Krerkkaiwan S.,King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi |
Mueangta S.,Fuels Research Center |
Thammarat P.,Fuels Research Center |
Jaisat L.,Fuels Research Center |
And 2 more authors.
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2015
In this study, the catalytic effect of chars from the co-pyrolysis of Indonesian coal and biomass [giant leucaena wood (LN)] on the biomass-derived tar decomposition was investigated using a two-stage fixed-bed reactor. The catalytic performance of the coal char (CC), LN biomass char (LNC), and coal/LN blended chars (C/LN) at three different weight ratios on the catalytic tar cracking under nitrogen (N2) and tar steam reforming under a steam/N2 mixture was studied. The C/LN showed a better catalytic role for tar decomposition than the CC and LNC. The high coal fraction [3:1 (w/w) C/LN] blended char had a good catalytic effect on both tar catalytic cracking and tar steam reforming because of its high surface area and silicate forms of the alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) on the char. On the other hand, char with a high biomass ratio [1:3 (w/w) C/LN] also had a good catalyst activity in tar steam reforming because of the high steam activation of the char surface and the AAEM would be in the form of phenolates. © 2015 American Chemical Society.
Hunsom M.,Fuels Research Center |
Hunsom M.,Chulalongkorn University |
Saila P.,Fuels Research Center
Renewable Energy | Year: 2015
The enrichment of crude glycerol (29.8wt.%) from a biodiesel production plant and its subsequent electrochemical conversion under a galvanostatic mode to added-value compounds was successfully performed at a laboratory scale. The optimal solvent-extraction based enrichment of the crude glycerol, after the acid pre-treatment to remove most free fatty acids and salts, was found using n-propanol:pre-treated crude glycerol at volume ratio of 2, attaining 97.9% glycerol. The effects of the initial glycerol solution pH (1, 7 or 11), type of electrode (platinum (Pt), titanium-coated ruthenium oxide (Ti/RuO2) or stainless steel (SS)) and applied current density (0.08-0.27A/cm2) were explored. Using a galvanostatic mode, the enriched crude glycerol could be converted to added-value products, such as ethylene glycol, acetol, glycidol, acrolein, 1,2-propanediol (PD) and 1,3-PD. A Pt electrode, initial glycerol solution pH of 1 and current density of 0.14A/cm2 were found to be optimal giving a complete conversion of 0.3M glycerol within 14h with a total product yield of 68.7%. However, each specific product had a different optimal applied current density and electrolysis time. Finally, a simplified diagram showing the possible major reaction pathways of glycerol conversion by this electrochemical conversion over a Pt electrode was presented. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.