 40 million years) and origins (one marine, one lacustrine) have been reacted in the range 355-425 °C under H2 or N2 for 1 or 5 h with or without the addition of catalyst. The shales differed in S content, and the nature of the mineral matter, but both had high atomic H/C ratios. The overall reactivity of the two shales was similar and high yields of soluble products could be obtained under relatively mild conditions with only small CO2 yields, but the temperature dependence of reactivity and the effect of potential catalysts differed markedly. Increasing the temperature and time led to increases in conversion but of different extents. Substituting H2 for N2 led to a large increase to conversion for the lower-atomic-H/C ratio marine oil shale. The CH2Cl2 solubles from the marine oil shale showed a larger range of compounds than those from the lacustrine oil shale which resembled the CH2Cl2 solubles from torbanite, a coal-like material derived from lacustrine algae. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Amer M.W.,Monash University | Marshall M.,Monash University | Fei Y.,Monash University | Jackson W.R.,Monash University | And 3 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2014

Reactions of five Jordanian oil shales, Yarmouk in the north, El-Lajjun, Sultani and Attrat Um Ghudran in the center and Ma'an in the south have been carried out at 355 C, 390 C and 425 C for 1 h under N2 or H 2. The shales showed significant differences in reactivity, with central and northern Jordanian oil shales being more reactive on a dmmf basis than those from the south. However, the dmmf product yields of southern (Ma'an) oil shale for 5 h reactions were similar to those for 1 h reactions of the other shales. The only relationship between characteristics of the oil shales and the yields of useful products was the proportion of aromatic carbon in the solid state 13C NMR spectra of the shales, the Ma'an shale with the lowest aromatic carbon value being the least reactive. The central Jordanian oil shales were less sensitive to the action of catalysts than those from the north and the south. H2 generally gave higher yields of useful products than N2. Mo-based catalysts were the most effective in all cases for both gases. The composition of the liquid products from 390 C reactions as reflected in the 1H NMR spectra and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy did not correlate with the differences in reactivity. Similarly the C, H, N and S elemental analysis data for the products did not correlate with the reactivity nor did the sulfur content of the products correlate with that of the shale. The CO2 yields under the reaction conditions used were small. In summary, the Jordanian oil shales show unexpected structural and reactivity differences, when it is considered that they were deposited at roughly the same time in the same region. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Amer M.W.,Monash University | Marshall M.,Monash University | Fei Y.,Monash University | Jackson W.R.,Monash University | And 3 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2013

Reactions of a Jordanian El-Lajjun oil shale under N2 or H 2 for 1 h results in almost complete conversion of the organic material to liquid products at 355 °C or 390 °C. In contrast, reactions for 1 h of the algal coal, torbanite, give minimal conversion at 390 °C, but almost total conversion if the reaction time is extended to 5 h. At 355 °C reactions of torbanite are minimal at 1 and 5 h reaction times, however at 425 °C for 1 h almost complete conversion is observed. In addition, the oil to asphaltene ratio for the products from the Jordanian oil shale increases in the temperature range 355-390 °C, whereas the oil to asphaltene ratio for the products from torbanite strongly favours oil at all temperatures. The oil from both materials is highly aliphatic. The torbanite oil is mainly long chain, saturated hydrocarbons with few aromatic compounds. The oil from the Jordanian shale also has a high aliphatic content but a much wider range of aromatics. In addition, significant amounts of sulfur-containing compounds are present. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Fei Y.,Monash University | Marshall M.,Monash University | Jackson W.R.,Monash University | Gorbaty M.L.,Fuels Science Consulting | And 3 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2012

A Jordanian oil shale from the El Lajjun deposit has been reacted with N2, H2 and CO in the presence and absence of water in the temperature range 300-425 °C. The effect of adding Fe, Cu, Ni, Sn and NaAlO2 as potential catalysts to some of these reactions has been studied but none led to improved oil yields. Most of the organic material in the oil shale was converted to asphaltene at 355 °C, but the oil yield was low at this temperature. At 425 °C nearly all the organic product was in the form of oil. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Amer M.W.,Monash University | Fei Y.,Monash University | Marshall M.,Monash University | Jackson W.R.,Monash University | And 2 more authors.
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2015

Four oil shales from different locations and origins have been reacted in a flow-through system (425 °C, with N2 or H2 as sweep gases at 1 atm pressure) with a view to more closely simulating a practical process for oil shale conversion than can be achieved with a sealed autoclave system. It was observed that there was no general correlation between the yields in the two systems, nor was there a general correlation between the amount of condensate and the amount of volatiles obtained by thermogravimetric analysis. For all four oil shales, the condensate gave more complex gas chromatography-mass spectrometry total ion chromatograms (GC-MS TICs) than the CH2Cl2-solubles from sealed autoclave reactions. Surprisingly, the products from one of the Jordanian oil shales, Yarmouk, and an Australian Julia Creek oil shale were remarkably similar. The product from the lacustrine Colorado oil shale was much more similar to that from a lacustrine algal coal (torbanite) than to those from marine oil shales. The differences in yields and product characteristics between sealed autoclave and flow-through reactions suggest that yields and product distributions obtained from sealed autoclave reactions should be treated with caution. ©2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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