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Fudan University , located in Shanghai, China, is one of the oldest and most selective universities in China, and a member in the C9 League and Universitas 21. Its institutional predecessor was founded in 1905, shortly before the end of China's imperial Qing dynasty. Fudan is now composed of four campuses, including Handan , Fenglin , Zhangjiang , and Jiangwan . Wikipedia.

Hung L.-Y.,Fudan University | Hung L.-Y.,Harvard University | Wan Y.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

We relate the ground state degeneracy of a non-Abelian topological phase on a surface with boundaries to the anyon condensates that break the topological phase into a trivial phase. Specifically, we propose that gapped boundary conditions of the surface are in one-to-one correspondence with the sets of condensates, each being able to completely break the phase, and we substantiate this by examples. The ground state degeneracy resulting from a particular boundary condition coincides with the number of confined topological sectors due to the corresponding condensation. These lead to a generalization of the Laughlin-Tao-Wu charge-pumping argument for Abelian fractional quantum Hall states to encompass non-Abelian topological phases, in the sense that an anyon loop of a confined anyon winding a nontrivial cycle can pump a condensed anyon from one boundary to another. Such generalized pumping may find applications in quantum control of anyons, eventually realizing topological quantum computation. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Novikova I.,College of William and Mary | Walsworth R.L.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Xiao Y.,Fudan University
Laser and Photonics Reviews | Year: 2012

This paper reviews recent efforts to realize a high-efficiency memory for optical pulses using slow and stored light based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in ensembles of warm atoms in vapor cells. After a brief summary of basic continuous-wave and dynamic EIT properties, studies using weak classical signal pulses in optically dense coherent media are discussed, including optimization strategies for stored light efficiency and pulse-shape control, and modification of EIT and slow/stored light spectral properties due to atomic motion. Quantum memory demonstrations using both single photons and pulses of squeezed light are then reviewed. Finally a brief comparison with other approaches is presented. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Wu B.,Fudan University
Clinical nuclear medicine | Year: 2013

A 71-year-old man presented with a progressive right knee pain which persisted for 6 months and was not relieved by pain medications. He had a history of lung squamous carcinoma 1 year ago. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hyperostosis, degenerative changes, and occupancy lesions of the right patella. The patient underwent Tc methylene diphosphonate (Tc-MDP) bone scan and single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT), which showed abnormal metabolism of the right patella with bone destruction and soft tissue swelling. Finally, patellectomy was taken and pathology confirmed patella metastasis from lung squamous carcinoma.

Rubiera-Garcia D.,Fudan University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We study D-dimensional charged static spherically symmetric black hole solutions in Gauss-Bonnet theory coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics defined as arbitrary functions of the field invariant and constrained by several physical conditions. These solutions are characterized in terms of the mass parameter m, the electromagnetic energy μ, and the Gauss-Bonnet parameter lα2. We find that a general feature of these solutions is that the metric behaves in a different way in D=5 and D>5 space-time dimensions. Moreover, such solutions split into two classes, according to whether they are defined everywhere or they show branch singularities, depending on (m, μ,lα2). We describe qualitatively the structures composed in this scenario, which largely extends the results obtained in the literature for several particular families of nonlinear electrodynamics. An explicit new example, illustrative of our results, is introduced. Finally we allow nonvanishing values of the cosmological constant length lΛ2 and study the existence of new structures, in both asymptotically anti-de Sitter and de Sitter spaces. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Zheng G.,Fudan University | Gao X.P.A.,Case Western Reserve University | Lieber C.M.,Harvard University
Nano Letters | Year: 2010

We demonstrate a new protein detection methodology based upon frequency domain electrical measurement using silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) biosensors. The power spectral density of voltage from a current-biased SiNW FET shows 1/f-dependence in frequency domain for measurements of antibody functionalized SiNW devices in buffer solution or in the presence of protein not specific to the antibody receptor. In the presence of protein (antigen) recognized specifically by the antibody-functionalized SiNW FET, the frequency spectrum exhibits a Lorentzian shape with a characteristic frequency of several kilohertz. Frequency and conventional time domain measurements carried out with the same device as a function of antigen concentration show more than 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity in the frequency domain data. These concentration-dependent results together with studies of antibody receptor density effect further address possible origins of the Lorentzian frequency spectrum. Our results show that frequency domain measurements can be used as a complementary approach to conventional time domain measurements for ultrasensitive electrical detection of proteins and other biomolecules using nanoscale FETs. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Hao J.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Zhou L.,Fudan University | Qiu M.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Qiu M.,Zhejiang University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

We theoretically and numerically study the absorption effect and the heat generation in plasmonic metamaterials under light radiation at their plasmonic resonance. Three different types of structures, all possessing high-performance absorption for visible lights, are investigated. The main aim of this work is to present an intuitive and original understanding of the high-performance absorption effects. From the macroscopic electromagnetic point of view, the effective-medium approach is used to describe the absorption effects of the plasmonic metamaterials. On the other hand, the field distributions and heat generation effects in such plasmonic nanostructures are investigated, which also provides a satisfactory qualitative description of such absorption behavior based upon the microscopic perspective. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Ma W.-X.,University of South Florida | Fan E.,Fudan University
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2011

A linear superposition principle of exponential traveling waves is analyzed for Hirota bilinear equations, with an aim to construct a specific sub-class of N-soliton solutions formed by linear combinations of exponential traveling waves. Applications are made for the 3+1 dimensional KP, JimboMiwa and BKP equations, thereby presenting their particular N-wave solutions. An opposite question is also raised and discussed about generating Hirota bilinear equations possessing the indicated N-wave solutions, and a few illustrative examples are presented, together with an algorithm using weights. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

BACKGROUND: In the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government set the goal of increasing life expectancy by one year. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of major causes of death on the life expectancy of the Chinese people between 1950 and 2010 and predict changing trends to identify major issues requiring future attention.METHODS: A continuous database organised by population and death data on diseases by age group between 1950 and 2010 were created from A Province in Eastern China. The diseases were classified into four categories by the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10): infectious and parasitic diseases, chronic diseases, accidental injuries, and maternal diseases. Potential gains in life expectancy (PGLEs) were applied to reflect the impact on life expectancy caused by deaths from various diseases, by using the cause-eliminated life table.RESULTS: The PGLEs of infectious and parasitic diseases decreased from 15.59 years in 1950, to 0.07 year in 2010, and have remained low since 2000. However, the PGLEs of chronic diseases increased from 8.70 years in 1950, to 13.36 years in 2010, and indicated an increasing future trend. The two opposite trends exhibited a 'scissors-like difference'. The proportion of accidental injuries and maternal diseases in the death spectrum was low. The PGLEs of accidental injuries decreased from 2.95 years in 1950, to 0.86 year in 2010, maintaining a low level, while the PGLEs of maternal diseases dropped from 0.56 to 0.002 year during the same period, approaching zero.CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study provide useful information, which could contribute to a more effective allocation of public health programmes. In recent years, chronic diseases and accidental injuries have emerged as major factors influencing life expectancy. Primary and secondary prevention actions, such as public education, modification of behaviours, and introduction of safety measures should be emphasised in efforts to promote life expectancy. The morbidity and mortality rates of infectious, parasitic, and maternal diseases should be maintained at low levels.

Ma Z.,Fudan University | Dai S.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory
ACS Catalysis | Year: 2011

Small gold nanoparticles dispersed on certain oxide supports exhibit unprecedented catalytic activities in low-temperature CO oxidation, and gold catalysts show a great potential for selective oxidation or hydrogenation of organic substrates. Nevertheless, most gold catalysts (e.g., Au/TiO2, Au/Al2O3, Au/Fe2O3, Au/SiO 2, Au/CeO2) have been prepared by loading gold on unmodified or modified solid supports through traditional synthesis methodologies (e.g., deposition precipitation, wet impregnation), therefore having simple metal-on-support structures and metal-support interactions. The current Perspective highlights some recent progress in the design of novel structured gold nanocatalysts, including unsupported or supported core-shell or yolk-shell structures, gold nanoparticles encapsulated in an inorganic matrix, postmodified gold catalysts, gold-based alloy catalysts, and gold catalysts with additional interfacial sites (or metal oxide components) carried to supports or formed in situ on supports. The objective of most of these studies was to demonstrate synthetic protocols by testing the catalytic performance of the prepared catalysts in simple probe reactions, and the focus was more on materials synthesis than on catalytic reactions or reaction mechanisms. These novel structured gold catalysts will certainly bring new opportunities for studying their performance in various catalytic reactions, the nature of active sites, reaction mechanisms, and correlations between structure and catalytic properties. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

BACKGROUND:: Emerging evidence indicates that nerve damage–initiated neuroinflammation and immune responses, which are evidenced by the up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines, contribute to the development of neuropathic pain. This study investigated the role of spinal interleukin (IL)-33 and its receptor ST2 in spared nerve injury (SNI)-induced neuropathic pain. METHODS:: The von Frey test and acetone test were performed to evaluate neuropathic pain behaviors (n = 8 to 12), and Western blot (n = 4 to 6), immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (n = 5), and Bio-Plex (n = 5) assays were performed to understand the molecular mechanisms. RESULTS:: Intrathecal administration of ST2-neutralizing antibody or ST2 gene knockout (ST2) significantly attenuated the SNI-induced mechanical and cold allodynia. On the 7th day after SNI, the expression of spinal IL-33 and ST2 was increased by 255.8 ± 27.3% and 266.4 ± 83.5% (mean ± SD), respectively. Mechanistic studies showed that the increased expression of the spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 1 after SNI was reduced by ST2 antibody administration or ST2. The induction of nociceptive behaviors in naive mice due to recombinant IL-33 was reversed by the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist MK-801. ST2 antibody administration or ST2 markedly inhibited the increased activation of the astroglial janus kinase 2 (JAK2)–signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) cascade and the neuronal calcium–calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII)–cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element–binding protein (CREB) cascade after SNI. Moreover, intrathecal pretreatment with the CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 or the JAK2–STAT3 cascade inhibitor AG490 attenuated recombinant IL-33-induced nociceptive behaviors and NMDA subunit 1 up-regulation in naive mice. CONCLUSION:: Spinal IL-33/ST2 signaling contributes to neuropathic pain by activating the astroglial JAK2–STAT3 cascade and the neuronal CaMKII–CREB cascade. © by 2015, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

It has been reported that B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) enhances neurogenesis as well as supporting axonal growth after injury. In the present study, we investigated whether Bcl-2 overexpression plays a role in the formation of newborn striatonigral projection neurons in the adult rat brain after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). We infused human Bcl-2-expressing plasmid (pBcl-2) into the lateral ventricle immediately after 30 min of MCAO, injected 5'-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) intraperitoneally to label proliferative cells, and microinjected fluorogold (FG) into the substantia nigra at 11 weeks of reperfusion followed by multiple immunostaining of striatonigral projection neurons at 12 weeks. We found that pBcl-2 treatment significantly increased the number of newborn neurons (BrdU(+)-NeuN(+)) in the striatum ipsilateral to the MCAO. We further detected newborn striatonigral projection neurons (BrdU(+)-FG(+)-NeuN(+)) in the ipsilateral striatum at 12 weeks. More interestingly, the number of newborn striatonigral projection neurons (BrdU(+)-FG(+)) was significantly increased by pBcl-2 treatment compared to that by pEGFP, a control plasmid. Taken together, we found that Bcl-2 overexpression in the brain enhanced the generation of newborn striatonigral projection neurons. This provides a potential strategy for promoting the reestablishment of neural networks and brain repair after ischemic injury.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms whereby hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exerts the promoting effect on vascular endothelial cells migration. We used wound healing assay to study the effect of NaHS (H2S donor) on the migration ability of rhesus retinal pigment epithelial cell line, RF/6A cells, under normoxic conditions. Real-time PCR was used to measure hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) mRNA level. Western blot was used to measure the expression of HIF-1α protein. The probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) was used to measure intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. The results showed that NaHS (10-100 μmol/L) could significantly promote RF/6A cells migration under normoxic conditions, and this effect could be inhibited by 50 μmol/L HIF-1 inhibitor, CdCl2. NaHS increased the protein level of HIF-1α in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and up-regulated the mRNA level of HIF-1α quickly and continuously. Moreover, NaHS could significantly decrease ROS levels in RF/6A cells under normoxic conditions. These results suggest HIF-1 may mediate the promoting effect of H2S on vascular endothelial cells migration under normoxic conditions. ROS, as an upstream regulator of HIF-1α, may be involved in the migration-promoting effect of H2S.

MiRNA are about 22nt long small noncoding RNAs that post transcriptionally regulate gene expression in animals, plants and protozoa. Confident identification of MiRNA-Target Interactions (MTI) is vital to understand their function. Currently, several integrated computational programs and databases are available for animal miRNAs, the mechanisms of which are significantly different from plant miRNAs. Here we present an integrated MTI prediction and analysis toolkit (imiRTP) for Arabidopsis thaliana. It features two important functions: (i) combination of several effective plant miRNA target prediction methods provides a sufficiently large MTI candidate set, and (ii) different filters allow for an efficient selection of potential targets. The modularity of imiRTP enables the prediction of high quality targets on genome-wide scale. Moreover, predicted MTIs can be presented in various ways, which allows for browsing through the putative target sites as well as conducting simple and advanced analyses. Results show that imiRTP could always find high quality candidates compared with single method by choosing appropriate filter and parameter. And we also reveal that a portion of plant miRNA could bind target genes out of coding region. Based on our results, imiRTP could facilitate the further study of Arabidopsis miRNAs in real use. All materials of imiRTP are freely available under a GNU license at (http://admis.fudan.edu.cn/projects/imiRTP.htm).

Wu H.,Fudan University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

We sought the origin of the metal-insulator transition in Sr 2-xLa xCoO 4, using electron-correlation corrected density functional calculations. Our results show that Sr 2CoO 4 is in an intermediate-spin (IS, t2g4eg1) state and a strong Co4 + 3d-O 2p hybridization is responsible for its ferromagnetic metallicity. Upon La doping, however, a spin-state transition occurs in Sr 1.5La 0.5CoO 4: IS Co4 +×2+1e→LSCo4 +(t2g5)+HSCo3 +(t2g4eg2) (LS: low spin; HS: high spin). Then the spin-state transition suppresses an electron hopping via a spin blockade and gives rise to the insulating behavior of Sr 1.5La 0.5CoO 4. A corresponding superexchange accounts for its ferromagnetism. Thus the spin state could provide a way to tune materials properties. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Zhou N.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte | Cheung W.K.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Qiu G.,University of Nottingham | Xue X.,Fudan University
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2011

The increasing availability of large quantities of user contributed images with labels has provided opportunities to develop automatic tools to tag images to facilitate image search and retrieval. In this paper, we present a novel hybrid probabilistic model (HPM) which integrates low-level image features and high-level user provided tags to automatically tag images. For images without any tags, HPM predicts new tags based solely on the low-level image features. For images with user provided tags, HPM jointly exploits both the image features and the tags in a unified probabilistic framework to recommend additional tags to label the images. The HPM framework makes use of the tag-image association matrix (TIAM). However, since the number of images is usually very large and user-provided tags are diverse, TIAM is very sparse, thus making it difficult to reliably estimate tag-to-tag co-occurrence probabilities. We developed a collaborative filtering method based on nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) for tackling this data sparsity issue. Also, an L-1 norm kernel method is used to estimate the correlations between image features and semantic concepts. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been evaluated using three databases containing 5,000 images with 371 tags, 31,695 images with 5,587 tags, and 269,648 images with 5,018 tags, respectively. © 2011 IEEE.

Ma X.,Xian Jiaotong University | Zhang J.,Fudan University | Qi C.,Xian Jiaotong University
Pattern Recognition | Year: 2010

A novel face hallucination method is proposed in this paper for the reconstruction of a high-resolution face image from a low-resolution observation based on a set of high- and low-resolution training image pairs. Different from most of the established methods based on probabilistic or manifold learning models, the proposed method hallucinates the high-resolution image patch using the same position image patches of each training image. The optimal weights of the training image position-patches are estimated and the hallucinated patches are reconstructed using the same weights. The final high-resolution facial image is formed by integrating the hallucinated patches. The necessity of two-step framework or residue compensation and the differences between hallucination based on patch and global image are discussed. Experiments show that the proposed method without residue compensation generates higher-quality images and costs less computational time than some recent face image super-resolution (hallucination) techniques. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Qian J.,Fudan University
Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions : official journal of the Society for Cardiac Angiography & Interventions | Year: 2012

Relative efficacy and safety of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) compared with paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) remains controversial. It is unknown whether there are different effect and safety in coronary bifurcation treatment between SES and PES. The meta-analysis was performed to compare the clinical outcomes of SES and PES in coronary bifurcation intervention. Five head-to-head clinical trials of SES versus PES in coronary bifurcation intervention were included. A total of 2,567 patients were involved in the meta-analysis. Mean follow-up period ranged from 6 to 35 months. The primary end points were the need for target lesion revascularization (TLR) and main-branch restenosis. Secondary end points were target vessel revascularization (TVR), cardiac death, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), and stent thrombosis. Compared with PES, SES significantly reduced the risk of TLR (5.3% vs. 10.6%, odds ratio (OR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.38-0.70, P < 0.001), main-branch restenosis (4.59% vs. 12.59%, OR 0.31; 95% CI = 0.18-0.55, P < 0.001) and TVR (7.05% vs. 12.57%, OR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.42-0.81, P = 0.001) in coronary bifurcation intervention. In addition, SES group also had a significantly lower incidence of MACE (8.20% vs. 14.13%, OR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.40-0.84, P = 0.004) than PES group. However, there were no statistical difference with respect to the incidence of cardiac death (1.64% vs. 1.09%, P = 0.19) and stent thrombosis (0.84% vs. 1.08%, P = 0.64) between SES and PES groups. Compared with PES, SES reduced the incidence of TLR, main-branch restenosis and MACE in coronary bifurcation intervention, while the risk of stent thrombosis was similar between SES and PES groups. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate the target gene expression at post-transcriptional level. They are widely involved in biological processes, such as embryonic development, cell division, differentiation, and apoptosis. Evidence suggests that miRNAs can constrain the variation of their target to buffer the fluctuation of expression. However, whether this effect can act on the genome-wide expression remains controversial. In this study, we comprehensively explored the stably expressed genes (SE genes) and fluctuant genes (FL genes) in the human genome by a meta-analysis of large scale microarray data. We found that these genes have distinct function distributions. miRNA targets are shown to be significantly enriched in SE genes by using propensity analysis of miRNA regulation, supporting the hypothesis that miRNAs can buffer whole genome expression fluctuation. The expression-buffering effect of miRNA is independent of the target site number within the 3'-untranslated region. In addition, we found that gene expression fluctuation is positively correlated with the number of transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region, which suggests that coordination between transcription factors and miRNAs leads to balanced responses to external perturbations. Our study confirmed that the genetic buffering roles of miRNAs can act on genome expression fluctuation and provides insights into how miRNAs and transcription factors coordinate to cope with external perturbation.

Wang J.Y.,Fudan University
Journal of Digestive Diseases | Year: 2012

Antiviral therapy is important in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related decompensated cirrhosis. This therapy is beneficial in most patients for the stabilization or improvement of liver disease; however, advanced cirrhosis with a high Child-Pugh or model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score may have progressed and does not benefit from antiviral therapy. It is important to identify patients with severe decompensated cirrhosis who will not improve under antiviral therapy and who require liver transplantation as early as possible. Entecavir (ETV) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is the first-line therapy for nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA)-naive patients with decompensated cirrhosis due to their potent and prompt HBV suppressive effect and low rate of drug-resistant mutations. Patients on antiviral therapy should be monitored for virological and clinical response, compliance, drug resistance and adverse effects as well as surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Additional studies of TDF and ETV are necessary to determine the optimal agent(s) for treating naive patients and those with drug-resistant decompensated cirrhosis. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of NA for the treatment of decompensated cirrhotic patients in the real world, high quality observational studies such as registration studies of antiviral therapy for HBV-related cirrhosis and a long-term follow-up in China, where a large number of such patients are found, are recommended. © 2012 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Jia J.,Xidian University | Hu Q.,Fudan University
Computers and Industrial Engineering | Year: 2011

The paper studies the combined problem of pricing and ordering for a perishable product supply chain with one supplier and one retailer in a finite horizon. The lifetime of the product is two periods and demand in each period is random and price-sensitive. In each period, the supplier determines first a wholesale price and then the retailer decides an order quantity and retail prices. We show that the optimal pricing strategy for the non-fresh product depends only on its inventory, and the optimal pricing strategy and the optimal order quantity for the fresh product depend only on the wholesale price and they have a constant relation. Moreover, the game between the retailer and the supplier for finite horizon is equivalent to a one period game with only one order. Thus, the optimal policies are identical at each period. For the additive and multiplicative demands, we further obtain equations to compute the optimal strategies. All of above results are extended into the infinite horizon case and longer lifetime products. Finally, a numerical analysis is given. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Calcagni G.,CSIC - Institute for the Structure of Matter | Modesto L.,Fudan University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We construct a ultraviolet completion of the bosonic sector of 11-dimensional supergravity motivated by string field theory. We start from a general class of theories characterized by an entire nonpolynomial form factor that allows one to avoid new poles in the propagator and improves the high-energy behavior of the loops amplitudes. Comparing these models with effective string field theory, a unique form factor is selected out. In view of this, we modify ten-dimensional supergravity and finally get a ultraviolet completion of 11-dimensional supergravity by an oxidation process. The result is a candidate for a finite and unitary particle-field limit of M-theory. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Ge H.,Fudan University | Qian M.,Peking University | Qian H.,University of Washington
Physics Reports | Year: 2012

The mathematical theory of nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) has a natural application in open biochemical systems which have sustained source(s) and sink(s) in terms of a difference in their chemical potentials. After a brief introduction in Section 1, in Part II of this review, we present the widely studied biochemical enzyme kinetics, the workhorse of biochemical dynamic modeling, in terms of the theory of NESS (Section 2.1). We then show that several phenomena in enzyme kinetics, including a newly discovered activation-inhibition switching (Section 2.2) and the well-known non-Michaelis-Menten-cooperativity (Section 2.3) and kinetic proofreading (Section 2.4), are all consequences of the NESS of driven biochemical systems with associated cycle fluxes. Section 3 is focused on nonlinear and nonequilibrium systems of biochemical reactions. We use the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle (PdPC), one of the most important biochemical signaling networks, as an example (Section 3.1). It starts with a brief introduction of the Delbrück-Gillespie process approach to mesoscopic biochemical kinetics (Sections 3.2 and 3.3). We shall discuss the zeroth-order ultrasensitivity of PdPC in terms of a new concept - the temporal cooperativity (Sections 3.4 and 3.5), as well as PdPC with feedback which leads to biochemical nonlinear bistability (Section 3.6). Also, both are nonequilibrium phenomena. PdPC with a nonlinear feedback is kinetically isomorphic to a self-regulating gene expression network, hence the theory of NESS discussed here could have wide applications to many other biochemical systems. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Geometry optimizations are performed for three polytypes of h-BN using density functional theory with dispersion correction for the van der Walls interaction. Quasiparticle band structure calculations are carried out to solve the controversy on band gap type of h-BN. Band energies are corrected by GW method. The h-BN with B k structure has an indirect band gap of 5.840 eV. Two kinds of h-BN polytypes are shown to be mechanically stable and have quasi-direct band gap type. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Qu P.,Fudan University
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences | Year: 2011

The mechanism of singularity formation is discussed for a kind of blocked quasilinear hyperbolic system with linearly degenerate characteristics, so that the ODE singularity can be shown for some kinds of complete reducible systems and, in particular, all the results in Li et al. (Math. Meth. Appl. Sci. 2008; 31:193-227) can be proved without the original assumption on the part richness. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hou Z.F.,Fudan University
Solid State Communications | Year: 2010

We have performed first-principles calculations to study the elasticity, electronic structure, and magnetism of InNCo3 and InNNi3. The independent elastic constants are derived from the second derivative of total energy as a function of strain, and the elastic moduli are predicted according to the VoigtReussHill approximation. Our calculations show that the bulk modulus of InNCo3 is slightly larger than that of InNNi 3 due to a smaller lattice constant for InNCo3. For InNCo3 the ferromagnetic state is energetically preferable to the non-magnetic state, while the ground state of InNNi3 is non-magnetic. This is due to the different strength of 2p3d hybridization for the NCo atoms in InNCo3 and the NNi atoms in InNNi3. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bambi C.,Fudan University | Bambi C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black holes predicted by general relativity, but there is not yet clear evidence that the geometry of the space-time around these objects is really described by the Kerr metric. In order to confirm the Kerr black hole hypothesis, we have to observe strong gravity features and check that they are in agreement with the ones predicted by general relativity. In this paper, I study the broad Kα iron line, which is often seen in the x-ray spectrum of both stellar-mass and supermassive black hole candidates and whose shape is supposed to be strongly affected by the space-time geometry. As found in previous studies in the literature, there is a strong correlation between the spin parameter and the deformation parameter; that is, the line emitted around a Kerr black hole with a certain spin can be very similar to the one coming from the space-time around a non-Kerr object with a quite different spin. Despite that, the analysis of the broad Kα iron line is potentially more powerful than the continuum-fitting method, as it can put an interesting bound on possible deviations from the Kerr geometry independently of the value of the spin parameter and without additional measurements. © 2013 American Physical Society.

STUDY DESIGN:: Experimental animal study.OBJECTIVE:: The authors conducted a study to determine the efficacy and safety of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel to prevent peridural fibrosis in an adult rat laminectomy model.SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:: Peridural fibrosis often occurs after spinal laminectomy. It might cause persistent back and/or leg pain postoperatively and make a reoperation more difficult and dangerous. Various materials have been used to prevent epidural fibrosis, but only limited success has been achieved.METHODS:: The PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was synthesized by us. Total L3 laminectomies were performed in 24 rats. The PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel or chitosan gel (a positive control group) was applied to the operative sites in a blinded fashion. In the control group, the L-3 laminectomy was performed and the defect was irrigated with the NS solution 3 times. All the rats were killed 4 weeks after surgery.RESULTS:: The cytotoxicity of this thermogel was evaluated in vitro and the result demonstrated that no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. The extent of epidural fibrosis, the area of epidural fibrosis, the density of fibroblasts and blood vessel were evaluated histologically. There were statistical differences among the PLGA-PEG- PLGA thermogel or chitosan gel group compared with the control group. Althrough there was no difference between the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel and chitosan gel, the efficiency of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel showed slightly improved comparing with the chitosan gel.CONCLUSIONS:: The biocompatibility of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was proved well. The application of this thermogel effectively reduced epidural scarring, and prevented the subsequent adhesion to the dura mater with improved results comparing with the chitosan gel. No side effects were noted in all the rats. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Gu J.-Y.,Fudan University | Li L.-W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Archives of Medical Research | Year: 2014

Background and Aims: Emerging evidences have shown that the Glu504Lys variant in ALDH2 gene may greatly reduce the ability of ALDH2 to metabolize acetaldehyde, which could increase the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI). However, the reported results are still conflicting. To investigate the association between ALDH2 Glu504Lys polymorphism and the risk of CAD and MI in Asians, we analyzed all available studies in a meta-analysis. Methods: A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Chinese BioMedical (CBM) databases was conducted for articles published before March 1, 2013. The principal outcome measure was the crude odds ratios (ORs) with their corresponding confidence intervals (95% CIs) for evaluating the strength of the association. Results: Meta-analysis showed that carriers of ALDH2*504lys allele were associated with increased risks of both CAD and MI (CAD: OR= 1.28, 95% CI: 1.10-1.48, p= 0.001; MI: OR= 1.58, 95% CI: 1.15-2.19, p= 0.005). Subgroup analysis by country showed significant correlations between mutant genotypes (Glu/Lys+ Lys/Lys) and increased risk to MI among Chinese and Korean populations (Chinese: OR= 1.89, 95% CI: 1.16-3.09, p= 0.011; Korean: OR= 1.69, 95%CI: 1.12-2.55, p= 0.013), whereas similar associations were not observed among Japanese populations. Conclusions: The current meta-analysis provides strong evidence that ALDH2 Glu504Lys polymorphism may be associated with increased risk of CAD and MI in East Asians, especially among Chinese and Korean populations. However, more detailed and well-designed studies are still warranted to confirm these findings. © 2014 IMSS.

Xiao J.,Fudan University
Molecular genetics and genomics : MGG | Year: 2014

Rare copy number variations (CNVs) generated by human genomic rearrangements have been shown to play an important role in pathogenesis of human diseases and cancers. CNV breakpoint analysis can help define genomic location, genetic content and sequence structure of pathogenic CNVs. This process is vital to elucidate CNV mutational mechanism and etiology of CNV-associated disorders. However, it is technically challenging to map CNV breakpoints at base-pair level, especially in the genomic regions with sequence complexity. In this study, we developed a new method of capture and breakpoint approaching sequencing (CBAS) to efficiently obtain CNV breakpoint sequences. This strategy is independent of CNV structures and applicable to various CNV types. As was demonstrated in CNV-associated patients with neurological disorders, CBAS achieved fine mapping of breakpoint sequences for compound deletion, complex duplication, and translocation. Intriguingly, CBAS also revealed unexpected CNV complexity involving long-range DNA rearrangement. Our observations showed that CBAS is an efficient method for obtaining CNV breakpoint sequence and mapping insertional events as well. This method can facilitate the researches on CNV-associated human diseases and cancers. CBAS is also applicable to mapping the integration sites of retrovirus (such as HIV) and transgenes in model organisms.

Wu H.,Fudan University
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2013

The electronic and magnetic structures of La4Ni 3O8, an analogue of the hole doped cuprates, are studied using the configuration state constrained local-spin-density approximation plus Hubbard U calculations. It is found to be a C-type antiferromagnetic Mott insulator, in which an orbital hybridization strongly reduces an otherwise possible charge disproportionation. This state accounts for several experimental observations. The involved Ni2+ high-spin state and its orbital configuration are found to be against a crystal-field level picture, which predicts an Ni2+ low-spin state in the NiO2 square lattice. We note, however, that La4Ni3O8, if in the low-spin state, would be a charge-homogeneous ferromagnetic half-metal with only the up-spin x2-y2 conduction band. Therefore, low-spin nickelates may be explored for any interesting property. © IOP Publishing and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

Wang L.,Shanghai University of Finance and Economics | Chen T.,Fudan University
Neural Networks | Year: 2012

In this paper, we are concerned with the delayed cellular neural networks (DCNNs) in the case that the time-varying delays are unbounded. Under some conditions, it shows that the DCNNs can exhibit 3n equilibrium points. Then, we track the dynamics of u(t)(t>0) in two cases with respect to different types of subset regions in which u(0) is located. It concludes that every solution trajectory u(t) would converge to one of the equilibrium points despite the time-varying delays, that is, the delayed cellular neural networks are completely stable. The method is novel and the results obtained extend the existing ones. In addition, two illustrative examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of our results. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Gao X.P.A.,Case Western Reserve University | Zheng G.,Fudan University | Lieber C.M.,Harvard University
Nano Letters | Year: 2010

Nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) are emerging as powerful sensors for detection of chemical/biological species with various attractive features including high sensitivity and direct electrical readout. Yet to date there have been limited systematic studies addressing how the fundamental factors of devices affect their sensitivity. Here we demonstrate that the sensitivity of NWFET sensors can be exponentially enhanced in the subthreshold regime where the gating effect of molecules bound on a surface is the most effective due to the reduced screening of carriers in NWs. This principle is exemplified in both pH and protein sensing experiments where the operational mode of NW-FET biosensors was tuned by electrolyte gating. The lowest charge detectable by NW-FET sensors working under different operational modes is also estimated. Our work shows that optimization of NW-FET structure and operating conditions can provide significant enhancement and fundamental understanding for the sensitivity limits of NW-FET sensors. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation is an important process in the development of atherosclerosis and is associated with other cellular processes in atherogenesis. Telmisartan is reported to have partial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ activating properties and has been referred to as selective PPAR modulators, but valsartan just blocks angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 (AT1) receptors. This study aimed to compare the different effects of telmisartan and valsartan on human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) proliferation. Ability of telmisartan and valsartan to inhibit proliferation of HASMCs was evaluated by the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) in continuous cell culture. Whether the antiproliferative effects of telmisartan and valsartan depend on their effects on AngII receptors or activating the peroxisome PPAR-γ was also investigated in this study. Telmisartan inhibited proliferation of HASMCs by 52.4% (P < 0.01) at the concentration of 25 μmol/L and the effect depended on the dose of telmisartan, but valsartan had little effect on HASMCs proliferation (P > 0.05) and no dose response. When tested in cells stimulated with AngII, telmisartan had the same inhibition of HASMCs by 59.2% (P < 0.05) and valsartan also inhibited it by 41.6% (P < 0.05). Telmisartan and valsartan had the same effect on down-regulating AT1 receptor expression and telmisartan was superior to valsartan up-regulating AngII type 2 (AT2) receptor expression. Antiproliferative effects of telmisartan were observed when HASMCs were treated with the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 but antiproliferative effects of the PPAR-γ activator pioglitazone were not observed. Telmisartan, but not valsartan, inhibits HASMCs proliferation and has dose-dependent response without stimulation of AngII. AT2 receptor up-regulation of telmisartan contributes to its greater antiproliferative effects than valsartan. Its PPAR-γ activation does not play a critical role in inhibiting HASMCs proliferation.

Wang K.,Fudan University
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences | Year: 2011

Based on the local exact boundary controllability for 1-D quasilinear wave equations, the global exact boundary controllability for 1-D quasilinear wave equations in a neighborbood of any connected set of constant equilibria is obtained by an extension method. Similar results are also given for a kind of general 1-D quasilinear hyperbolic equations. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Zhang Y.,Fudan University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

In this study, through phenomenological comparison of the velocity-force data of processive motor proteins, including conventional kinesin, cytoplasmic dynein and myosin V, I found that, the ratio between motor velocities of two different ATP concentrations is almost invariant for any substall, superstall or negative external loads. Therefore, the velocity of motors can be well approximated by a Michaelis-Menten like formula V = [ATP]k(F)L/([ATP]+K M), with L the step size, and k(F) the external load F dependent rate of one mechanochemical cycle of motor motion in saturated ATP solution. The difference of Michaelis-Menten constant K M for substall, superstall and negative external load indicates, the configurations at which ATP molecule can bind to motor heads for these three cases might be different, though the expression of k(F) as a function of F might be unchanged for any external load F. Verifications of this Michaelis-Menten like formula has also been done by fitting to the recent experimental data. © 2012 Yunxin Zhang.

Xu Z.,Fudan University | Turel O.,California State University, Fullerton | Yuan Y.,McMaster University
European Journal of Information Systems | Year: 2012

Online game addiction has become a common phenomenon that affects many individuals and societies. In this study we rely on the functionalist perspective of human behavior and propose and test a balanced model of the antecedents of online game addiction among adolescents, which simultaneously focuses on motivating, and prevention and harm reduction forces. First, a sample of 163 adolescents was used for validating and refining a survey instrument. Second, survey data collected from 623 adolescents were analyzed with Partial Least Squares techniques. The findings point to several functional needs (e.g., need for relationship and need for escapism) that drive online game playing and addiction, as well as to several prevention and harm reduction factors (e.g., education, attention switching activities) that reduce game playing time and alleviate online game addiction. The effects of motivation and prevention factors on online game addiction are often partially mediated by online game playing. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © 2012 Operational Research Society Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are important part of the local 'stem cell niche' for hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) and hepatocytes. However, it is unclear as to whether the products of activated HSCs are required to attenuate hepatocyte injury, enhance liver regeneration, or both. In this study, we performed 'loss of function' studies by depleting activated HSCs with gliotoxin. It was demonstrated that a significantly severe liver damage and declined survival rate were correlated with depletion of activated HSCs. Furthermore, diminishing HSC activation resulted in a 3-fold increase in hepatocyte apoptosis and a 66% decrease in the number of proliferating hepatocytes. This was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in the expression levels of five genes known to be up-regulated during hepatocyte replication. In particular, it was found that depletion of activated HSCs inhibited oval cell reaction that was confirmed by decreased numbers of Pank-positive cells around the portal tracts and lowered gene expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) in gliotoxin-treated liver. These data provide clear evidence that the activated HSCs are involved in both hepatocyte death and proliferation of hepatocytes and HPCs in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver injury.

Tian Z.F.,Fudan University
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2011

Based on a fourth-order compact difference formula for the spatial discretization, which is currently proposed for the one-dimensional (1D) steady convection-diffusion problem, and the Crank-Nicolson scheme for the time discretization, a rational high-order compact alternating direction implicit (ADI) method is developed for solving two-dimensional (2D) unsteady convection-diffusion problems. The method is unconditionally stable and second-order accurate in time and fourth-order accurate in space. The resulting scheme in each ADI computation step corresponds to a tridiagonal matrix equation which can be solved by the application of the 1D tridiagonal Thomas algorithm with a considerable saving in computing time. Three examples supporting our theoretical analysis are numerically solved. The present method not only shows higher accuracy and better phase and amplitude error properties than the standard second-order Peaceman-Rachford ADI method in Peaceman and Rachford (1959) [4], the fourth-order ADI method of Karaa and Zhang (2004) [5] and the fourth-order ADI method of Tian and Ge (2007) [23], but also proves more effective than the fourth-order Padé ADI method of You (2006) [6], in the aspect of computational cost. The method proposed for the diffusion-convection problems is easy to implement and can also be used to solve pure diffusion or pure convection problems. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sun L.,Fudan University
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians | Year: 2013

To estimate birth population-based perinatal-neonatal mortality and preterm rate in China from a regional survey in 2010. Data of total births in 2010 obtained from 151 level I-III hospitals in Huai'an, Jiangsu, were prospectively collected and analyzed. From 61,227 birth registries (including 60,986 live births and 241 stillbirths), we derive a birth rate of 11.3‰ (of 5.4 million regional population), a male-to-female ratio of 116:100 and valid data from 60,615 newborns. Mean birth weight (BW) was 3441 ± 491 g with 13.6% macrosomia. Low BW was 2.8% (1691/60,372) with 8.83% mortality. Preterm rate was 3.72% (2239/60,264) with 7.61% mortality. Cesarean section rate was 52.9% (31,964/60,445), multiple pregnancy 1.8% (1088/60,567) and birth defects 6.7‰ (411/61,227). There were 97.4% healthy newborns and 2.2% (1298) requiring hospitalized after birth. The perinatal mortality was 7.7‰ (471/61,227, including 241 stillbirths, 230 early neonatal deaths). The neonatal mortality was 4.4‰ (269/60,986). The main causes of neonatal death were birth asphyxia (24.5%), respiratory diseases (21.5%), prematurity related organ dysfunction (18.5%) and congenital anomalies (7.7%), whereas incidence of congenital heart disease and respiratory distress syndrome was 8.6‰ and 6.1‰, respectively. This regional birth population-based data file contains low perinatal-neonatal mortality rates, associated with low proportion of LBW and preterm births, and incidences of major neonatal disease, by which we estimate, in a nationwide perspective, in 16 million annual births, preterm births should be around 800,000, perinatal and neonatal mortality may be 128,000-144,000 and 80,000-96,000, respectively, along with 100,000 respiratory distress syndrome.

The near future mm/sub-mm very long baseline interferometry experiments are ambitious projects aiming at imaging the "shadow" of the supermassive black hole candidate at the center of the Milky Way and of the ones in nearby galaxies. An accurate observation of the shape of the shadow can potentially test the nature of these objects and verify if they are Kerr black holes, as predicted by general relativity. However, previous work on the subject has shown that the shadows produced in other spacetimes are very similar to the one of the Kerr background, suggesting that tests of strong gravity are not really possible with these facilities in the near future. In this work, I instead point out that it will be relatively easy to distinguish black holes from wormholes, topologically nontrivial structures of the spacetime that might have been formed in the early Universe and might connect our Universe with other universes. © 2013 American Physical Society.

The present study is to investigate whether the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway contributes to the initiation of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Mechanical allodynia was assessed by measuring the hindpaw withdrawal threshold in response to a calibrated series of von Frey hairs. Thermal hyperalgesia was assessed by measuring the latency of paw withdrawal in response to a radiant heat source. The expressions of phosphor-ERK (pERK) and phosphor-CREB (pCREB) were examined using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. An early robust increase in the expression of pERK on the spinal cords ipsilateral to injury was observed on day 1 after CCI, when the CCI-induced behavioral hypersensitivity had not developed yet. Moreover, the upregulation of pERK expression in ipsilateral spinal cord was associated with the increase in pCREB expression in bilateral spinal cord. Intrathecal administration of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 before CCI can efficiently block and delay the CCI-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. These data suggest that activation of ERK and CREB in the spinal cord contributes to the initiation of peripheral nerve injury-induced pain hypersensitivity, and an early intervention strategy should be proposed.

Bambi C.,Fudan University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

It has been proposed that the supermassive black hole candidates at the centers of galaxies might be wormholes formed in the early Universe and connecting our Universe with other sister universes. The analysis of the profile of the relativistic Kα iron line is currently the only available approach to probe the spacetime geometry around these objects. In this paper, we compute the expected Kα iron line in some wormhole spacetimes and we compare the results with the line produced around Kerr black holes. The line produced in accretion disks around nonrotating or very slow-rotating wormholes is relatively similar to the one expected around Kerr black holes with mid or high value of spin parameter and current observations are still marginally compatible with the possibility that the supermassive black hole candidates in galactic nuclei are these objects. For wormholes with spin parameter a *â‰0.02, the associated Kα iron line is instead quite different from the one produced around Kerr black holes, and their existence may already be excluded. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Du K.,Xiamen University | Lu H.,University of Connecticut | Yu K.,Fudan University
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

Taking the underlying technology heterogeneity into account, this paper uses a nonparametric metafrontier approach to estimate the CO2 emission efficiency and the potential emission reduction of China's 30 provinces for the period 2006-2010. The sources of the potential emission reduction are identified as managerial failure and technology gap. The proposed models are estimated using linear programming method. The main findings are as follows. Firstly, the potential CO2 emission reduction is averagely 56.2million tons for each province, and 1687million tons for the whole country. Secondly, over half of the potential emission reduction is caused by technology gap. Thirdly, the major contributor to the potential emission reduction varies across different regions, as management inefficiency for the east area and technology gap for the central and west areas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Mei Y.,Fudan University | Mei Y.,Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research | Solovev A.A.,Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research | Sanchez S.,Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

In this tutorial review we describe the recent progress on catalytic microtubular engines fabricated by rolled-up nanotech on polymers. We summarize the technical aspects of the technology and the basic principles that cause the catalytic microengines to self-propel in fuel solutions. The control over speed, directionality and interactions of the microengines to perform tasks such as cargo transportation is also discussed. We compare this technology to other fabrication techniques of catalytic micro-/nanomotors and outline challenges and opportunities for such engines in future studies. Since rolled-up nanotech on polymers can easily integrate almost any type of inorganic material, huge potential and advanced performance such as high speed, cargo delivery, motion control, and dynamic assembly are foreseen - ultimately promising a practical way to construct versatile and intelligent catalytic tubular microrobots. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

The ATP synthase is known to play important roles in ATP generation and proton translocation within mitochondria. Here, we now provide evidence showing the presence of functional ecto-ATP synthase on the neuronal surface. Immunoblotting revealed that the α, β subunits of ATP synthase F1 portion are present in isolated fractions of plasma membrane and biotin-labelled surface protein from primary cultured neurons; the surface distribution of α, β subunits was also confirmed by immunofluorescence staining. Moreover, α and β subunits were also found in fractions of plasma membrane and lipid rafts isolated from rat brain, and flow cytometry analysis showed α subunits on the surface of acutely isolated brain cells. Activity assays showed that the extracellular ATP generation of cultured neurons could be compromised by α, β subunit antibodies and ATP synthase inhibitors. pH(i) (intracellular pH) analysis demonstrated that at low extracellular pH, α or β subunit antibodies decreased pHi of primary cultured neurons. Therefore, ATP synthase on the surface of neurons may be involved in the machineries of extracellular ATP generation and pH(i) homoeostasis.

Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), as a tumor suppressor, plays vital roles in tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer. However, the mechanisms of PTEN regulation still need further investigation. We here report that a combination of four microRNAs (miR-19b, miR-23b, miR-26a and miR-92a) promotes prostate cell proliferation by regulating PTEN and its downstream signals in vitro. We found that the four microRNAs (miRNAs) could effectively suppress PTEN expression by directly interacting with its 3' UTR in prostate epithelial and cancer cells. Under-expression of the four miRNAs by antisense neutralization up-regulates PTEN expression, while overexpression of the four miRNAs accelerates epithelial and prostate cancer cell proliferation. Furthermore, the expression of the four miRNAs could, singly or jointly, alter the expression of the key components in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, including PIK3CA, PIK3CD, PIK3R1 and Akt, along with their downstream signal, cyclin D1. These results suggested that the four miRNAs could promote prostate cancer cell proliferation by co-regulating the expression of PTEN, PI3K/Akt pathway and cyclin D1 in vitro. These findings increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms of prostate carcinogenesis and progression, even provide valuable insights into the diagnosis, prognosis, and rational design of novel therapeutics for prostate cancer.

Qin L.-X.,Fudan University
Cancer Microenvironment | Year: 2012

Metastasis is a multistage process that requires cancer cells to escape from the primary tumor, survive in the circulation, seed at distant sites and grow. Each of these processes involves rate-limiting steps that are influenced by non-malignant cells of the tumor microenvironment. There are growing evidences that tumors are sustained and promoted by inflammatory signals from the surrounding microenvironment. This review describes experimental data demonstrating the role of the inflammatory immune responses of microenvironment in metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), points out the prospective areas for future research and possible new therapeutic approaches to control the metastasis of HCC. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Li Z.H.,Fudan University | Truhlar D.G.,University of Minnesota
Chemical Science | Year: 2014

Metal nanoparticles have been widely used as functional materials in physics, chemistry, and biology. Understanding their unique thermodynamic properties is essential both for practical applications and from a fundamental point of view. This perspective article is an overview of recent progresses on the nanothermodynamics of metal nanoparticles and it especially highlights as examples our own studies on the structural stability, phases, phase changes, and thermodynamic functions of aluminum nanoparticles. We discuss using statistical sampling by Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics algorithms to calculate nanoparticle properties, nanophase properties, free energies, and nucleation rates, and we tried to understand the results in terms of energy landscapes by using exhaustive enumeration of the multiple structures of Al nanoparticles from all sizes up to N = 65 plus selected larger calculations. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Bambi C.,Fudan University
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2013

Under the assumption that astrophysical black hole candidates are the Kerr black holes of general relativity, the continuum-fitting method and the analysis of the Kα iron line are today the only available techniques capable of providing a relatively reliable estimate of the spin parameter of these objects. If we relax the Kerr black hole hypothesis and we try to test the nature of black hole candidates, we find that there is a strong correlation between the measurement of the spin and possible deviations from the Kerr solution. The properties of the radiation emitted in a Kerr spacetime with spin parameter a* are indeed very similar, and practically indistinguishable, from the ones of the radiation emitted around a non-Kerr object with different spin. In this paper, I address the question whether measuring the Kerr spin with both the continuum-fitting method and the Kα iron line analysis of the same object can be used to claim the Kerr nature of the black hole candidate in the case of consistent results. In this work, I consider two non-Kerr metrics and it seems that the answer does depend on the specific background. The two techniques may either provide a very similar result (the case of the Bardeen metric) or show a discrepancy (Johannsen-Psaltis background). © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl.

Tang Q.Q.,Johns Hopkins University | Tang Q.Q.,Fudan University | Lane M.D.,Johns Hopkins University
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Excessive caloric intake without a rise in energy expenditure promotes adipocyte hyperplasia and adiposity. The rise in adipocyte number is triggered by signaling factors that induce conversion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to preadipocytes that differentiate into adipocytes. MSCs, which are recruited from the vascular stroma of adipose tissue, provide an unlimited supply of adipocyte precursors. Members of the BMP and Wnt families are key mediators of stem cell commitment to produce preadipocytes. Following commitment, exposure of growth-arrested preadipocytes to differentiation inducers insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), glucocorticoid, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) triggers DNA replication and reentry into the cell cycle (mitotic clonal expansion). Mitotic clonal expansion involves a transcription factor cascade, followed by the expression of adipocyte genes. Critical to these events are phosphorylations of the transcription factor CCATT enhancer-binding protein β (CEBPβ) by MAP kinase and GSK3β to produce a conformational change that gives rise to DNA-binding activity. "Activated" CEBPβ then triggers transcription of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and CEBPα, which in turn coordinately activate genes whose expression produces the adipocyte phenotype. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Xiong H.-M.,Fudan University
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2010

Photoluminescent ZnO nanoparticles, due to nontoxicity and cheapness, are promising materials applied in UV laser devices and biological labels. ZnO photoluminescence is usually composed of two parts: UV emission arising from the typical band gap transition and visible emission due to the oxygen vacancies. In order to protect ZnO nanoparticles and improve their optical properties, polymers are mixed with ZnO or modified on ZnO surfaces to produce various nanocomposites. In the meantime, some new luminescent phenomena are found when polymers and ZnO nanoparticles together participate in the luminescent process. This review will focus on the synthetic methods, structural features and photoluminescent properties of the polymer-ZnO nanocomposites. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

We explored the relationship between the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and aquaporins (AQP1 and AQP4 in Müller glia and astrocytes) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) with and without systemic hypertension. Diabetes was induced in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive control Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin. The diabetic and control non-diabetic rats were assigned randomly to receive no anti-hypertension treatment, or to be treated with the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), valsartan (40 mg/kg/d) or the beta-blocker, metoprolol (50 mg/kg/day). Eight weeks later, retinas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot to detect changes in the expression of AQP1, AQP4, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Hypertension increased expression of glial GFAP and AQP4 (P < 0.01), but not AQP1 (P > 0.05) in diabetic rats. Valsartan and metoprolol decreased GFAP, AQP1, and AQP4 expression in diabetic SHR rats (P < 0.01). Valsartan decreased GFAP and AQP1 expression in diabetic WKY rats (P < 0.01), while metoprolol did not. Activation of Müller glia and astrocytes was involved in the mechanism by which systemic hypertension affects DR. AQPs and macroglia were linked to changes in the RAS in DR. Changes in aquaporin expression in DR were increased by hypertension. This provides additional support for the early use of an ARB in the treatment of DR, especially in cases with retinal edema.

Hypertension prevalence is high in China, while patients' levels of hypertension awareness, treatment and control are low. General practitioners' knowledge and training relating to hypertension prevention may be an important related factor. We aimed to investigate general practitioners' knowledge of hypertension prevention and potential training needs. A questionnaire survey was conducted among all general practitioners at five community health service centers selected by convenience sampling. A total of 160 questionnaires were distributed and 147 were returned (response rate 91.9%) The questionnaire included general information; 12 subjective questions on health promotion, education and training needs; and 19 objective questions in 5 domains (epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, referral and community management) measuring knowledge of hypertension prevention and treatment. The major difficulties in health education practice for general practitioners were poor patient compliance (77.6%) and lack of medical consultation time (49.0%). The average accuracy rate of hypertension prevention knowledge was 49.2%, ranging from 10.5% to 94.7%. The factors associated with accuracy rate were physician's education level (medical university vs. professional school, β = 13.3, P = 0.003), and type of center (training base vs. community healthcare center, β = 12.3, P < 0.0001). Most physicians (87.8%) reported being willing to attend training courses regularly and the preferred frequency was once every 2 ~ 3 months (53.5%). The preferred course was medical treatment of hypertension (82.3%) and the most favored training approach was expert lectures (80.3%). The knowledge level of hypertension prevention is low among general practitioners in urban settings. Physicians working in community clinics where they participate in a series of teaching, assessing and evaluating systems for hypertension prevention perform better than those in general healthcare centers who lack specific training. Continuing hypertension education is urgently needed to ensure that physicians in general practice are aware of and adhere to the national hypertension prevention guidelines.

Li H.-P.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen X.,Soochow University of China | Li M.-Q.,Fudan University
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology | Year: 2013

Metabolic impairments in maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) induce an abnormal environment in peripheral blood and cause vascular structure alterations which affect the placental development and function. A GDM model was developed using C57BL/6J female mice fed with high fat food (HF) (40% energy from fat) and a control group with control food (CF) (14% energy from fat) for 14 weeks before mating and throughout the gestation period. A subset of dams was sacrificed at gestational day (GD) 18.5 to evaluate the fetal and placental development. HF-fed dams exhibited significant increase in the maternal weight gain and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), impaired insulin secretion of glucose stimulus and glucose clearance of insulin stimulus before pregnancy; in addition, they also had the increase in the fetal and placental weight. HF-fed dams at GD 18.5 showed the high level of circulating maternal inflammation factors and were associated with increased oxidative stress and hypoxia in the labyrinth, abnormal vascular development with a high level of hypoxia inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) and VEGF-A expression, but without a parallel increase in CD31 level; were induced an exaggerated inflammatory response in placental vascular endothelial cell. Our findings show that GDM induces more maternal weight gain and fetus weight, with abnormal maternal circulating metabolic and inflammation factors, and forms a placental hypoxia environment and impacts the placental vascular development. Our findings indicate that gestational diabetes induce excessive chronic hypoxia stress and inflammatory response in placentas which may contribute mechanisms to the high risks of perinatal complications of obesity and GDM mothers.

Jiang G.-M.,Fudan University | Jiang G.-M.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Optics Express | Year: 2010

This work intercalibrated the infrared window channels 8 (12.47 urn), 9 (11.11 μm) and 19 (3.98 μm) of the InfraRed Atmospheric Sounder (IRAS) aboard the Chinese second generation polar-orbiting meteorological satellite FengYun 3A (FY-3A) with high spectral resolution data acquired by the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) aboard Aqua. A North Pole study area was selected according to the IRAS and AIRS' viewing geometry. The IRAS/FY-3A L1 data and AIRS/Aqua IB Infrared geolocated and calibrated radiances (AIRIBRAD) in July of 2008 were used in this work. A sub-pixel registration method was developed and applied to the IRAS and AIRS images to improve the intercalibration accuracy. The co-located measurement pairs were picked out with absolute Viewing Zenith Angle differences less than 5° (|△VZA|< 5°), absolute Viewing Azimuth Angle differences less than 90° (|△VAA|<90°) and absolute time differences less than 15 min (|△T|<15')- The results reveal that the convolved AIRS/Aqua measurements are highly linearly related to the IRAS/FY-3A measurements with correlation coefficients greater than 0.93, and calibration discrepancies exist between IRAS and AIRS channels indeed. When the brightness temperatures in IRAS/FY-3A channels change from 230.0 K to 310.0 K, the AIRS-IRAS temperature adjustment linearly varies from -3.3 K to 1.7 K for IRAS/FY-3A channel 8, from -2.9 K to 2.6 K for IRAS/FY-3A channel 9, and from -5.3 K to 1.1 K for IRAS/FY-3A channel 19. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

Zhang X.,Fudan University
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

To investigate the in vitro and in vivo radiosensitization effect of an institutionally designed nanoliposome encapsulated cisplatin (NLE-CDDP). NLE-CDDP was developed by our institute. In vitro radiosensitization of NLE-CDDP was evaluated by colony forming assay in A549 cells. In vivo radiosensitization was studied with tumor growth delay (TGD) in Lewis lung carcinoma. The radiosensitization for normal tissue was investigated by jejunal crypt survival. The radiosensitization studies were carried out with a 72 h interval between drug administration and irradiation. The mice were treated with 6 mg/kg of NLE-CDDP or CDDP followed by single doses of 2 Gy, 6 Gy, 16 Gy, and 28 Gy. Sensitization enhancement ratio (SER) was calculated by D(0)s of cell survival curves for A549 cells, doses needed to yield TGD of 20 days in Lewis lung carcinoma, or D(0)s of survival curves in crypt cells in radiation alone and radiation plus drug groups. Our NLE-CDDP could inhibit A549 cells in vitro with half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.12 μg/mL, and its toxicity was 2.35 times that observed in CDDP. For in vitro studies of A549 cells, SERs of NLE-CDDP and CDDP were 1.40 and 1.14, respectively, when combined with irradiation. For in vivo studies of Lewis lung carcinoma, the strongest radiosensitization was found in the 72 h interval between NLE-CDDP and irradiation. When given 72 h prior to irradiation, NLE-CDDP yielded higher radiosensitization than CDDP (SER of 4.92 vs 3.21) and slightly increased injury in jejunal crypt cells (SER of 1.15 vs 1.19). Therefore, NLE-CDDP resulted in a higher TGF than did CDDP (4.28 vs 2.70) when SERs were compared between experiments in vivo and in jejunal crypt cell studies. Our NLE-CDDP was demonstrated to have radiosensitization with TGF of 4.28 when administrated 72 h prior to irradiation.

Nanoemulsions stabilized by traditional emulsifiers raise toxicological concerns for long-term treatment. The present work investigates the potential of food proteins as safer stabilizers for nanoemulsions to deliver hydrophobic drugs. Nanoemulsions stabilized by food proteins (soybean protein isolate, whey protein isolate, β-lactoglobulin) were prepared by high-pressure homogenization. The toxicity of the nanoemulsions was tested in Caco-2 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide viability assay. In vivo absorption in rats was also evaluated. Food protein-stabilized nanoemulsions, with small particle size and good size distribution, exhibited better stability and biocompatibility compared with nanoemulsions stabilized by traditional emulsifiers. Moreover, β-lactoglobulin had a better emulsifying capacity and biocompatibility than the other two food proteins. The pancreatic degradation of the proteins accelerated drug release. It is concluded that an oil/water nanoemulsion system with good biocompatibility can be prepared by using food proteins as emulsifiers, allowing better and more rapid absorption of lipophilic drugs.

Oral delivery of insulin is challenging and must overcome the barriers of gastric and enzymatic degradation as well as low permeation across the intestinal epithelium. The present study aimed to develop a liposomal delivery system containing glycocholate as an enzyme inhibitor and permeation enhancer for oral insulin delivery. Liposomes containing sodium glycocholate were prepared by a reversed-phase evaporation method followed by homogenization. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of recombinant human insulin (rhINS)-loaded sodium glycocholate liposomes can be easily adjusted by tuning the homogenization parameters, phospholipid:sodium glycocholate ratio, insulin:phospholipid ratio, water:ether volume ratio, interior water phase pH, and the hydration buffer pH. The optimal formulation showed an insulin entrapment efficiency of 30% ± 2% and a particle size of 154 ± 18 nm. A conformational study by circular dichroism spectroscopy and a bioactivity study confirmed the preserved integrity of rhINS against preparative stress. Transmission electron micrographs revealed a nearly spherical and deformed structure with discernable lamella for sodium glycocholate liposomes. Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed better protection of insulin against enzymatic degradation by pepsin, trypsin, and α-chymotrypsin than liposomes containing the bile salt counterparts of sodium taurocholate and sodium deoxycholate. Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed promising in vitro characteristics and have the potential to be able to deliver insulin orally.

Hurley N.,University College Dublin | Zhang M.,Fudan University
ACM Transactions on Internet Technology | Year: 2011

For recommender systems that base their product rankings primarily on a measure of similarity between items and the user query, it can often happen that products on the recommendation list are highly similar to each other and lack diversity. In this article we argue that the motivation of diversity research is to increase the probability of retrieving unusual or novel items which are relevant to the user and introduce a methodology to evaluate their performance in terms of novel item retrieval. Moreover, noting that the retrieval of a set of items matching a user query is a common problem across many applications of information retrieval, we formulate the trade-off between diversity and matching quality as a binary optimization problem, with an input control parameter allowing explicit tuning of this trade-off. We study solution strategies to the optimization problem and demonstrate the importance of the control parameter in obtaining desired system performance. The methods are evaluated for collaborative recommendation using two datasets and case-based recommendation using a synthetic dataset constructed from the public-domain Travel dataset. © 2011 ACM.

Xiao L.,Second Military Medical University | Feng C.,Fudan University | Chen Y.,Second Military Medical University
Molecular Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Glucocorticoid (GC) has been shown to affect the neuronal survival/death through a genomic mechanism, but whether or not it does through a nongenomic mechanism is unknown. Using a previously identified GR-deficient primary hippocampal neuron culture, we show here that a 15-min coexposure of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) with corticosterone at a stress-induced level significantly enhances neuronal death compared to NMDA alone. This enhancing effect of GC can be mimicked by the BSA-conjugated corticosterone, which is plasma membrane impermeable and cannot be blocked by RU38486 spironolactone. Furthermore, using a calcium-imaging technique, we found that B could increase both the percentage of neurons showing a significant increment of intracellular free calcium ([Ca 2+] i) due to NMDA stimulation and the amplitude of [Ca 2+] i increment in the individual responsive cells. Interestingly, this boosting effect of GC on [Ca 2+] i increment could be blocked by the NMDA receptor subunit 2A (NR2A)-specific antagonist [(R)-[(S)-1-(4-bromo-phenyl)-ethylamino]- (2,3-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-quinoxalin-5-yl)-methyl]-phosphonic acid (NVP-AAM077) but not by the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (NR2B)-specific antagonist Ro25-6981. Moreover, we also found that GC can dramatically attenuate the NMDA-induced activation of ERK1/2 without affecting that of p38; and that the NMDA-induced ERK1/2 activation and its attenuation by GC both can be occluded by the NVP-AAM077 but not by Ro25-6981. Consistently, the enhancing effect of GC on NMDA neurotoxicity can also be blocked by NVP-AAM077 and the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 but not by Ro25-6981 and p38 inhibitor SB203580. Indeed, the NMDA neurotoxicity itself can be blocked by Ro25-6981 or SB203580, whereas it is increased by NVP-AAM077 and PD98059. Therefore, it is probable that NMDA triggers a prodeath signaling through the NR2B-p38 MAPK pathway, and a prosurvival signaling through the NR2A-ERK1/2 MAPK pathway, whereas the latter was negatively regulated by rapid GC action. Taken together, the present data suggest a nongenomic action by GC that enhances NMDA neurotoxicity through facilitating [Ca 2+] i increment and attenuating the NR2A-ERK1/2-mediated neuroprotective signaling, implicating a novel pathway underlying the regulatory effect of GC on neuronal survival/death. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society.

Xiong X.,Fudan University | Jiang Y.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma D.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry
Organic Letters | Year: 2012

CuI-catalyzed coupling of N-acyl-N′-substituted hydrazines with aryl iodides takes place at 60-90 °C to afford N-acyl-N′,N′- disubstituted hydrazines regioselectively and thereby gives a facile method for assembling N,N-diaryl hydrazines. N-Acyl-N′-substituted hydrazines can also react with 2-bromoarylcarbonylic compounds at 60-125 °C under the catalysis of CuI/4-hydroxy-l-proline to provide 1-aryl-1H-indazoles. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Xu L.,Fudan University | Jiang Y.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma D.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry
Organic Letters | Year: 2012

CuI/4-hydroxy-l-proline catalyzed coupling of N-substituted o-bromobenzamides with formamide takes place at 80 °C, affording 3-substituted quinazolinones directly. Under these conditions other amides that were tested only provided simple coupling products, which can be converted into 2,3-disubstituted quinazolinones via HMDS/ZnCl 2 mediated condensative cyclization. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Fang Z.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Wang X.,Fudan University | Yuan X.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2013

In this paper, we develop a unified framework for beamforming designs in non-regenerative multiuser two-way relaying (TWR). The core of our framework is the solution to the max-min signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) problem for multiuser TWR. We solve this problem using a Dinkelbach-type algorithm with near-optimal performance and superlinear convergence. We show that, using the max-min SINR solution as a corner stone, the beamforming designs under various important criteria, such as weighted sum-rate maximization, weighted sum mean-square-error (MSE) minimization, and average bit-error-rate (BER) or symbol-error-rate (SER) minimization, etc, can be reformulated into a monotonic program. A polyblock outer approximation algorithm is then used to find the desired solutions with guaranteed convergence and optimal performance (provided that the core max-min SINR solver is optimal). Furthermore, the proposed unified approach can provide important insights for tackling the optimal beamforming designs in other emerging network models and settings. For instances, we extend the proposed framework to address the beamforming design in collaborative TWR and multi-pair MIMO TWR. Extensive numerical results are presented to demonstrate the merits of the proposed beamforming solutions. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

Zhang Y.J.,Fudan University
Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics | Year: 2011

To evaluate the influence of VPA treatment on neutrophils' oxidative metabolism and oxidant status in epileptic children. Twenty-six newly diagnosed epileptic children with idiopathic epilepsy and 30 healthy children were included in the study. The activation rates of neutrophils and stimulation indexes were detected in patients before and 6 months and 12 months after VPA treatment respectively and in all the healthy children by flow cytometry with dihydrorhodamine as fluorochrome. The activities of myeloperoxidase from neutrophils were also detected. Malondialdehyde as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were measured in plasma respectively. The activation rates of neutrophils in patients treated with VPA after 6 and 12 months were (11.50 ± 6.52)% and (14.31 ± 5.76)% respectively, which were significantly higher than the data of control group (5.90 ± 3.77)% and pretreatment level (7.42 ± 3.15)%. The stimulation indexes 6 and 12 months after VPA therapy were (474.88 ± 118.98) and (416.31 ± 110.00) respectively, which were lower than the data of control group (544.83 ± 140.83) and pretreatment level (535.23 ± 111.55). The plasma MPO activities and levels of malondialdehyde in VPA treated patients were also higher while the activities of SOD and CAT were significantly lower than the control and untreated groups. GSH-Px levels did not differ between the groups. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the time of treatment and the activation rates of neutrophils were indicators which had positive correlation with the levels of plasma MDA and that SOD activities were inversely correlated with MDA levels. VPA which is frequently used in childhood epilepsy may activate the neutrophils of patients and cause oxidative stress and prolonged treatment may aggravate it.

Yang H.-J.,Fudan University
Chinese Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to cause cervical cancer; however, additional genetic and epigenetic alterations are required for progression from precancerous disease to invasive cancer. DNA methylation is an early and frequent molecular alteration in cervical carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize DNA methylation within the HPV genome and human genome and identify its clinical implications. Methylation of the HPV long control region (LCR) and L1 gene is common during cervical carcinogenesis and increases with the severity of the cervical neoplasm. The L1 gene of HPV16 and HPV18 is consistently hypermethylated in invasive cervical cancers and can potentially be used as a clinical marker of cancer progression. Moreover, promoters of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) involved in many cellular pathways are methylated in cervical precursors and invasive cancers. Some are associated with squamous cell carcinomas, and others are associated with adenocarcinomas. Identification of methylated TSGs in Pap smear could be an adjuvant test in cervical cancer screening for triage of women with high-risk HPV, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, or low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). However, consistent panels must be validated for this approach to be translated to the clinic. Furthermore, reversion of methylated TSGs using demethylating drugs may be an alternative anticancer treatment, but demethylating drugs without toxic carcinogenic and mutagenic properties must be identified and validated.

Cheng T.-L.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Cheng T.-L.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang Z.,University of Washington | Liao Q.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Developmental Cell | Year: 2014

Loss- and gain-of-function mutations of the X-linked gene MECP2 (methyl-CpG binding protein 2) lead tosevere neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, such as Rett syndrome (RTT) and autism. MeCP2 ispreviously known as a transcriptional repressor bybinding to methylated DNA and recruiting histone deacetylase complex (HDAC). Here, we report that MeCP2 regulates gene expression posttranscriptionally by suppressing nuclear microRNA processing. We found that MeCP2 binds directly to DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 (DGCR8), a critical component of the nuclear microRNA-processing machinery, and interferes with the assembly of Drosha andDGCR8 complex. Protein targets of MeCP2-suppressed microRNAs include CREB, LIMK1, and Pumilio2, which play critical roles in neural development. Gain of function of MeCP2 strongly inhibits dendritic and spine growth, which depends on the interaction of MeCP2 and DGCR8. Thus, control of microRNA processing via direct interaction with DGCR8 represents a mechanism for MeCP2 regulation of gene expression and neural development. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Wang F.,Fudan University | Wang K.,Shanghai Finance University
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2013

This article considers the existence of global smooth solutions to the Cauchy problem in 3D incompressible magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) flows with mixed partial dissipation and magnetic diffusion. We prove that if the initial data satisfy || u0||H1+|| b0|| H1≤ε, where ε is a sufficiently small positive number, then the 3D MHD equations with mixed partial dissipation and magnetic diffusion admit global smooth solutions. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Wu H.,Fudan University | Xu X.,Carnegie Mellon University | Liu C.,Pennsylvania State University
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis | Year: 2013

In this paper we investigate the role of Parodi's relation in the well-posedness and stability of the general Ericksen-Leslie system modeling nematic liquid crystal flows. First, we give a formal physical derivation of the Ericksen-Leslie system through an appropriate energy variational approach under Parodi's relation, in which we can distinguish the conservative/dissipative parts of the induced elastic stress. Next, we prove global well-posedness and long-time behavior of the Ericksen-Leslie system under the assumption that the viscosity μ4 is sufficiently large. Finally, under Parodi's relation, we show the global well-posedness and Lyapunov stability for the Ericksen-Leslie system near local energy minimizers. The connection between Parodi's relation and linear stability of the Ericksen-Leslie system is also discussed. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Rui J.,Fudan University
The Journal of hand surgery, European volume | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the electrophysiological results obtained after employing the posterior approach for spinal accessory nerve-suprascapular nerve (SAN-SSN) transfer, and to compare this with the traditional anterior approach. SAN-SSN transfer was performed in 74 patients with brachial plexus injury. The posterior approach was used in 35 patients and the anterior approach was used in 39 patients. Electrophysiological examination was conducted and analyzed postoperatively. There was no significant difference between approaches in the time it took for the infraspinatus to show low-incidence motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) and an incomplete interference pattern. In addition, the final ratio of patients that showed regeneration potential of the infraspinatus was not significantly different between the approaches. Furthermore, latency and wave amplitude showed a linear regression with post-operative time in the posterior approach group. In the posterior approach group, the final abduction of the shoulder was positively correlated with the amplitude. The posterior approach for SAN-SSN is an effective potential alternative technique that may be appropriate for some clinical situations.

Ren Y.,University of St. Andrews | Bruce P.G.,University of St. Andrews | Ma Z.,Fudan University
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2011

The reduction of a series of crystalline mesoporous metal oxides, CeO 2, Co3O4, Cr2O3, CuO, β-MnO2, Mn3O4, and NiO, was investigated using hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR). CeO 2 and Cr2O3 could not be reduced. Mesoporous Mn3O4 and NiO are reduced at almost the same temperature as their bulk counterparts, and mesoporous Co3O4, CuO, and β-MnO2 are reduced at lower temperatures than the corresponding bulk materials. In particular, mesoporous Co3O4 and β-MnO2 undergo reduction to CoO and Mn3O4 while preserving the mesostructure. Further reduction of CoO and Mn 3O4, NiO, and CuO does not form mesoporous metal: in the case of CuO, a mesoporous intergrowth of Cu/Cu2O is obtained, and for the rest metal oxides, particles are formed. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Jia L.,University of Michigan | Jia L.,Fudan University | Sun Y.,University of Michigan
Current Cancer Drug Targets | Year: 2011

The SCF (Skp1, Cullins, F-box proteins) multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase, also known as CRL (Cullin-RING ubiquitin Ligase) is the largest E3 ubiquitin ligase family that promotes the ubiquitination of various regulatory proteins for targeted degradation, thus regulating many biological processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction, and DNA replication. The efforts to discover small molecule inhibitors of a SCF-type ligase or its components were expedited by the FDA approval of Bortezomib (also known as Velcade or PS-341), the first (and only) class of general proteasome inhibitor, for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. Although Bortezomib has demonstrated a certain degree of cancer cell selectivity with measurable therapeutic index, the drug is, in general, cytotoxic due to its inhibition of overall protein degradation. An alternative and ideal approach is to target a specific E3 ligase, known to be activated in human cancer, for a high level of specificity and selectivity with less associated toxicity, since such inhibitors would selectively stabilize a specific set of cellular proteins regulated by this E3. Here, we review recent advances in validation of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase as an attractive anti-cancer target and discuss how MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme, can be developed as a novel class of anticancer agents by inhibiting SCF E3 ligase via removal of cullin neddylation. Finally, we discuss under future perspective how basic research on SCF biology will direct the drug discovery efforts surrounding this target. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Ge J.-B.,Fudan University
Journal of Zhejiang University: Science B | Year: 2012

This paper describes the current status of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for totally occluded coronary arteries. Chronic total occlusion is associated with 10%-20% of all PCI procedures. Results show that opening an occluded vessel, especially one supplying a considerable area of myocardium, may be beneficial for a patient's angina relief and heart function. We describe the devices used currently in re-canalization such as new wires, microcatheters (including Tonus and Cosair) and intravascular ultrasound guidance. Different techniques to improve the success rate and reduce complications are discussed in detail. © Zhejiang University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.

Goodwin R.,Brunel University | Sun S.,Fudan University
Journal of Infection | Year: 2013

Objectives: H7N9 poses major challenges for Chinese society. Early examination of public reactions to threat is critical for framing appropriate public health responses. We investigate initial beliefs about the disease, knowledge, media use, anxiety, and behavioural responses to H7N9. Methods: Randomly selected participants (N=637) from Mainland China completed an online questionnaire 3 weeks after the first case (response rate 92%). Items assessed risk representations and communications, personal values, mortality and health anxiety, understanding of symptomology, health seeking and preventive and avoidant behaviours. Results: Despite moderately high anxiety, participants largely trusted official messages, particularly from Chinese officials. Respondents correctly identified symptoms of H7N9; 96% reported 1+ recommended behaviour change; other changes included avoiding poultry, crowds, and migrants, and cancelling travel. Worry was positively related to viewing some groups at enhanced risk, including the sexually active and migrants. 41% had already bought medicines due to the threat, although few (7%) were willing to self-quarantine if infected. Conclusions: Findings indicate some understanding of the virus and compliance with recommended behaviours. However they also suggest potential discrimination against some groups, and potential high burden on medical resources, particularly amongst the anxious. © 2013 The British Infection Association.

Wu X.,Fudan University | Niederhoff J.A.,Syracuse University
Production and Operations Management | Year: 2014

This paper studies the impact of fairness concerns on supply chain performance (SCP) in the two-party newsvendor setting. We extend prior fairness analysis to a wide range of demand distributions, and also allow the degree and definition of fairness to assume a broader range of preferences than those in prior literature. Contrary to prior literature, we find that if the retailer's ideal allocation to the supplier is not sufficiently large, regardless of demand variability, a fair-minded retailer makes no difference to system efficiency when facing a traditional profit-maximizing supplier. Only when the retailer's ideal allocation to the supplier is above a threshold can the retailer's fairness concern improve the system efficiency for sufficiently high demand uncertainty. In order for the retailer's fairness concern to improve expected profits of both parties compared to the traditional supply chain case (win-win), the demand uncertainty cannot be too low, the retailer is not very averse to disadvantageous inequity, and his ideal allocation to the supplier is within a specific range. If only the supplier is concerned for fairness, the results range from worsening to improving (but not coordinating) the system and a win-win situation is impossible. Finally, when both the supplier and retailer are fair-minded, SCP is improved unless both parties prefer to allocate small portions of system profit to the other. Again, win-win will be achieved only when the demand uncertainty is sufficiently high, the retailer's ideal allocation is within a certain range, and he is not very averse to disadvantageous inequity. © 2014 Production and Operations Management Society.

Wong B.-T.,National Taiwan University | Lee D.-J.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Lee D.-J.,Fudan University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

The inhibitory effects of 90-189mgl-1 of sulfide and 25-75mg-Nl-1 of nitrate on methanogenesis were investigated in a mixed methanogenic culture using butyrate as carbon source. In the initial phase of 90mgl-1S2- test, autotrophic denitrification of nitrate occurred with sulfide as the electron donor. Then the sulfate-reducing strains converted the produced sulfur back to sulfide via heterotrophic oxidation pathway. Methanogenesis was not markedly inhibited when 90mgl-1 of sulfide was dosed alone. When 25-75mg-Nl-1 of nitrate was presented, initiation of methanogenesis was seriously delayed. Nitrogen oxides (NOx), the intermediates for nitrate reduction via denitrification pathway, inhibited methanogenesis. The 90mgl-1 of sulfide favored heterotrophic dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) pathway for nitrate reduction. Possible ways of maximizing methane production from an organic carbon-rich wastewater with high levels of sulfide and nitrate were discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

In this work, graphene or graphene oxide was utilized, for the first time, to identify small molecular components from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs, by acting as matrix of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Due to the large surface area of graphene or graphene oxide, the analytes were trapped tightly to the matrix, which avoids the contamination of the ion source and vacuum system. Besides, their excellent electronic, thermal and mechanical properties make them desired matrices for MALDI-TOF-MS. Stable analysis was achieved with no background inference even at the concentration of 100 nM. Moreover, the limit of detection (LOD) could be greatly lowered by utilizing graphene or graphene oxide as a pre-enrichment adsorbent. In summary, the promoted MALDI-TOF-MS methodology was demonstrated to be simple, sensitive, fast, cost effective and, most importantly, high throughput. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Li T.,Fudan University | Rao B.,University of Strasbourg
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences | Year: 2015

By means of a non-exact controllability result, we show the necessity of the conditions of compatibility for the exact synchronization by two groups for a coupled system of wave equations with Dirichlet boundary controls. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Zhu W.,Fudan University | Guan J.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Scientometrics | Year: 2013

In the paper, we apply small world complex network theory to analyze scientific research in the field of service innovation, and discover its research focuses. Our study considers the key words and subject categories of the publications as actors to map keyword co-occurrence network and subject category co-occurrence network, and compare them with their corresponding random binary networks to judge whether these complex networks have the characteristics of small world network, in order to find the hot issues in the field by the small world network analysis. We discuss the knowledge structure in the field through analyzing 437 papers that were searched from Web of Science database over the period 1992-2011. We find that case study, service industry, service quality, market orientation, new product development, and knowledge management were the most popular keywords of the field, and also show the dynamic development of the research focuses in recent 10 years. The researchers who made most contribution in a certain field are also found out. It is concluded that there were more researchers who did investigation about service innovation in the category of Business and Economics, Engineering, Public Administration, Operations Research and Management Science, and Computer Science than those in other categories. The study suggests a quantitative method to analyze trends of scientific research in a certain field, and presents some directions of research mainstream to the researchers who may be interested in the service innovation. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Dong Q.,Fudan University
Protein and peptide letters | Year: 2010

The prediction of protein function is a difficult and important problem in computational biology. In this study, an efficient method is presented to predict protein function with sequence composition information. Four kinds of basic building blocks of protein sequences are investigated, including N-grams, binary profiles, PFAM domains and InterPro domains. The protein sequences are mapped into high-dimensional vectors by using the occurrence frequencies of each kind of building blocks. The resulting vectors are then taken as input to support vector machine to predict their function based on gene ontology. Experiments are conducted over the subset of GOA database. The experimental results show that the protein function can be predicted from primary sequence information. The method based on InterPro domains outperforms the other building blocks, and gets an overall accuracy of 0.87 and ROC score is 0.93. We also demonstrate that the use of feature extraction algorithms such as latent semantic analysis and nonnegative matrix factorization, can efficiently remove noise and improve the prediction efficiency without significantly degrading the performance. The results obtained here are helpful for the prediction of protein function by using only sequence information.

Modesto L.,Fudan University | Shapiro I.L.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Shapiro I.L.,Tomsk State Pedagogical University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2016

We suggest and briefly review a new sort of superrenormalizable models of higher derivative quantum gravity. The higher derivative terms in the action can be introduced in such a way that all the unphysical massive states have complex poles. According to the literature on Lee-Wick quantization, in this case the theory can be formulated as unitary, since all massive ghosts-like degrees of freedom are unstable. © 2016 The Authors.

Song Z.-I.,Fudan University | Li S.,Zhejiang Normal University | George T.F.,University of Missouri-St. Louis
Optics Express | Year: 2010

Through retrofitting the descriptor of a scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) and developing a new similarity measure function based on trajectories generated from Lissajous curves, a new remote sensing image registration approach is constructed, which is more robust and accurate than prior approaches. In complex cases where the correct rate of feature matching is below 20%, the retrofitted SIFT descriptor improves the correct rate to nearly 100%. Mostly, the similarity measure function makes it possible to quantitatively analyze the temporary change of the same geographic position. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

Pastor-Pareja J.C.,Tsinghua University | Pastor-Pareja J.C.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Xu T.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Xu T.,Fudan University
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2013

Cancer was seen for a long time as a strictly cell-autonomous process in which oncogenes and tumor-suppressor mutations drive clonal cell expansions. Research in the past decade, however, paints a more integrative picture of communication and interplay between neighboring cells in tissues. It is increasingly clear as well that tumors, far from being homogenous lumps of cells, consist of different cell types that function together as complex tissue-level communities. The repertoire of interactive cell behaviors and the quantity of cellular players involved call for a social cell biology that investigates these interactions. Research into this social cell biology is critical for understanding development of normal and tumoral tissues. Such complex social cell biology interactions can be parsed in Drosophila. Techniques in Drosophila for analysis of gene function and clonal behavior allow us to generate tumors and dissect their complex interactive biology with cellular resolution. Here, we review recent Drosophila research aimed at understanding tissue-level biology and social cell interactions in tumors, highlighting the principles these studies reveal. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Gao S.-P.,Fudan University
Physica Status Solidi (B) Basic Research | Year: 2010

ELNES/XANES of BeO polymorphs were calculated using a plane wave pseudopotential method including the core-hole effects. A projector augmented wave method was employed to reconstruct the all-electron matrix elements. Calculated spectra of beryllium and oxygen K-edges were compared for BeO with wurtzite, zinc-blende and rocksalt structures. Characteristic features that can be used to spectroscopically characterize the different polymorphs have been provided from our theoretical analysis. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Peng Y.,Fudan University | Pan Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang B.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

We study the basic holographic insulator and superconductor phase transition in the AdS soliton background by generalizing the spontaneous breaking of a global U(1) symmetry to occur via Stückelberg mechanism. We construct the soliton solutions with backreaction and examine the effects of the backreaction on the condensation of the scalar hair in the generalized Stückelberg Lagrangian. We disclose rich physics in various phase transitions. In addition to the AdS soliton configuration, we also examine the property of the phase transition in the AdS black hole background. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and consolidation chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Patients with LASCC (FIGO Stage IIB-IIIB) were treated with pelvic external beam radiotherapy (45 Gy for Stage IIB and 50 Gy for Stage III) and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (50 Gy for Stage IIB and 35 Gy for Stage III). The cumulative dose at point A was 50 Gy for Stage IIB and 65 Gy for Stage III. Concurrent chemotherapy with paclitaxel (35 mg/m2) and nedaplatin (20 mg/m 2) was given every week for 6 weeks. Consolidation chemotherapy with paclitaxel (135 mg/m2) and nedaplatin (60 mg/m2) was administered every 3 weeks for 4 cycles. Results: All patients completed CCRT, and 28 of 34 patients completed consolidation chemotherapy. The complete response rate was 88% (95% CI, 73-96%). The most common Grade 3 or higher toxicities were leukopenia/neutropenia (10.9% of the cycles). During a median follow up of 23 months (range, 14-30 months), 5 patients had locoregional failure and 1 patient had distant metastasis. The estimated 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 82% (95% CI, 68-95%) and 93% (95% CI, 83-100%), respectively. Grade 3 late complications occurred in 3 patients (9%). Conclusions: CCRT with paclitaxel and nedaplatin followed by consolidation chemotherapy is well tolerated and effective in patients with locally advanced squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Further randomized trials of comparing this regimen with the standard treatment are worth while. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Wang H.R.,Fudan University
Orthopaedic surgery | Year: 2012

To study the therapeutic efficacy of the "sandwich" method (medical glue + gelatin sponge + medical glue) of spinal dural repair for preventing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks during treatment of subdural tumors. Fifty-four patients with spinal subdural tumors treated between April 2007 and June 2011 were retrospectively investigated. The patients were divided into two groups: a conventional group (group A) and a "sandwich" group (group B). The group A patients included 16 males and 7 females with an average tumor course of 11 months (range, 2-34 months). Four of their 23 tumors were in the cervical spine, eight thoracic, and eleven lumbar. The group B patients included 19 males and 12 females with an average tumor course of 12 months (range, 3-36 months). Five of their 31 tumors were in the cervical spines, 10 thoracic, and 16 lumbar. In group A, the dural repairs were performed with interlocking sutures and a gelatin sponge covering the dura; whereas in group B, they were performed with interlocking sutures, painting of medical glue around the dural incision, covering this with a gelatin sponge, and finally covering of the gelatin sponge with medical glue. The total volume of drainage after operation, incidence of CSF leaks, healing of the incision, and recovery of clinical performance were recorded. Compared to group A patients, group B patients had a significantly smaller total volume of drainage (P < 0.05) on the day of surgery, and the first, second, and third postoperative days. The incidence of CSF leakage in group B was also significantly less than in group A (P < 0.05). Before discharge, three patients in group A developd hydrops, which was successfully treated by aspiration, continuous pressure from sandbags, and the prone position. During the first 3 months of follow-up, five patients developed deep hydrops under their incisions but required no treatment. There were no obvious abnormalities in group B. After removal of subdural spinal tumors by incising the dura mater, or in related spinal surgery, application of the "sandwich" complex to the damaged spinal dura reduces the volume of drainage postoperatively and reduces the incidence of CSF leakage. © 2012 Tianjin Hospital and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Ren Y.,China National Institute of Clean and Low Carbon Energy | Ren Y.,University of St. Andrews | Ma Z.,Fudan University | Bruce P.G.,University of St. Andrews
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Great progress has been made in the preparation and application of ordered mesoporous metal oxides during the past decade. However, the applications of these novel and interesting materials have not been reviewed comprehensively in the literature. In the current review we first describe different methods for the preparation of ordered mesoporous metal oxides; we then review their applications in energy conversion and storage, catalysis, sensing, adsorption and separation. The correlations between the textural properties of ordered mesoporous metal oxides and their specific performance are highlighted in different examples, including the rate of Li intercalation, sensing, and the magnetic properties. These results demonstrate that the mesoporosity has a direct impact on the properties and potential applications of such materials. Although the scope of the current review is limited to ordered mesoporous metal oxides, we believe that the information may be useful for those working in a number of fields. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Zhang L.,Pennsylvania State University | Ma H.,Pennsylvania State University | Ma H.,Fudan University | Pugh B.F.,Pennsylvania State University
Genome Research | Year: 2011

The plasticity of chromatin organization as chromosomes undergo a full compendium of transactions including DNA replication, recombination, chromatin compaction, and changes in transcription during a developmental program is unknown. We generated genome-wide maps of individual nucleosome organizational states, including positions and occupancy of all nucleosomes, and H3K9 acetylation and H3K4, K36, K79 tri-methylation, during meiotic spore development (gametogenesis) in Saccharomyces. Nucleosome organization was remarkably constant as the genome underwent compaction. However, during an acute meiotic starvation response, nucleosomes were repositioned to alter the accessibility of select transcriptional start sites. Surprisingly, the majority of the meiotic programs did not use this nucleosome repositioning, but was dominated by antisense control. Histone modification states were also remarkably stable, being abundant at specific nucleosome positions at three-quarters of all genes, despite most genes being rarely transcribed. Our findings suggest that, during meiosis, the basic features of genomic chromatin organization are essentially a fixed property of chromosomes, but tweaked in a restricted and program-specific manner. © 2011 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Wang R.R.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lu B.,Fudan University
Journal of Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Understanding the classification and biosystematics of species in Triticeae Dumort., an economically important tribe in the grass family (Poaceae), is not an easy task, particularly for some perennial species. Does genomic analysis facilitate the understanding of evolutionary relationships of these Triticeae species? We reviewed literature published after 1984 to address questions concerning: (1) genome relationships among the monogenomic diploid species; (2) progenitors of the unknown Y genome in Elymus polyploids, X genome in Thinopyrum intermedium, and Xm genome in Leymus; and (3) genome constitutions of some perennial Triticeae species that were unknown or misidentified. A majority of publications have substantiated the close affinity of the Eb and Ee genomes in Th. bessarabicum and Th. elongatum, supporting the use of a common basic genome symbol. The E genome is close to the St genome of Pseudoroegneria and ABD genomes of Triticum/Aegilops complex, providing an explanation for transferring genes from the E to ABD genomes with relative ease. Although the solid proof is still lacking, the W, P, and especially Xp genomes are possible origins for the Y genome of polyploid Elymus. The absence of the E genome and the allopolyploidy nature of tetraploid Leymus species have been unequivocally confirmed by both cytogenetic and molecular studies. However, the donor of the Xm genomes of Leymus was only speculated to be related to the P genome of Agropyron and F genome of Eremopyrum. Intermediate wheatgrass (Th. intermedium) has been extensively studied. The presence of the St (as the previously designated X) genome in Th. intermedium is now unequivocal. Its two more closely related E1 and E2 genomes are shown to be older versions of the E genome rather than the current Eb and Ee genomes. Speciation of Th. intermedium was similar to that of Triticum aestivum, in which the Js/Es (like B) genomes had the greatest differentiation from the current J (Eb) genome owning to repetitive sequences of the V genome, whereas its St (like D) had the least differentiation from the current St genome. Species with unknown or misidentified genomes have been correctly designated, including those with the ESt, StP, StPY, StWY, EStP, HW, StYHW, and NsXm genomes. Some of those species have been transferred to and renamed in appropriate genera. © Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Cheng R.,University of Texas at Austin | Xiao J.,Fudan University | Niu Q.,University of Texas at Austin | Niu Q.,Peking University | Brataas A.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

Spin pumping and spin-transfer torques are two reciprocal phenomena widely studied in ferromagnetic materials. However, pumping from antiferromagnets and its relation to current-induced torques have not been explored. By calculating how electrons scatter off a normal metal-antiferromagnetic interface, we derive pumped spin and staggered spin currents in terms of the staggered field, the magnetization, and their rates of change. For both compensated and uncompensated interfaces, spin pumping is of a similar magnitude as in ferromagnets with a direction controlled by the polarization of the driving microwave. The pumped currents are connected to current-induced torques via Onsager reciprocity relations. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Yang C.-J.,East China Normal University | Tan H.-P.,East China Normal University | Du Y.-J.,Fudan University
Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Autism is a developmental disorder defined by the presence of a triad of communication, social and stereo typical behavioral characteristics with onset before 3. years of age. In spite of the fact that there are potential environmental factors for autistic behavior, the dysfunction of serotonin during early development of the brain could be playing a role in this prevalence rise. Serotonin can modulate a number of developmental events, including cell division, neuronal migration, cell differentiation and synaptogenesis. Hyperserotonemia during fetal development results in the loss of serotonin terminals through negative feedback. The increased serotonin causes a decrease of oxytocin in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and an increase in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the central nucleus of the amygdale, which are associated with social interactions and vital in autism. However, hyposerotonemia may be also relevant to the development of sensory as well as motor and cognitive faculties. And the paucity of placenta-derived serotonin should have potential importance when the pathogenesis of autism is considered. This review briefly summarized the developmental disruptions of serotonin signaling involved in the pathogenesis of autism during early development of the brain. © 2014 IBRO.

Modesto L.,Fudan University
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2016

We propose a class of multidimensional higher derivative theories of gravity without extra real degrees of freedom besides the graviton field. The propagator shows up the usual real graviton pole in k2=0 and extra complex conjugates poles that do not contribute to the absorptive part of the physical scattering amplitudes. Indeed, they may consistently be excluded from the asymptotic observable states of the theory making use of the Lee-Wick and Cutkosky, Landshoff, Olive and Polkinghorne prescription for the construction of a unitary S-matrix. Therefore, the spectrum consists of the graviton and short lived elementary unstable particles that we named "anti-gravitons" because of their repulsive contribution to the gravitational potential at short distance. However, another interpretation of the complex conjugate pairs is proposed based on the Calmet's suggestion, i.e. they could be understood as black hole precursors long established in the classical theory. Since the theory is CPT invariant, the conjugate complex of the micro black hole precursor can be interpreted as a white hole precursor consistently with the 't Hooft complementarity principle. It is proved that the quantum theory is super-renormalizable in even dimension, i.e. only a finite number of divergent diagrams survive, and finite in odd dimension. Furthermore, turning on a local potential of the Riemann tensor we can make the theory finite in any dimension. The singularity-free Newtonian gravitational potential is explicitly computed for a range of higher derivative theories. Finally, we propose a new super-renormalizable or finite Lee-Wick standard model of particle physics. © 2016 The Author(s).

Wu D.,Fudan University
AIP Advances | Year: 2015

Collagen is made of triple helices rich in proline residues, and hence is influenced by the conformational motions of prolines. Because the backbone motions of prolines are restricted by the helical structures, the only side chain motion - proline puckering - becomes an influential factor that may affect the stability of collagen structures. In molecular simulations, a proper proline puckering population is desired so to yield valid results of the collagen properties. Here we design the proline puckering parameters in order to yield suitable proline puckering populations as demonstrated in the experimental results. We test these parameters in collagen and the proline dipeptide simulations. Compared with the results of the PDB and the quantum calculations, we propose the proline puckering parameters for the selected collagen model simulations. © 2015 Author(s).

We experimentally demonstrate a high-speed 2 × 2 non-imaging multiple-input multiple-output nyquist single carrier visible light communication system. Two commercially available blue light emitting diodes with 3 dB electrical bandwidth of 10 MHz and two avalanche photo diodes with 3 dB electrical bandwidth of 100 MHz are used as transmitters and receivers, respectively. A frequency domain equalization method based on two pairs of time-multiplexed training symbols is proposed, which allows de-multiplexing and post-equalization simultaneously processing in one step. Frequency domain averaging and time-domain averaging are also implemented and analyzed in this paper. In this demonstration, the overall data rate is 500 Mb/s. The measured bit error rates for two receivers are both below the 7% pre-forward-error- correction threshold of 3.8 × 10-3 after 40 cm free-air transmission. © 2014 IEEE.

Zhang K.-D.,Scripps Research Institute | Ajami D.,Scripps Research Institute | Rebek J.,Fudan University | Rebek J.,Scripps Research Institute
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

Hydrogen-bonded capsules constrain molecules into small spaces, where they exhibit behavior that is inaccessible in bulk solution. Water competes with the formation of hydrogen bonds, and other forces for assembly, such as metal/ligand interactions or hydrophobic effects, have been applied. Here we report the reversible assembly of a water-soluble cavitand to a robust capsule host in the presence of suitable hydrophobic guests. The complexes are characterized by conventional NMR methods. Selectivity for guest length and fluorescence quenching of a stilbene guest are used as evidence for hydrogen bonding in the capsule. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Xiong H.-M.,Fudan University
Advanced Materials | Year: 2013

The last decade has seen significant achievements in biomedical diagnosis and therapy at the levels of cells and molecules. Nanoparticles with luminescent or magnetic properties are used as detection probes and drug carriers, both in vitro and in vivo. ZnO nanoparticles, due to their good biocompatibility and low cost, have shown promising potential in bioimaging and drug delivery. The recent exciting progress on the biomedical applications of ZnO-based nanomaterials is reviewed here, along with discussions on the advantages and limitations of these advanced materials and suggestions for improving methods. ZnO nanoparticles can be used in bioimaging probes and drug carriers. The major highlights of recent progress in these applications are reviewed. Multifunctional probes can be synthesized for curing animal tumors, which contain luminescent ZnO quantum dots. ZnO nanoparticles can also be used to produce probes with magnetic elements for anticancer drugs or with specific groups for identifying tumors, allowing the nanoparticle to be guided to cancerous cells. Under UV light irradiation, ZnO nanoparticles can produce plenty of reactive oxygen species which help destroy cancer cells. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Co-infection with different influenza viruses occurs naturally and plays an important role in epidemiology and pathogenicity. To monitor the prevalence of influenza viruses in humans during seasonal influenza epidemics in Shanghai, China, and to analyze the genetic characteristics of the viruses, 365 nasopharyngeal swabs collected from patients with influenza-like illness between January and April 2008, were tested by a colloidal gold assay, viral isolation in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, direct immunofluorescence assay and multiplex RT-PCR. The genetic characteristics of the viruses were analyzed by full-length PCR amplification of the HA segment. One case of co-infection with influenza A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 viruses was detected among the 7 cases of A/H1N1, 84 cases of A/H3N2 and 48 cases of influenza B virus during the winter/spring of 2008. All influenza A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 isolates were similar, including the co-infecting isolates. The present study demonstrates the possibility of natural co-infection with different types of influenza viruses in humans, which could provide the opportunity for the occurrence of viral genetic reassortment within the human respiratory tract. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Qin L.,Fudan University
Frontiers of Medicine in China | Year: 2014

In this review, we summarize the novel findings from our series of studies on the leading metastasis-related gene, osteopontin (OPN). In our previous gene expression profiling study, OPN was identified as one of the leading genes associated with the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We focused on OPN to evaluate its prognostic values and important roles in HCC metastasis. A retrospective study of large cohorts of HCC patients demonstrated that plasma OPN level was one of the leading independent prognostic factors for HCC patients, even in the early stage of HCC, and could serve as a surrogate serologic biomarker for monitoring the treatment response and tumor recurrence after HCC resection. Using both in vitro and in vivo investigations, we found that OPN has an important role in metastasis and tumor growth of HCC and is an attractive potential therapeutic target for combating HCC metastasis. We also found that OPN+ HCC cells have much more amplifications at chromosomal regions, and promoter polymorphisms are important in the regulation of OPN expression and tumor growth and lung metastasis of HCC. © 2014 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Zhao B.,University of California at San Diego | Li L.,University of California at San Diego | Lei Q.,Fudan University | Guan K.-L.,University of California at San Diego
Genes and Development | Year: 2010

The Hippo signaling pathway is gaining recognition as an important player in both organ size control and tumorigenesis, which are physiological and pathological processes that share common cellular signaling mechanisms. Upon activation by stimuli such as high cell density in cell culture, the Hippo pathway kinase cascade phosphorylates and inhibits the Yes-associated protein (YAP)/TAZ transcription coactivators representing the major signaling output of the pathway. Altered gene expression resulting from YAP/TAZ inhibition affects cell number by repressing cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis, thereby limiting organ size. Recent studies have provided new insights into the Hippo signaling pathway, elucidating novel phosphorylation-dependent and independent mechanisms of YAP/Yki inhibition by the Hippo pathway, new Hippo pathway components, novel YAP target transcription factors and target genes, and the three-dimensional structure of the YAP-TEAD complex, and providing further evidence for the involvement of YAP and the Hippo pathway in tumorigenesis. © 2010 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Feng D.-L.,Fudan University
Nature Materials | Year: 2011

The electronic structure in the bulk of a crystal has been unveiled by various research scientists through hard X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. In the typical angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiment with photon energies of approximately 10 100 eV, the probing depth is about 5 10 Å, and surface effects are often dominant. Alexander Gray and co-workers report the first hard X-ray ARPES (HARPES) measurements at 3 6 keV on tungsten and GaAs single crystals, thus enhancing the probing depth to ~30 60 Å, deeper into the bulk. Lindau and co-workers reported the first synchrotron-based angle-integrated hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Gray et al. made x-ray ARPES experiments by choosing materials that contained relatively heavy elements, which are predicted to have relatively small phonon effects.

Deng W.-T.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Huang X.-G.,Fudan University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

The non-central Cu. +. Au collisions can create strong out-of-plane magnetic fields and in-plane electric fields. By using the HIJING model, we study the general properties of the electromagnetic fields in Cu. +. Au collisions at 200GeV and their impacts on the charge-dependent two-particle correlator γq1q2=〈cos(ϕ1+ϕ2-2ψRP)〉 (see main text for definition) which was used for the detection of the chiral magnetic effect (CME). Compared with Au. +. Au collisions, we find that the in-plane electric fields in Cu. +. Au collisions can strongly suppress the two-particle correlator or even reverse its sign if the lifetime of the electric fields is long. Combining with the expectation that if γq1q2 is induced by elliptic-flow driven effects we would not see such strong suppression or reversion, our results suggest to use Cu. +. Au collisions to test CME and understand the mechanisms that underlie γq1q2. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Mei Y.,Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research | Mei Y.,Fudan University | Kiravittaya S.,Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research | Harazim S.,Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research | Schmidt O.G.,Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research
Materials Science and Engineering R: Reports | Year: 2010

In this review, we summarize recent and interesting applications of micro and nanoscale wrinkles. Fluidic studies are comprehensively highlighted for various wrinkled nanochannels. Wrinkling as a mechanical characterization tool is also explained. As a new feature, wrinkles are employed to modify structures or physical properties of nanomaterials. It is promising to apply wrinkling for strain-engineering of graphene. We believe that wrinkling offers entirely new research perspectives in micro and nanotechnologies as well as in material sciences and engineering. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang C.,Fudan University
Journal of Diabetes Research | Year: 2013

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has an intersecting underlying pathology with thyroid dysfunction. The literature is punctuated with evidence indicating a contribution of abnormalities of thyroid hormones to type 2 DM. The most probable mechanism leading to T2DM in thyroid dysfunction could be attributed to perturbed genetic expression of a constellation of genes along with physiological aberrations leading to impaired glucose utilization and disposal in muscles, overproduction of hepatic glucose output, and enhanced absorption of splanchnic glucose. These factors contribute to insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is also associated with thyroid dysfunction. Hyper- and hypothyroidism have been associated with insulin resistance which has been reported to be the major cause of impaired glucose metabolism in T2DM. The state-of-art evidence suggests a pivotal role of insulin resistance in underlining the relation between T2DM and thyroid dysfunction. A plethora of preclinical, molecular, and clinical studies have evidenced an undeniable role of thyroid malfunctioning as a comorbid disorder of T2DM. It has been investigated that specifically designed thyroid hormone analogues can be looked upon as the potential therapeutic strategies to alleviate diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. These molecules are in final stages of preclinical and clinical evaluation and may pave the way to unveil a distinct class of drugs to treat metabolic disorders. © 2013 Chaoxun Wang.

Wang L.,Shanghai University of Finance and Economics | Chen T.,Fudan University
Neural Networks | Year: 2014

In this paper, we are concerned with a class of recurrent neural networks with unbounded time-varying delays. Based on the geometrical configuration of activation functions, the phase space Rn can be divided into several Φη-type subsets. Accordingly, a new set of regions Ωη are proposed, and rigorous mathematical analysis is provided to derive the existence of equilibrium point and its local μ-stability in each Ωη. It concludes that the n-dimensional neural networks can exhibit at least 3n equilibrium points and 2n of them are μ-stable. Furthermore, due to the compatible property, a set of new conditions are presented to address the dynamics in the remaining 3n - 2n subset regions. As direct applications of these results, we can get some criteria on the multiple exponential stability, multiple power stability, multiple log-stability, multiple log-log-stability and so on. In addition, the approach and results can also be extended to the neural networks with K-level nonlinear activation functions and unbounded time-varying delays, in which there can store (2K +1) n equilibrium points, (K +1) n of them are locally μ-stable. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Drawing on four years of field research in Zhengzhou, China with two generations of mothers, older mothers and their younger daughters, who became mothers under the one-child policy, I document in this article the generational differences in opinions about and practices of nourishing the fetus. I examine distinctive practices of younger mothers consuming prenatal vitamins and their mothers' buying fresh food from the farmer's market, and argue that the distinction between the practices of the two generations of mothers lies in their different life experiences with the governing strategies of the Mao and post-Mao Chinese state. I further examine encounters between the two groups of mothers regarding vitamin intake and show how argument itself is one of the important mothering practices in China through which mothers and their adult daughters not only reinforce their own identities as "old mothers" and "modern mothers" but also recognize each others' values. Thus, they form interdependent relationships to mother the third generation. This article contributes to broader literatures in anthropology of one child policy in China and consuming motherhood. [mothering, prenatal nutrition, daughter-mother relationship, one child policy, China]. © 2010 by the American Anthropological Association.

Yan B.,Fudan University | Gharavi H.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2010

In packet-based video transmissions, packets loss due to channel errors may result in the loss of the whole video frame. Recently, many error concealment algorithms have been proposed in order to combat channel errors; however, most of the existing algorithms can only deal with the loss of macroblocks and are not able to conceal the whole missing frame. In order to resolve this problem, in this paper, we have proposed a new hybrid motion vector extrapolation (HMVE) algorithm to recover the whole missing frame, and it is able to provide more accurate estimation for the motion vectors of the missing frame than other conventional methods. Simulation results show that it is highly effective and significantly outperforms other existing frame recovery methods. © 2009 IEEE.

Holze R.,TU Chemnitz | Wu Y.P.,Fudan University
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2014

The use of intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs) like polythiophene (PTh), polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PANI) in devices and systems for electrochemical energy storage and conversion is briefly reviewed with a focus on an overview distinguishing between already established uses and potential applications. Basic principles in these three major fields are highlighted:ICPs as active masses.ICPs as conductance-enhancing additives.ICPs as auxiliary materials beyond conductance. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Testosterone is the major precursor of estradiol (E2) in men. We hypothesized that, in metastatic prostate cancer, androgen deprivation therapy suppression of serum androgen to the castration level may also disrupt serum E2 level, and variation in serum E2 level might play a role in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Our investigation was designed to observe the variation in circulating oestrogen and androgen levels in metastatic prostate cancer patients after combined androgen blockade, and to explore the possible clinical significance. We recruited 105 consecutive metastatic prostate cancer patients who were treated with combined androgen blockade from June to August 2011, and divided them into three groups according to different hormone-sensitivity status, including 58 hormone-sensitive prostate cancers, 27 after failure of first-line hormone therapy (androgen-independent prostate cancer) and 20 castration-resistant prostate cancers. Another 36 consecutive patients with treatment-naive metastatic prostate cancer during the same period were used as controls. Serum testosterone, E2 and E2/testosterone (E2/T) ratio were analysed and compared between the groups. After combined androgen blockade, testosterone was suppressed to a low level, regardless of different hormone sensitivity (p > 0.05). Mean serum testosterone was 4.07, 0.15, 0.11 and 0.09 ng/mL in treatment-naive, hormone-sensitive, androgen-independent and castration-resistant prostate cancer respectively. For each group, mean E2 was 33.06, 9.23, 9.13 and 15.05 pg/mL respectively. Mean E2/T was 9.58, 269.29, 292.06 and 996.67 respectively. Recovery of E2 and increased E2/T ratio were more significantly associated with combined androgen blockade failure, especially in castration-resistant prostate cancer (p < 0.001). This study indicated that metabolism of oestrogen might change during combined androgen blockade in metastatic prostate cancer patients, and oestrogen-related pathways might play a role in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

Xi S.,Fudan University
International journal of evidence-based healthcare | Year: 2010

Laryngeal cancer is one of the most common malignant neoplasia of the head and neck. Its incidence has been increasing steadily all over the world. Many patients will undergo total laryngectomy with or without radical neck dissection after being diagnosed. After this surgery, normal speech is lost, and a permanent stoma in the middle of the neck is left. Therefore, voice rehabilitation is one of the most difficult challenges that these patients must overcome. In order to support the patients, otolaryngologists, nursing specialists and speech pathologists have explored several different methods for voice rehabilitation. Variations exist on the approaches of rehabilitation and indicators selected to measure the effectiveness. There is a need to undertake a systematic review to provide a plan of care and ascertain the effectiveness regarding different voice rehabilitation programs for postlaryngectomy patients.

Effective conservation of crop wild relative (CWR) species is essential for the sustainable use and genetic improvement of crop varieties, which offers greater opportunities for world food security, particularly in modern agroecosystems where CWR diversity is under severe threat. Factors such as habitat fragmentation, human disturbances, global climate change, and invasion of harmful alien species have been identified to be responsible for losses and threats to CWR diversity. However, a neglected factor, gene introgression from domesticated species through repeated outcrossing, may have a significant impact on CWR diversity. Introgression can influence genetic diversity and evolutionary processes of CWR populations through effects such as demographic swarming, genetic assimilation, and selective sweep. When largely enhancing or reducing fitness of wild plants, the introgression of crop genes will impose more significant genetic and evolutionary impacts on CWR populations, leading to undesired consequences for conserved CWR populations and species. This situation is particularly true when genetically engineered (GE) crops are deployed for commercial cultivation. It is argued that a GE crop usually contains transgenes with strong natural selection advantages, and such transgenes introgressed into CWR populations may have strong impacts on their genetic diversity and evolutionary processes, threatening their conservation. This article reviews the challenge of crop-wild gene flow, and particularly transgene introgression from GE crops, for the in situ conservation of wild relative species. The design of effective management strategies for conserving CWR species under the scenario of extensive cultivation of GE crops is also discussed. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Xiao J.,Shanghai Normal University | Ni X.,Fudan University | Kai G.,Shanghai Normal University | Chen X.,Central South University
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

The inhibitory effects of dietary polyphenols against α-amylase have attracted great interest among researchers. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research reports on the structure-activity relationship of polyphenols inhibiting α-amylase. The molecular structures that influence the inhibition are the following: (1) The hydroxylation of flavonoids improved the inhibitory effect on α-amylase; (2) Presence of an unsaturated 2,3-bond in conjugation with a 4-carbonyl group has been associated with stronger inhibition; (3) The glycosylation of flavonoids decreased the inhibitory effect on α-amylase depending on the conjugation site and the class of sugar moiety; (4) The methylation and methoxylation of flavonoids obviously weakened the inhibitory effect; (5) The galloylated catechins have higher inhibition than nongalloylated catechins; the catechol-type catechins were stronger than the pyrogallol-type catechins; the inhibition activities of the catechins with 2,3-trans structure were higher than those of the catechins with 2,3-cis structure; (6) Cyanidin-3-glucoside showed higher inhibition against than cyanidin and cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside had no inhibitory activity; (7) Ellagitannins with β-galloyl groups at glucose C-1 positions have higher inhibitory effect than the α-galloyl and nongalloyl compounds and the molecular weight of ellagitannins is not an important element. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Zhou W.-C.,Lanzhou University | Zhang Q.-B.,Fudan University | Qiao L.,University of Sydney
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Liver cirrhosis is the final pathological result of various chronic liver diseases, and fibrosis is the precursor of cirrhosis. Many types of cells, cytokines and miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in fibrosis. Defenestration and capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are major contributing factors to hepatic dysfunction in liver cirrhosis. Activated Kupffer cells destroy hepatocytes and stimulate the activation of HSCs. Repeated cycles of apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes contribute to pathogenesis of cirrhosis. At the molecular level, many cytokines are involved in mediation of signaling pathways that regulate activation of HSCs and fibrogenesis. Recently, miRNAs as a post-transcriptional regulator have been found to play a key role in fibrosis and cirrhosis. Robust animal models of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, as well as the recently identified critical cellular and molecular factors involved in the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis will facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for these conditions. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

Chen J.,Fudan University
Journal of Renal Nutrition | Year: 2013

The optimal dietary protein requirements in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients and how to balance the treatments between the nutritional intervention and other approaches are still controversies among nephrologists. In China, excessive dietary intake, low dose of dialysis, and lack of non-calcium-containing phosphorus binders are the main causes of hyperphosphatemia among HD patients. If the daily protein intake reached the recommended dose of 1.2 g/kg body weight per the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines, the net accumulation of phosphorus in patients receiving conventional thrice-weekly low-flux HD may reach 1550 mg per week on the basis of our studies on the assessment of phosphorus removal by HD and residual renal function. In fact, a relatively low-protein diet supplemented with keto-analogues could maintain the stable nutritional status in dialysis patients and provide additional beneficial effects. An individualized nutritional intervention is worth trying to treat hyperphosphatemia in HD patients. © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

Guo S.-W.,Fudan University
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2014

Objective To examine and compare differences, if any, between industry- and nonindustry-sponsored clinical trials on endometriosis and to evaluate the effect of prior published positive preclinical results, or lack thereof, on trial status. Design Cross-sectional study of clinical trials on endometriosis that evaluate drugs/biologicals registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as of July 3, 2013. Setting University-affiliated hospital. Patient(s) None. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Trial status, size, phase, and duration; use of comparator groups; drug classes, number of arms, targeting conditions; and presence or absence of prior positive preclinical results before the launch of the trial. Result(s) Eighty trials were identified. The trials sponsored by industry and non-industry have distinct features, differing in trial status, phase, comparator, drug classes, number of arms, trial size, and duration. The phase II/III trials are predominantly industry supported, but these trials frequently use placebo as the comparator. Trials launched without prior published preclinical results do not seem to fare well, although the presence of such studies is no guarantee for success. Conclusion(s) Questions as to whether the drug on trial is truly superior to the best available drug or of its cost-benefit profile are overlooked in most cases. There seems to be a deluge of "me-too" drugs with equivocal superiority over existing drugs and cost-benefit profiles. Because clinical trials are time-consuming, no blockbuster drug for endometriosis seems to be on the horizon yet. © 2014 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

Mu G.,Qujing Normal University | Qin Z.,Fudan University
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2014

By means of the Hirota bilinear method, explicit representations of general rogue waves for the Mel'nikov equation are explored in terms of determinants. As applications, it is found that this system admits bright- and dark-types rogue waves localized in two dimensional space. Furthermore, the superposition of such bright rogue waves are investigated graphically by different choices of the free parameters.© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cheng Y.,Fudan University
Pacific Economic Review | Year: 2014

This paper used an estimated mixed multinomial logit model of household housing demand to examine the impact of four housing market-related policies on a stated preference survey sample. The estimated demand probability function suggested that household choice behaviour does show huge heterogeneity. The estimated results were then employed to examine the effects of the policies. We estimated the potential disequilibrium between demand and supply under the construction-size-limitation policy, demonstrated that the efficient movers' subsidy increases along with the household income, and simulated the changes in housing demand when tax policy is changed. We demonstrate the potential usefulness of our modelling framework in assisting policy-making decisions. Our model also partially explains the failures and controversies of the latest real-estate intervention policies in China. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Modesto L.,Fudan University | Tsujikawa S.,Tokyo University of Science
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

We present a general covariant action for massive gravity merging together a class of "non-polynomial" and super-renormalizable or finite theories of gravity with the non-local theory of gravity recently proposed by Jaccard, Maggiore and Mitsou (Phys. Rev. D 88 (2013) 044033). Our diffeomorphism invariant action gives rise to the equations of motion appearing in non-local massive gravity plus quadratic curvature terms. Not only the massive graviton propagator reduces smoothly to the massless one without a vDVZ discontinuity, but also our finite theory of gravity is unitary at tree level around the Minkowski background. We also show that, as long as the graviton mass m is much smaller the today's Hubble parameter H0, a late-time cosmic acceleration can be realized without a dark energy component due to the growth of a scalar degree of freedom. In the presence of the cosmological constant Λ, the dominance of the non-local mass term leads to a kind of "degravitation" for Λ at the late cosmological epoch. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Tao F.,University of Notre Dame | Ma Z.,Fudan University
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2013

Since the pioneering finding by Haruta et al. that small gold nanoparticles on reducible supports can be highly active for low-temperature CO oxidation, the synthesis, characterization, and application of supported gold catalysts have attracted much attention. The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR: CO + H 2O = CO2 + H2) is important for removing CO and upgrading the purity of H2 for fuel cell applications, ammonia synthesis, and selective hydrogenation processes. In recent years, much attention has been paid to exploration the possibility of using supported gold nanocatalysts for WGSR and understanding the fundamental aspects related to catalyst deactivation mechanisms, nature of active sites, and reaction mechanisms. Here we summarize recent advances in the development of supported gold catalysts for this reaction and fundamental insights that can be gained, and furnish our assessment on the status of research progress. This journal is © 2013 the Owner Societies.

Shi Y.,Hangzhou Normal University | Wan Y.,Shanghai Normal University | Zhao D.,Fudan University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

Ordered mesoporous inorganic non-oxide materials attract increasing interest due to their plenty of unique properties and functionalities and potential applications. Lots of achievements have been made on their synthesis and structural characterization, especially in the last five years. In this critical review, the ordered mesoporous non-oxide materials are categorized by compositions, including non-oxide ceramics, metal chalcogenides, metal nitrides, carbides and fluorides, and systematically summarized on the basis of their synthesis approaches and mechanisms, as well as properties. Two synthesis routes such as hardlating (nanocasting) and softlating (surfactant assembly) routes are demonstrated. The principal issues in the nanocasting synthesis including the template composition and mesostructure, pore surface chemistry, precursor selection, processing and template removal are emphatically described. A great number of successful cases from the softlating method are focused on the surfactant liquid-crystal mesophases to synthesize mesostructured metal chalcogenide composites and the inorganic-block-organic copolymer self-assembly to obtain non-oxide ceramics (296 references). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Tan Y.-W.,Fudan University | Yang H.,Princeton University
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2011

Enzymes are remarkable molecular machines that make many difficult biochemical reactions possible under mild biological conditions with incredible precision and efficiency. Our understanding of the working principles of enzymes, however, has not reached the level where one can readily deduce the mechanism and the catalytic rates from an enzyme's structure. Resolving the dynamics that relate the three-dimensional structure of an enzyme to its function has been identified as a key issue. While still challenging to implement, single-molecule techniques have emerged as one of the most useful methods for studying enzymes. We review enzymes studied using single-molecule fluorescent methods but placing them in the context of results from other complementary experimental work done on bulk samples. This review primarily covers three enzyme systems - flavoenzymes, dehydrofolate reductase, and adenylate kinase - with additional enzymes mentioned where appropriate. When the single-molecule experiments are discussed together with other methods aiming at the same scientific question, the weakness, strength, and unique contributions become clear. © the Owner Societies.

Ding Q.,Jiangxi Normal University | Zhou X.,Jiangxi Normal University | Fan R.,Fudan University
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2014

Dearomatization reactions provide the most efficient method for the synthesis of spiro- or fused-ring systems from readily available compounds. This review summarizes the recent developments in dearomatization reactions of indoles, pyridines, quinolines, isoquinolines, and some other heteroaromatic compounds. The applications of these methods in total synthesis of natural products are also briefly introduced. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Wang G.,Beihang University | Guan J.,Fudan University
Journal of Informetrics | Year: 2010

Scientists from universities are becoming more proactive in their efforts to commercialize research results. Patenting, as an important channel of university knowledge transfer, has initiated a controversy on potential effects for the future of scientific research. This paper contributes to the growing study on the relationship between patenting and publishing among faculty members with China's evidence in the field of nanotechnology. Data from top 32 most prolific universities in patenting are used to examine the relationship, consisting of 6321 confirmed academic inventors who both publish and patent over the time period 1991-2008. By controlling for heterogeneity of patenting activities, patenting experience, institutional affiliation and collaboration with foreign researchers, the findings in China's nanotechnology generally support earlier investigations concluding that patenting activity does not adversely affect research output. Patenting, however, has negative impacts on both quantity and quality of university researchers' publication output, when the assignee lists include corporations or scientists themselves. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Shi Y.,Fudan University
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2014

In 2012, Chen Ning Yang received a 90th birthday gift in the form of a black cube inscribed with his 13 most important contributions, which cover four major areas of physics: statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, particle physics and field theory. We briefly describe these 13 contributions and make general comments about Yang's distinctive style as a trailblazing leader in research. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Chen X.,Fudan University
Oncogene | Year: 2015

The tumor-suppressor protein p53 is tightly controlled in normal cells by its two negative regulators—the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 and its homolog MDMX. Under stressed conditions such as DNA damage, p53 escapes MDM2- and MDMX-mediated functional inhibition and degradation, acting to prevent damaged cells from proliferating through induction of cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, senescence or apoptosis. Ample evidence suggests that stress signals induce phosphorylation of MDM2 and MDMX, leading to p53 activation. However, the structural basis of stress-induced p53 activation remains poorly understood because of the paucity of technical means to produce site-specifically phosphorylated MDM2 and MDMX proteins for biochemical and biophysical studies. Herein, we report total chemical synthesis, via native chemical ligation, and functional characterization of (24–108)MDMX and its Tyr99-phosphorylated analog with respect to their ability to interact with a panel of p53-derived peptide ligands and PMI, a p53-mimicking but more potent peptide antagonist of MDMX, using FP and surface plasmon resonance techniques. Phosphorylation of MDMX at Tyr99 weakens peptide binding by approximately two orders of magnitude. Comparative X-ray crystallographic analyses of MDMX and of pTyr99 MDMX in complex with PMI as well as modeling studies reveal that the phosphate group of pTyr99 imposes extensive steric clashes with the C-terminus of PMI or p53 peptide and induces a significant lateral shift of the peptide ligand, contributing to the dramatic decrease in the binding affinity of MDMX for p53. Because DNA damage activates c-Abl tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates MDMX at Tyr99, our findings afford a rare glimpse at the structural level of how stress-induced MDMX phosphorylation dislodges p53 from the inhibitory complex and activates it in response to DNA damage.Oncogene advance online publication, 6 July 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.255. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Zhou L.,Nanyang Technological University | Zhao D.,Fudan University | Lou X.,Nanyang Technological University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Built to last: Uniform LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4 hollow microspheres and microcubes (see picture; scale bars: 1 μm) with nanosized building blocks have been synthesized by a facile impregnation method followed by a simple solid-state reaction. The resultant LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4 hollow structures deliver a discharge capacity of about 120 mA h g -1 over prolonged cycling and exhibit excellent rate capability. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Hoover E.,University of Brighton | Harder M.K.,Fudan University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015

Higher education institutions have an important role to play in the transition towards a more sustainable global society. In this context, many universities have embarked on a journey towards 'sustainability', and there has been increasing research on related processes of organizational change. There is evidence that 'human' factors have an important role to play in change processes and numerous case studies capture how these occur, but there is little synthesis of qualitative research in this area. We present a meta-ethnography of 13 qualitative studies from peer reviewed academic publications. Using a grounded approach, we identified nine themes which we then synthesized in order to develop an in-depth understanding of organizational change processes for sustainability. This led to the identification of a number of hidden contradictions and tensions that seem to characterize such processes. These contradictions and tensions lead to recurring barriers to change and issues that can undermine the very sustainability of change processes. These issues are also influenced by the perception of who has power to affect change, networks and institutional structures. We discuss the implications for research and practice and suggest the need to recognize existing tensions and contradictions through reflexive practice and genuine dialogue as well as developing flexible structures and moving towards 'double loop' learning within institutions. The meta-ethnography presents a look beyond the surface of what has become an increasingly important area of institutional change in higher education, helps to inform practice, and contributes to emerging research imperatives. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chen S.,Fudan University | Golley J.,Asia Pacific College
Energy Economics | Year: 2014

This paper uses a Directional Distance Function (DDF) and the Malmquist-Luenberger Productivity Index to estimate the changing patterns of 'green' total factor productivity (GTFP) growth of 38 Chinese industrial sectors during the period 1980-2010. Unlike the measures of traditional total factor productivity (TFP) growth, the DDF incorporates carbon dioxide emissions as an undesirable output directly into the production technology, which credit sectors for simultaneously reducing their emissions and increasing their output. Our estimates of aggregate and sector-level GTFP growth reveal that Chinese industry is not yet on the path towards sustainable, low-carbon growth. A dynamic panel data analysis of the determinants of GTFP across sectors is used to identify factors that might rectify this situation, including state owned enterprise (SOE) reform, the growth of small private enterprises, continued openness to foreign investment and higher spending on R&D, particularly in emission-intensive sectors. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Truscott R.J.W.,University of Sydney | Zhu X.,University of Sydney | Zhu X.,Fudan University
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research | Year: 2010

Not only are human lenses different in many ways from those of non-primates, they also undergo dramatic changes with age. These age-dependent alterations lead to perturbations in the properties of older lenses, and ultimately to disturbances in visual function, which typically become apparent at middle age. Recent data suggest that many, if not all, of these age-dependent features can be traced to the lack of macromolecular turnover in the lens and to the inexorable modifications to proteins and membrane components over a period of decades. Exposure of lenses to heat can reproduce many of these alterations, suggesting that long-term incubation at body temperature may be an important factor in aging the human lens. Two conclusions flow from this. Firstly, the human lens may be an ideal tissue for studying macromolecular aging in man. Secondly, it will be extremely challenging to examine the origin of human age-related conditions, such as presbyopia and nuclear cataract, using traditional laboratory animals.Characterising the unfolding and decomposition of long-lived macromolecules appears to provide the key to understanding the two most common human lens disorders: presbyopia and age-related nuclear cataract. © 2010.

Zhao X.Y.,Fudan University
Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery | Year: 2012

A phase II study was conducted to test the efficacy and toxicity of the combination of cisplatin, 5-Fu and nimotuzumab, as induction treatment of resectable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Forty cases of resectable HNSCC were treated with nimotuzumab (400 mg on day 1) combined with PF regimens (cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on days 1 and 5-Fu 750 mg/m2 on days 1-5 q3wks). After 2 cycles, an organ-preservation local therapy (surgery or radiotherapy) was recommended. The primary endpoints of this study were overall response rate, pathologic complete response and safety of the induction treatment. Mean age of 40 patients was 54 years old, of them 9 patients with oropharyngeal cancer (22.5%), 16 hypopharyngeal cancer (40.0%), 10 laryngeal cancer (25.0%), and 5 oral cancer (12.5%). With a 2-cycle induction treatment, 34 (85.0%) patients achieved complete or partial response. Twenty-four patients (60.0%) got downstage, with T downstage in 21 (52.5%) patients and N downstage in 8 (20.0%) patients. Totally 27 patients got surgery after the induction treatment, of them 20 patients (74.1%) preserved organ functions. Four patients' primary tumors (10.0% in all 40 patients and 14.8% in operated 27 patients) showed pathologically complete responses. The toxicity was mild and manageable. The most common grade 3/4 toxicities were neutropenia (5.0%), nausea/vomiting (2.5%), stomatitis (2.5%) and thrombocytopenia (2.5%). One patient got grade 2 renal insufficiency and one patient got grade 1 skin rash. For resectable HNSCC, nimotuzumab plus PF regimen as induction treatment is highly effective for preserving the organ function and the toxicities are well tolerable.

Objective: Most epidemiological studies of eating disorders have been carried out in North America and Western Europe. There are few exploratory studies in China on the prevalence of eating disorders and influential factors that cause eating disorders. Method: A survey of school and college students aged between 12 and 25 in two cities in China had 1199 participants (95.8% response rate), 767 were female (63.9%) and 432 male (36.1%) Subjects completed questionnaires including the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26). Results: 9.9% of the females and 2.0% of the males showed high risk scores (EAT ≥ 20) regardless of whether their weight was normal or they were underweight. Such high risk groups showed a significantly higher degree of psychological characteristics relevant to eating disorders in both female and male subjects. Conclusion: Both Chinese females and a group of Chinese males may be at high risk for eating disorders. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

In this paper, the author investigates the global synchronization problem for linearly coupled neural networks with reaction-diffusion terms and unbounded time delays. The main difference of this paper from previous works in literature is that the time delay can be unbounded and non-differential. Moreover, the pinning control problem of such neural networks is also investigated. Some sufficient criteria for synchronization are given by means of the linear matrix inequality (LMI). Finally, numerical simulations are also given to show the validity of the obtained criteria. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Li J.,Fudan University
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Patients with metastatic gastric cancer (mGC) who do not respond to or who experience progression with second-line chemotherapy have no treatment options that clearly confer a survival benefit. This trial investigated the safety and efficacy of apatinib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, as a treatment option for heavily pretreated patients with mGC. Patients who experienced treatment failure with at least two chemotherapeutic regimens were randomly assigned to receive placebo (group A), apatinib 850 mg once daily (group B), or apatinib 425 mg twice daily (group C). We enrolled 144 patients onto this study. In groups A, B, and C, the median overall survival (OS) times were 2.50 months (95% CI, 1.87 to 3.70 months), 4.83 months (95% CI, 4.03 to 5.97 months), and 4.27 months (95% CI, 3.83 to 4.77 months), respectively, and the median progression-free survival (PFS) times were 1.40 months (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.83 months), 3.67 months (95% CI, 2.17 to 6.80 months), and 3.20 months (95% CI, 2.37 to 4.53 months), respectively. There were statistically significant differences between the apatinib and placebo groups for both PFS (P < .001) and OS (P < .001 and P = .0017). Nine patients had a partial response (three patients in group B and six patients in group C). Toxicities were tolerable or could be clinically managed. The most common grade 3 to 4 adverse events were hand-foot syndrome and hypertension. Hematologic toxicities were moderate, and grade 3 to 4 hematologic toxicities were rare. Apatinib showed improved PFS and OS in heavily pretreated patients with mGC who had experienced treatment failure with two or more chemotherapy regimens.

Guo S.-W.,Fudan University | Evers J.L.H.,Maastricht University
Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: To estimate patterns of publication of clinical trials of endometriosis registered in ClinicalTrials.gov and their associated characteristics. METHODS: Information on interventional clinical trials on endometriosis that were registered at ClinicalTrials. gov and updated as having been completed by October 25, 2012, was retrieved and the publication status and time to publication in Medline-indexed journals were ascertained by searching PubMed and by sending e-mail inquiries to the principal investigators listed by the registry. RESULTS: Seventy-one interventional trials of endometriosis, testing various drugs and biologicals, were identified. Among them, 49.3% (35/71) were completed by October 25, 2012, 21.1% were either stopped or inactive in the past 2 years, and the remaining 29.6% were ongoing. Among the 35 completed trials, 25 (71.4%) were sponsored by industry and results were published for only 11 (31.4%; five industry-sponsored, and six non-industry-sponsored). Trials sponsored by industry were nearly four times less likely to publish their results than nonindustry-sponsored trials, even though these trials typically had larger sample sizes and were completed faster. Compared with the publication rate of 20% found 4 years ago, the current rate has increased only marginally but still lies significantly below the reported 66.3% surveyed recently among 546 completed nonendometriosis trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (P<.001). CONCLUSION: Despite mounting pressure on more transparency of clinical trials, the current state of transparency or lack thereof of clinical trials on endometriosis is worrisome and does not benefit the trial sponsor or the public. Thus, we again call for more transparency for endometriosis trials. © 2013 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

Niu Z.H.,Fudan University
Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on human sperm DNA integrity. METHODS: Totally, 784 cases of male infertility were selected from our case database and grouped according to whether they were smokers or nonsmokers, how much they smoked (< or = 10, 11-19 and > or = 20 cigarettes/d) and how long they smoked (< or = 5, 6-9 and > or = 10 yr). Sperm DNA integrity was measured using sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and flow cytometry. DNA fragmentation and immature spermatozoa were expressed by the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and high DNA stainability (HDS) respectively. Conventional sperm parameters and sperm DNA integrity were compared among different groups. RESULTS: The total semen volume and percentage of grade a + b sperm were lower and the sperm morphological abnormality was higher in the > or = 20 cigarettes/d and > or = 10 yr groups than in the others (P < 0.05). DFI and HDS were significantly higher in the smokers than in the nonsmokers (P < 0.05). HDS was negatively correlated with the percentage of grade a + b sperm (r = -0.18, P < 0.05) and both DFI and HDS were positively correlated with the rate of sperm malformation (r = 0.31 and r = 0.39, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day or longer than 10 years has deleterious effects on the semen volume, percentage of grade a + b sperm and sperm morphology of the smokers. Cigarette smoking decreases sperm DNA integrity and nuclear maturation.

Ling Y.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Wang G.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Reddy J.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Wang C.,Fudan University | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Live wire: Thermal decomposition of β-FeOOH nanowires at 550 °C in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere generates highly photoactive hematite nanowires (N-hematite), which yielded a substantially enhanced photocurrent density, as compared to a hematite sample prepared in air (A-hematite). This enhanced photoactivity is attributed to the improved donor density of hematite nanowires, as a result of formation of oxygen vacancies. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Zhang L.-H.,Shanghai University of Finance and Economics | Yang W.H.,Fudan University
SIAM Journal on Optimization | Year: 2014

Given a symmetric and positive (semi)definite n-by-n matrix M and a vector, in this paper, we consider the matrix splitting method for solving the second-order cone linear complementarity problem (SOCLCP). The matrix splitting method is among the most widely used approaches for large scale and sparse classical linear complementarity problems, and its linear convergence is proved by [Luo and Tseng, SIAM J. Control Optim.,30(1992), pp. 408-425]. Our first contribution is to prove that, when the general matrix splitting algorithm is applied to SOCLCP with M symmetric and positive definite, it also converges at least linearly. Numerically, our second contribution is to propose a special and efficient matrix splitting algorithm, the block successive overrelaxation method, for solving the SOCLCP. The algorithm makes good use of the underlying geometry of the SOCLCP and each iteration only involves solving triangular linear systems and requires O(n) flops; moreover, the algorithm does not destroy the sparse structure of M and is able to exploit the sparsity effectively. Our code BSOR-BN-L based on this method is tested against four other state-of-the-art methods on problems with dense, ill-conditioned symmetric and positive definite matrices, as well as on problems with large scale sparse, symmetric and positive (semi)definite matrices. The numerical results are quite encouraging and BSOR-BN-L exhibits a very good performance in terms of its speed, accuracy, and efficiency in exploiting the sparsity of M. © 2014 Societ y for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

Liu X.,Tongji University | Chen T.,Fudan University
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks | Year: 2011

In this paper, we investigate the cluster synchronization problem for linearly coupled networks, which can be recurrently connected neural networks, cellular neural networks, Hodgkin-Huxley models, Lorenz chaotic oscillators, etc., by adding some simple intermittent pinning controls. We assume the nodes in the network to be identical and the coupling matrix to be asymmetric. Some sufficient conditions to guarantee global cluster synchronization are presented. Furthermore, a centralized adaptive intermittent control is introduced and theoretical analysis is provided. Then, by applying the adaptive approach on the diagonal submatrices of the asymmetric coupling matrix, we also get the corresponding cluster synchronization result. Finally, numerical simulations are given to verify the theoretical results. © 2011 IEEE.

Chen Y.,East China University of Science and Technology | Chen Y.,Fudan University | Zhang B.,East China University of Science and Technology | Liu G.,National University of Singapore | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

As the thinnest material ever known in the universe, graphene has been attracting tremendous amount of attention in both materials science and condensed-matter physics since its successful isolation a few years ago. This one-atom-thick two-dimensional pseudo-infinite nano-crystal consists of sp 2-hybridized aromatic carbon atoms covalently packed into a continuous hexagonal lattice. Graphene exhibits a range of unique properties, viz., high three-dimensional aspect ratio and large specific surface area, superior mechanical stiffness and flexibility, remarkable optical transmittance, extraordinary thermal response and excellent electronic transport properties, promising its applications in the next generation electronics. To switch graphene and its derivatives between ON and OFF states in nanoelectronic memory devices, various techniques have been developed to manipulate the carbon atomic sheets via introducing the valence-conduction bandgap and to enhance their processability. In this article, we review the utilization of electrically, thermally and chemically modified graphene and its polymer-functionalized derivatives for switching and information storage applications. The challenges posed on the development of novel graphene materials and further enhancements of the device switching performance have also been discussed. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Fu H.,Fudan University | Tsang S.-W.,University of Florida
Nanoscale | Year: 2012

Simple solution phase, catalyst-free synthetic approaches that offer monodispersed, well passivated, and non-aggregated colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals have presented many research opportunities not only for fundamental science but also for technological applications. The ability to tune the electrical and optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals by manipulating the size and shape of the crystals during the colloidal synthesis provides potential benefits to a variety of applications including photovoltaic devices, light-emitting diodes, field effect transistors, biological imaging/labeling, and more. Recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of colloidal lead chalcogenide nanocrystals and the achievements in colloidal PbS or PbSe nanocrystals solar cells have demonstrated the promising application of infrared-emitting colloidal lead chalcogenide nanocrystals in photovoltaic devices. Here, we review recent progress in the synthesis and optical properties of colloidal lead chalcogenide nanocrystals. We focus in particular upon the size- and shape-controlled synthesis of PbS, PbSe, and PbTe nanocrystals by using different precursors and various stabilizing surfactants for the growth of the colloidal nanocrystals. We also summarize recent advancements in the field of colloidal nanocrystals solar cells based on colloidal PbS and PbSe nanocrystals. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Chen S.,Fudan University
Acta Mathematica Scientia | Year: 2011

In this paper the Tricomi problem for a nonlinear mixed type equation is studied. The coefficients of themixed type equation are discontinuous on the line, where the equation changes its type. The existence of solution to this problem is proved. The method developed in this paper can be applied to study more difficult problems for nonlinear mixed type equations arising in gas dynamics. © 2011 Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics.

Mao H.,Qidong Peoples Hospital | Li Q.,Qidong Peoples Hospital | Gao S.,Fudan University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: A number of case-control studies were conducted to investigate the association of common type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk gene polymorphisms with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, these studies have yielded contradictory results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of the association between these polymorphisms and GDM, hence achieve a better understanding to the relationship between T2D and GDM. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, ISI web of science and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Data were abstracted independently by two reviewers. A meta-analysis was performed to examine the association between 9 polymorphisms from 8 genes and susceptibility to GDM. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Heterogeneity among articles and their publication bias were also tested. Results: We identified 22 eligible studies including a total of 10,336 GDM cases and 17,445 controls. We found 8 genetic polymorphisms were significantly associated with GDM in a random-effects meta-analysis. These polymorphisms were in or near the following genes: TCF7L2 (rs7903146), MTNR1B (rs10830963), IGF2BP2 (rs4402960), KCNJ11 (rs5219), CDKAL1 (rs7754840), KCNQ1 (rs2237892 and rs2237895) and GCK (rs4607517); while no association was found for PPARG with GDM risk. Similar results were also observed under dominant genetic model for these polymorphisms. Conclusions: This meta-analysis found 8 genetic variants associated with GDM. The relative contribution and relevance of the identified genes in the pathogenesis of GDM should be the focus of future studies. © 2012 Mao et al.

To observe the relationship between serum retinol binding protein 4(RBP4) and β cell function in Chinese subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and without known diabetes. 106 patients diagnosed as fatty liver by ultrasonography (M/F: 61/45; aged 47.44 ± 14.16 years) were enrolled in our current cross-sectional study. Subjects with known diabetes, chronic virus hepatitis and excessive alcohol consumption were excluded. Serum RBP4 was detected by ELISA and validated by quantitative Western blotting. β cell function were assessed by HOMA in all subjects and by hyperglycemic clamp in 17 normal glucose tolerance subjects (M = 6, F = 11). The levels of serum RBP4 in men were higher than that in women (55.96 ± 11.14 vs 45.87 ± 10.31 μg/ml, p < 0.001). Pearson's correlation analysis demonstrated that in women, serum RBP4 levels were significantly associated with fasting blood glucose (FBG), HOMA-β, and increment of first phase insulin secretion (1PH), but not associated with age, BMI, waist circumference, WHR, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), TC, TG, HDL-c, LDL-c, 2 h blood glucose, HOMA-IR, ALT, AST, γ-GT, hepatic fat content (HFC), and insulin sensitivity index (ISI). However, in men, serum RBP4 levels were significantly associated with HDL-c, ALT, AST, but not associated with any other parameters as mentioned above. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that in women, HOMA-IR and RBP4 were significantly associated with HOMA-β, while in men, HOMA-IR and BMI were significantly variables associated with HOMA-β. Serum RBP4, secreted mainly by liver and adipose tissue, may involve in the pathogenesis of β cell dysfunction in Chinese women patients with NAFLD.

BACKGROUND: Slug is a transcription factor of the Snail/Slug zinc-finger family and is implicated in metastasis of tumors, but its role in cell proliferation of prostate cancers is unclear. METHODS: Expression level of Slug and other genes was examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and QPCR analyses. The forced expression of Slug was mediated by retroviruses and adenoviruses. Slug was downregulated by shRNA. Cell growth was measured by the MTT assay and the quick cell proliferation assay. RESULTS: Here, we demonstrated that Slug expression is elevated in mouse prostate tumors, and human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, PC-3, and 22RV1. Forced expression of Slug-inhibited proliferation of prostate cancer cells PC-3 and DU-145. Conversely, reduced expression of Slug by shRNA promoted growth of PC-3 cancer cells. Consistent with these data, we found that forced expression of Slug in prostate cancer cells led to G1 cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Slug decreased cyclin D1 expression in both PC-3 and DU-145 cells, and knockdown of Slug by shRNA upregulated cyclin D1 expression in these cancer cells. In addition, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of cyclin D1 relieved Slug-mediated inhibition of proliferation of prostate cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first compelling evidence that Slug is a negative regulator of proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Our findings in this study are distinct from the previously reported role of Slug as a promoter for tumor metastasis, and suggest that Slug is a prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Physical activity has been shown to suppress tumor initiation and progression. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is closely related to movement and exhibits antitumor properties. However, whether the suppressive effects of physical activity on tumors was mediated by the nervous system via increased DA level remains unknowns. Here we show that regular moderate swimming (8 min/day, 9 weeks) raised DA levels in the prefrontal cortex, serum and tumor tissue, suppressed growth, reduced lung metastasis of transplanted liver cancer, and prolonged survival in a C57BL/6 mouse model, while overload swimming (16 and 32 min/day, 9 weeks) had the opposite effect. In nude mice that were orthotopically implanted with human liver cancer cell lines, DA treatment significantly suppressed growth and lung metastasis by acting on the D2 receptor (DR2). Furthermore, DR2 blockade attenuated the suppressive effect of moderate swimming on liver cancer. Both moderate swimming and DA treatment suppressed the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition of transplanted liver cancer cells. At the molecular level, DR2 signaling inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and expression of TGF-β1 in vitro. Together, these findings demonstrated a novel mechanism by which the moderate exercise suppressed liver cancer through boosting DR2 activity, while overload exercise had the opposite effect, highlighting the possible importance of the dopaminergic system in tumor growth and metastasis of liver cancer.Oncogene advance online publication, 21 December 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.484. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Aldosterone, which plays a key role in maintaining water and electrolyte balance, is produced by zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex. Autonomous overproduction of aldosterone from zona glomerulosa cells causes primary hyperaldosteronism. Recent clinical studies have highlighted the pathological role of the KCNJ5 potassium channel in primary hyperaldosteronism. Our objective was to determine whether small-conductance Ca-activated potassium (SK) channels may also regulate aldosterone secretion in human adrenocortical cells. We found that apamin, the prototypic inhibitor of SK channels, decreased membrane voltage, raised intracellular Ca and dose dependently increased aldosterone secretion from human adrenocortical H295R cells. By contrast, 1-Ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone, an agonist of SK channels, antagonized apamin’s action and decreased aldosterone secretion. Commensurate with an increase in aldosterone production, apamin increased mRNA expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and aldosterone synthase that control the early and late rate-limiting steps in aldosterone biosynthesis, respectively. In addition, apamin increased angiotensin II–stimulated aldosterone secretion, whereas 1-Ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone suppressed both angiotensin II– and high K–stimulated production of aldosterone in H295R cells. These findings were supported by apamin-modulation of basal and angiotensin II–stimulated aldosterone secretion from acutely prepared slices of human adrenals. We conclude that SK channel activity negatively regulates aldosterone secretion in human adrenocortical cells. Genetic association studies are necessary to determine whether mutations in SK channel subtype 2 genes may also drive aldosterone excess in primary hyperaldosteronism. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in Western countries, affecting 20%-33% of the general population. Large population-based surveys in China indicate a prevalence of approximately 15%-30%. Worldwide, including in China, the prevalence of NAFLD has increased rapidly in parallel with regional trends of obesity, type2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, NAFLD has contributed significantly to increased overall, as well as cardiovascular and liver-related, mortality in the general population. In view of rapid advances in research into NAFLD in recent years, this consensus statement provides a brief update on the progress in the field and suggests preferred approaches for the comprehensive management of NAFLD and its related metabolic diseases. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes published by Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Dendler L.,University of Manchester | Dendler L.,Fudan University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

Arguably one of the most prominent measures to facilitate more Sustainable Consumption and Production has been the instrument of product labelling. But with a plethora of labelling schemes having been implemented by various actors over the last decade, many now accuse them of being confusing rather than facilitating. As a result, governments in France, UK and Germany, as well as businesses such as Walmart and non-governmental organisations, like WWF, have begun to consider seriously the implementation of some form of 'meta' scheme that condenses existing product labels and other communication measures into an overarching Sustainability message. Yet so far, in depth studies on the potential institutionalisation of a Sustainability Meta Labelling Scheme are missing. Drawing upon a novel theoretically integrative framework that combines theoretical arguments of constructivist institutionalism and institutional entrepreneurship with the concept of legitimacy, this paper addresses this gap by exploring how the notion of Sustainability Meta Labelling has so far been discussed and investigating the prospects for such an overarching scheme to become institutionalised. Empirically, the paper bases on documentary analysis and elite interviews focussed on case studies of four existing product labelling schemes (EU ecolabel, EU energy label, Marine Stewardship Council and Fairtrade label) as well as the notion of Sustainability Meta Labelling. Legitimacy constructions are demonstrated rather than shown to be highly dynamic and oftentimes inherently conflicting. Many of these conflicts thereby appear to be likely to increase rather than decrease with the implementation of an overarching Sustainability Meta Labelling scheme. In a sense, this study shows that the very issue that is claimed to drive the establishment of a Sustainability Meta Labelling Scheme-the different interpretations of the Sustainable Development concept through different product labels-might in fact pose one of the main challenges for its institutionalisation and effectiveness in facilitating more Sustainable Consumption and Production. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is the only vaccine available for tuberculosis (TB) control. However, BCG is not an ideal vaccine and has two major limitations: BCG exhibits highly variable effectiveness against the development of TB both in pediatric and adult populations and can cause disseminated BCG disease in immunocompromised individuals. BCG comprises a number of substrains that are genetically distinct. Whether and how these genetic differences affect BCG efficacy remains largely unknown. In this study, we performed comparative analyses of the virulence and efficacy of 13 BCG strains, representing different genetic lineages, in SCID and BALB/c mice. Our results show that BCG strains of the DU2 group IV (BCG-Phipps, BCG-Frappier, BCG-Pasteur, and BCG-Tice) exhibit the highest levels of virulence, and BCG strains of the DU2 group II (BCG-Sweden, BCG-Birkhaug) are among the least virulent group. These distinct levels of virulence may be explained by strain-specific duplications and deletions of genomic DNA. There appears to be a general trend that more virulent BCG strains are also more effective in protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. Our findings have important implications for current BCG vaccine programs and for future TB vaccine development.Molecular Therapy (2016); doi:10.1038/mt.2015.216. © 2015 Official journal of the American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy

Luo X.,University of Texas at Arlington | Luo X.,Fudan University | Zhang J.,University of Texas at Arlington | Duan W.,George Washington University
Information Systems Research | Year: 2013

Companies have increasingly advocated social media technologies to transform businesses and improve organizational performance. This study scrutinizes the predictive relationships between social media and firm equity value, the relative effects of social media metrics compared with conventional online behavioral metrics, and the dynamics of these relationships. The results derived from vector autoregressive models suggest that social media-based metrics (Web blogs and consumer ratings) are significant leading indicators of firm equity value. Interestingly, conventional online behavioral metrics (Google searches and Web traffic) are found to have a significant yet substantially weaker predictive relationship with firm equity value than social media metrics. We also find that social media has a faster predictive value, i.e., shorter "wear-in" time, than conventional online media. These findings are robust to a consistent set of volume-based measures (total blog posts, rating volume, total page views, and search intensity). Collectively, this study proffers new insights for senior executives with respect to firm equity valuations and the transformative power of social media. © 2013 INFORMS.

Ye J.J.,University of Victoria | Zhu D.,Fudan University
SIAM Journal on Optimization | Year: 2010

The bilevel program is a sequence of two optimization problems where the constraint region of the upper level problem is determined implicitly by the solution set to the lower level problem. The classical approach to solving such a problem is to replace the lower level problem by its Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) condition and solve the resulting mathematical programming problem with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). In general the classical approach is not valid for nonconvex bilevel programming problems. The value function approach uses the value function of the lower level problem to define an equivalent single level problem. But the resulting problem requires a strong assumption, such as the partial calmness condition, for the KKT condition to hold. In this paper we combine the classical and the value function approaches to derive new necessary optimality conditions under rather weak conditions. The required conditions are even weaker in the case where the classical approach or the value function approach alone is applicable. Copyright © 2010, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

Chen Z.,Beihang University | Guan J.,Fudan University
Journal of Informetrics | Year: 2010

This paper investigates the impact of small world properties and the size of largest component on innovation performance at national level. Our study adds new evidence to the limited literature on this topic with an empirical investigation for the patent collaboration networks of 16 main innovative countries during 1975-2006. We combine small world network theory with statistical models to systematically explore the relationship between network structure and patent productivity. Results fail to support that the size of largest component enhances innovative productivity significantly, which is not consistent with recent concerns regarding positive effects of largest component on patent output. We do find that small-world structure benefits innovation but it is limited to a special range after which the effects inversed and shorter path length always correlates with increased innovation output. Our findings extend the current literature and they can be implicated for policy makers and relevant managers when making decisions for technology, industry and firm location. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jiang Z.,Fudan University
Archives of disease in childhood. Fetal and neonatal edition | Year: 2012

Functional integrity of the auditory brainstem was examined using maximum length sequence brainstem auditory evoked response in 72 term neonates who were receiving intensive care. Compared with normal term controls, the neonates receiving intensive care showed an increase in wave V latency and I to V and III to V interpeak intervals of the response. Wave V latency was significantly increased at very high click rates 455 and 910/s. I to V and III to V intervals were significantly increased at all 91 to 910/s, particularly 455 and 910/s, while I to III intervals were slightly increased. III to V/I to III interval ratios were increased at 455 and 910/s clicks. The slopes of wave V latency-rate, I to V interval-rate, III to V interval-rate and III to V/I to III-interval-ratio-rate functions were significantly steeper than in normal controls. These abnormalities suggest that neonates receiving intensive care are at high risk of brainstem, mainly more central regions, auditory impairment. The MLS BAER abnormalities and brainstem auditory impairment might be the result of collective adverse effects, produced by more than one perinatal risk factor.

Revill P.,Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory | Yuan Z.,Fudan University
Antiviral Therapy | Year: 2013

The mechanisms by which HBV establishes and maintains chronic infection are poorly understood. Although adult acquired HBV is generally cleared by a robust immune response, most individuals infected at childbirth or in very early childhood develop lifelong chronic infection. In addition, acute infections are unresolved in approximately 5% of individuals infected in adulthood. The host cell mechanisms that ensure establishment and resolution of acute infection and persistent infection remain unclear. Currently, two schools of thought suggest that either HBV is a 'stealth' virus, which initially establishes infection by avoiding host innate immune responses, or that HBV facilitates initial infection and progression to persistence by actively manipulating the host innate immune response to its advantage. There is increasing evidence that activation of innate host cell signalling pathways plays a major role in limiting adult acquired HBV infection and that, in turn, HBV has evolved numerous strategies to counteract these defence mechanisms. In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding innate immune responses to HBV infection and discuss how HBV regulates cell signalling pathways to its advantage, particularly in the setting of chronic HBV infection. In turn, we show how an intimate knowledge of innate immune responses is driving development of novel therapeutic agents to treat chronic HBV infection. © 2013 International Medical Press.

Ren J.,Fudan University | Ren J.,University of Wyoming | Anversa P.,Harvard University
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. A number of theories have been speculated for the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, interrupted neurohormonal regulation and compromised intracellular Ca2+ handling. Recent evidence has revealed that adults with severe growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) deficiency such as Laron syndrome display increased risk of stroke and cardiovascular diseases. IGF-1 signaling may regulate contractility, metabolism, hypertrophy, apoptosis, autophagy, stem cell regeneration and senescence in the heart to maintain cardiac homeostasis. An inverse relationship between plasma IGF-1 levels and prevalence of metabolic syndrome as well as associated cardiovascular complications has been identified, suggesting the clinical promises of IGF-1 analogues or IGF-1 receptor activation in the management of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms between IGF-1 and metabolic syndrome are still poorly understood. This mini-review will discuss the role of IGF-1 signaling cascade in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in particular the susceptibility to overnutrition and sedentary life style-induced obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and other features of metabolic syndrome. Special attention will be dedicated in IGF-1-associated changes in cardiac responses in various metabolic syndrome components such as insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia. The potential risk of IGF-1 and IGF-1R stimulation such as tumorigenesis is discussed. Therapeutic promises of IGF-1 and IGF-1 analogues including mecasermin, mecasermin rinfabate and PEGylated IGF-1 will be discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Pang X.,Fudan University | Pang X.,Florida State University | Zhou H.-X.,Florida State University
Communications in Computational Physics | Year: 2013

The Poisson-Boltzmann equation is widely used for modeling the electrostatics of biomolecules, but the calculation results are sensitive to the choice of the boundary between the low solute dielectric and the high solvent dielectric. The default choice for the dielectric boundary has been the molecular surface, but the use of the van der Waals surface has also been advocated. Here we review recent studies in which the two choices are tested against experimental results and explicit-solvent calculations. The assignment of the solvent high dielectric constant to interstitial voids in the solute is often used as a criticism against the van derWaals surface. However, this assignment may not be as unrealistic as previously thought, since hydrogen exchange and other NMR experiments have firmly established that all interior parts of proteins are transiently accessible to the solvent. © 2013 Global-Science Press.

Yin Q.,Harvard University | Fu T.-M.,Harvard University | Li J.,Harvard University | Li J.,Fudan University | Wu H.,Harvard University
Annual Review of Immunology | Year: 2015

Innate immune responses depend on timely recognition of pathogenic or danger signals by multiple cell surface or cytoplasmic receptors and transmission of signals for proper counteractions through adaptor and effector molecules. At the forefront of innate immunity are four major signaling pathways, including those elicited by Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, inflammasomes, or cGAS, each with its own cellular localization, ligand specificity, and signal relay mechanism. They collectively engage a number of overlapping signaling outcomes, such as NF-κB activation, interferon response, cytokine maturation, and cell death. Several proteins often assemble into a supramolecular complex to enable signal transduction and amplification. In this article, we review the recent progress in mechanistic delineation of proteins in these pathways, their structural features, modes of ligand recognition, conformational changes, and homo- and hetero-oligomeric interactions within the supramolecular complexes. Regardless of seemingly distinct interactions and mechanisms, the recurring themes appear to consist of autoinhibited resting-state receptors, ligand-induced conformational changes, and higher-order assemblies of activated receptors, adaptors, and signaling enzymes through conserved protein-protein interactions. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Han W.,Georgia Institute of Technology | He M.,Fudan University | Byun M.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Li B.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Lin Z.,Georgia Institute of Technology
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Stripes on a plane: A set of highly ordered microscopic stripes (purple; see scheme) were produced over a large area by using controlled evaporative self-assembly in a cylinder-on-Si geometry of conjugated homopolymers or all-conjugated diblock copolymer (P3BHT). The crystallinity of the as-prepared assemblies of P3BHT was greatly improved following chloroform vapor annealing, resulting in a fourfold increase in electrical conductivity. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Guan K.L.,Fudan University
Nature protocols | Year: 2010

Lysine acetylation has emerged as one of the major post-translational modifications, as indicated by its roles in chromatin remodeling, activation of transcription factors and, most recently, regulation of metabolic enzymes. Identification of acetylation sites in a protein is the first essential step for functional characterization of acetylation in physiological regulation. However, the study of the acetylome is hindered by the lack of suitable physical and biochemical properties of the acetyl group and existence of high-abundance acetylated histones in the cell, and needs a robust method to overcome these problems. Here we present protocols for (i) using chemically acetylated ovalbumin and synthetic acetylated peptide to generate a pan-acetyllysine antibody and a site-specific antibody to Lys288-acetylated argininosuccinate lyase, respectively; (ii) using subcellular fractionation to reduce highly abundant acetylated histones; and (iii) using acetyllysine antibody affinity purification and mass spectrometry to characterize acetylome of human liver tissue. The entire characterization procedure takes ∼2-3 d to complete.

Myatt L.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Sun K.,Fudan University
International Journal of Developmental Biology | Year: 2010

The fetal membranes fulfill several functions during pregnancy. In addition to containing the products of conception and amniotic fluid, they presumably have barrier functions and fulfill paracrine signaling functions between the maternal (decidual) and fetal compartments. As the membranes are in an ideal place to receive both maternal and fetal signals and transmit signals to uterine myometrium, there has been a specific focus on the role of membranes in the initiation and maintenance of parturition. In this review, we summarize the data obtained in our laboratories as well as the data reported in the literature particularly with regard to the synthesis of steroids and prostaglandins in the fetal membranes, in signaling fetal maturation and in parturition. The fetal membranes are a major site both of prostaglandin synthesis and of prostaglandin metabolism. In addition, the abundant expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1), which converts biologically inactive cortisone into active cortisol, in the fetal membranes may provide an extra-adrenal source of glucocorticoids for the fetal compartment during gestation. Accumulating evidence indicates that a positive feedback loop involving glucocorticoids, proinflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins, surfactant protein-A (SP-A) and 11βHSD1 is formed locally in human fetal membranes towards term or in preterm labor. This positive feedback loop would produce abundant biologically active glucocorticoids and prostaglandins in the fetal membranes or amniotic fluid, which would ultimately promote fetal organ maturation and initiate parturition. © 2009 UBC Press.

Mo J.-S.,University of California at San Diego | Yu F.-X.,University of California at San Diego | Gong R.,University of California at San Diego | Gong R.,Fudan University | And 2 more authors.
Genes and Development | Year: 2012

The Hippo signaling pathway plays a crucial role in tissue growth and tumorigenesis. Core components of the Hippo pathway include the MST1/2 and Lats1/2 kinases. Acting downstream from the Hippo pathway are the YAP/TAZ transcription coactivators, which are inhibited through phosphorylation by Lats. However, upstream signals that regulate the Hippo pathway have not been well delineated. Here we report that stimulation of protease-activated receptors (PARs) activates YAP/TAZ by decreasing phosphorylation and increasing nuclear localization. PAR1 acts through G12/13 and Rho GTPase to inhibit the Lats1/2 kinase. Our observations establish thrombin as a physiological signal for the Hippo pathway and implicate Hippo-YAP as a key downstream signaling branch of PAR activation. © 2012 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Li Z.H.,Fudan University | Schulze H.-J.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

We compute the binding energy of symmetric nuclear matter in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach using chiral two-nucleon and three-nucleon forces. We find strong overbinding, which cannot be remedied by the current version of three-body forces. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Fan E.,Fudan University
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2010

In this Letter, we propose a supersymmetric KdV-Sawada-Kotera-Ramani equation. Based on a super-Riemann theta function, we devise a lucid and straightforward way for explicitly constructing a quasi-periodic wave solution of the supersymmetric KdV-Sawada-Kotera-Ramani equation. In addition, a one-soliton solution is obtained as a limiting case of the periodic wave solution under small amplitude. Indeed different from the purely bosonic case, the quasi-periodic wave observed shows that there is an "influencing band" among the waves under the presence of the Grassmann variable. The waves are symmetric about the band but collapse along with the band. Furthermore, the amplitudes of the waves increase as the waves move away from the band. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zhang S.,Fudan University
Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica | Year: 2013

The site-specific characterization of N-glycans in glycoproteins with the potential of clinical application is important. In our previous report, the overall N-glycans of sera haptoglobin (Hp) β chain were found to be different in liver diseases. Hp β chain contains four potential sites of N-glycosylation. In this study, we investigated the potential change of N-glycans on Hp β chain in a site-specific fashion. Sera Hp β chain in healthy individuals as well as patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV), liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were purified, digested and subjected to liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-higher energy collision dissociation mass spectrometry, which allowed identification and structure determination of the glycopeptide, as well as the relative quantification of glycans present on each glycopeptide. The quantitative results revealed that the sialylation of NLFLN(207)HSEN(211)ATAK and the fucosylated structure at all glycopeptides increased significantly in LC and HCC patients compared with those in HBV patients and healthy individuals. A set of different N-glycan patterns of Hp β chain in various liver diseases has been determined. Thus, the sialylated and fucosylated glycoforms of Hp β chain might be related to early hepatocarcinogenesis and also might be useful as novel differential markers for LC and HCC patients.

Zhou L.,Nanyang Technological University | Zhao D.,Fudan University | Lou X.W.,Nanyang Technological University
Advanced Materials | Year: 2012

Novel double-shelled CoMn 2O 4 hollow microcubes with nanometer-sized building blocks have been prepared by a facile co-precipitation and annealing method. In virtue of the unique structural features, the resultant CoMn 2O 4 hollow structures exhibit high specific capacity (μ830 mA h g -1 at 200 mA g -1) and good cycling performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Sutanto J.,ETH Zurich | Palme E.,Newscron Ltd. | Tan C.-H.,City University of Hong Kong | Phang C.W.,Fudan University
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2013

Privacy has been an enduring concern associated with commercial information technology (IT) applications, in particular regarding the issue of personalization. IT-enabled personalization, while potentially making the user computing experience more gratifying, often relies heavily on the user's personal information to deliver individualized services, which raises the user's privacy concerns. We term the tension between personalization and privacy, which follows from marketers exploiting consumers' data to offer personalized product information, the personalization-privacy paradox. To better understand this paradox, we build on the theoretical lenses of uses and gratification theory and information boundary theory to conceptualize the extent to which privacy impacts the process and content gratifications derived from personalization, and how an IT solution can be designed to alleviate privacy concerns. 1 Set in the context of personalized advertising applications for smartphones, we propose and prototype an IT solution, referred to as a personalized, privacy-safe application, that retains users' information locally on their smartphones while still providing them with personalized product messages. We validated this solution through a field experiment by benchmarking it against two more conventional applications: a base non-personalized application that broadcasts non-personalized product information to users, and a personalized, non-privacy safe application that transmits user information to a central marketer's server. The results show that (com-pared to the non-personalized application), while personalized, privacy-safe or not increased application usage (reflecting process gratification), it was only when it was privacy-safe that users saved product messages (reflecting content gratification) more frequently. Follow-up surveys corroborated these nuanced findings and further revealed the users' psychological states, which explained our field experiment results. We found that saving advertisements for content gratification led to a perceived intrusion of information boundary that made users reluctant to do so. Overall our proposed IT solution, which delivers a personalized service but avoids transmitting users' personal information to third parties, reduces users' perceptions that their information boundaries are being intruded upon, thus mitigating the personalization-privacy paradox and increasing both process and content gratification.

Some VanM-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from China are also resistant to fosfomycin. To investigate the mechanism of fosfomycin resistance in these clinical isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, filter-mating, Illumina/Solexa sequencing, inverse PCR and fosfomycin resistance gene cloning were performed. Three E. faecium clinical isolates were highly resistant to fosfomycin and vancomycin with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) >1024 μg/ml and >256 μg/ml, respectively. The fosfomycin and vancomycin resistance of these strains could be co-transferred by conjugation. They carried a fosfomycin resistance gene fosB encoding a protein differing by one or two amino acids from FosB, which is encoded on staphylococcal plasmids. Accordingly, the gene was designated fosB3. The fosB3 gene was cloned into pMD19-T, and transformed into E. coli DH5α. The fosfomycin MIC for transformants with fosB3 was 750-fold higher than transformants without fosB3. The fosB3 gene could be transferred by an extrachromosomal circular intermediate. The results indicate that the fosB3 gene is transferable, can mediate high level fosfomycin resistance in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and can be located on a circular intermediate.

Shi Y.,Fudan University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2010

We study the condensate dynamics of the so-called entangled Bose-Einstein condensation (EBEC), which is the ground state of a mixture of two species of pseudospin-12 atoms with interspecies spin-exchange scattering in certain parameter regimes. EBEC leads to four interdependent superfluid components, each corresponding to the orbital wave function associated with a spin component of a species. The four superflows have various counter-relations, and altogether lead to a conserved total supercurrent and a conserved total spin supercurrent. In the homogeneous case, we also obtain the elementary excitations due to variations of the single-particle orbital wave functions, by exactly solving the generalized time-dependent Bogoliubov equations. There are three gapless Bogoliubov modes and one Klein-Gordon-like gapped mode. The origin of these excitations are also discussed from the perspective of spontaneous breaking of the symmetries possessed by the system. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Sheng W.,Fudan University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

The possibility of electrical tuning of exciton g-factors in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots is explored theoretically by means of a tight-binding-like effective bond-orbital approach. The electron g-factor in the dots of various sizes is found to exhibit very little change over a broad range of the field strength. In contrast, the ground hole state in the dots of high aspect ratio is seen very sensitive to the applied field, its g-factor even changes the sign with the field. The distinct behavior of the electron and hole g-factors in the presence of electric field is explained in terms of nonzero envelope orbital angular momentum carried by the hole states. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Yang S.,Fudan University
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies | Year: 2013

Traffic congestion prediction plays an important role in route guidance and traffic management. We formulate it as a binary classification problem. Through extensive experiments with real-world data, we found that a large number of sensors, usually over 100, are relevant to the prediction task at one sensor, which means wide area correlation and high dimensionality of the data. This paper investigates the first time into the feature selection problem for traffic congestion prediction. By applying feature selection, the data dimensionality can be reduced remarkably while the performance remains the same. Besides, a new traffic jam probability scoring method is proposed to solve the high-dimensional computation into many one-dimensional probabilities and its combination. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Xu X.,Fudan University
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2016

The extracellular matrix (ECM) maintenance is crucial to the structural integrity of adipocytes and whole adipose tissue formation. However, the potential impact of the ECM on adipocyte lineage commitment is unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that forced expression of matrix-associated metalloproteinase Adamts1 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1), which we show is targeted by microRNA-181d (miR-181d) during BMP4-induced adipocytic lineage commitment, markedly impairs adipocyte commitment. Conversely, siRNA-induced inhibition of Adamts1 promotes adipocyte commitment. Adamst1 metalloprotease activity is required for this inhibition and is determined to function via remodeling ECM components followed by activating FAK–ERK signaling pathway during the commitment process. Furthermore, ablation of Adamts1 in adipose tissue increases adipose tissue mass, reduces insulin sensitivity, and disrupts lipid homeostasis. This finding is consistent with Adamts1 decreased expression in the adipose tissue of obese mice and an inverse correlation of Adamts1 expression with body mass index in humans. Collectively, our results indicate that Adamts1 acts as an ECM ‘modifier’, with miR-181d-induced downregulation, that regulates adipocyte lineage commitment and obesity.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 22 July 2016; doi:10.1038/cdd.2016.66. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Xiao J.,Fudan University | Bauer G.E.W.,Tohoku University | Bauer G.E.W.,Technical University of Delft
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We study the excitation of spin waves in magnetic insulators by the current-induced spin-transfer torque. We predict preferential excitation of surface spin waves induced by an easy-axis surface anisotropy with critical current inversely proportional to the penetration depth and surface anisotropy. The surface modes strongly reduce the critical current and enhance the excitation power of the current-induced magnetization dynamics. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Chen T.,Case Western Reserve University | Hao R.,Case Western Reserve University | Peng H.,Fudan University | Dai L.,Case Western Reserve University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

A general approach toward extremely stretchable and highly conductive electrodes was developed. The method involves wrapping a continuous carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film around pre-stretched elastic wires, from which high-performance, stretchable wire-shaped supercapacitors were fabricated. The supercapacitors were made by twisting two such CNT-wrapped elastic wires, pre-coated with poly(vinyl alcohol)/H3PO4 hydrogel, as the electrolyte and separator. The resultant wire-shaped supercapacitors exhibited an extremely high elasticity of up to 350% strain with a high device capacitance up to 30.7 Fg-1, which is two times that of the state-of-the-art stretchable supercapacitor under only 100% strain. The wire-shaped structure facilitated the integration of multiple supercapacitors into a single wire device to meet specific energy and power needs for various potential applications. These supercapacitors can be repeatedly stretched from 0 to 200% strain for hundreds of cycles with no change in performance, thus outperforming all the reported state-of-the-art stretchable electronics. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Li Y.,University of Chicago | Kan H.,Fudan University
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2012

Complex orthogonal designs (CODs) are used to construct space-time block codes. COD O z with parameter [p, n, k] is a p × n matrix, where nonzero entries are filled by ± z i or ± z i*, i = 1,2,⋯, k, such that O H z O z = (|z 1| 2+|z 2| 2+⋯+|z k| 2)I n × n. Define O z a first type COD if and only if O z does not contain submatrix (± 0 0 ±z j*) or (±z j* 0 0 ±z j). It is already known that all CODs with maximal rate, i.e., maximal k/p , are of the first type. In this paper, we will determine all achievable parameters [p, n, k] of first type COD, as well as all their possible structures. The existence of parameters is proved by explicit-form constructions. New CODs with parameters [p,n,k]=[(n w-1) + (n w+1), n, (n w)], for 0 ≤ w ≤ n, are constructed, which demonstrate the possibility of sacrificing code rate to reduce decoding delay. It is worth mentioning that all maximal rate, minimal delay CODs are contained in our constructions, and their uniqueness under equivalence operation is proved. © 2012 IEEE.

Wang L.,Shanghai University of Finance and Economics | Chen T.,Fudan University
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems | Year: 2012

In this paper, we are concerned with a class of neural networks with Mexican-hat-type activation functions. Due to the different structure from neural networks with saturated activation functions, a set of new sufficient conditions are presented to study the multistability, including the total number of equilibrium points, their locations, and stability. Furthermore, the attraction basins of stable equilibrium points are investigated for two-neuron neural networks. The investigation shows that the stable manifolds of unstable equilibrium points constitute the boundaries of attraction basins of stable equilibrium points. Several illustrative examples are given to verify the effectiveness of our results. © 2012 IEEE.

Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical event in metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Rho/ROCKs signaling has a pivotal role in orchestrating actin cytoskeleton, leading to EMT and cancer invasion. However, the underlying mechanisms for ROCKs activation are not fully understood. Here, we identified FOXM1D, a novel isoform of Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) that has a pivotal role in ROCKs activation by directly interacting with coiled-coil region of ROCK2. FOXM1D overexpression significantly polymerizes actin assembly and impairs E-cadherin expression, resulting in EMT and metastasis in xenograft mouse model and knockdown of FOXM1D has the opposite effect. Moreover, a high FOXM1D level correlates closely with clinical CRC metastasis. FOXM1D-induced ROCKs activation could be abrogated by the ROCKs inhibitors Y-27632 and fasudil. These observations indicate that the FOXM1D–ROCK2 interaction is crucial for Rho/ROCKs signaling and provide novel insight into actin cytoskeleton regulation and therapeutic potential for CRC metastasis.Oncogene advance online publication, 11 July 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.249. © 2016 The Author(s)

Bambi C.,Fudan University | Bambi C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

Astrophysical black hole (BH) candidates are thought to be the Kerr BHs predicted by general relativity, but the actual nature of these objects has still to be proven. The analysis of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by a geometrically thin and optically thick accretion disk around a BH candidate can provide information about the geometry of the spacetime around the compact object and it can thus test the Kerr BH hypothesis. In this paper, I present a code based on a ray-tracing approach and capable of computing some basic properties of thin accretion disks in spacetimes with deviations from the Kerr background. The code can be used to fit current and future X-ray data of stellar-mass BH candidates and constrain possible deviations from the Kerr geometry in the spin parameter-deformation parameter plane. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Shi Y.,Fudan University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2010

We consider a mixture of two species of spin-1 atoms with interspecies spin exchange, which may cooperate or compete with intraspecies spin exchanges and thus dramatically affect the ground state. It represents a new class of bosonic gases differing from single-species spinor gases. We determine the exact ground states in several parameter regimes and study the composite structures using the generating function method generalized here to be applicable to a mixture of two species of spinor gases. The most interesting phase is the so-called entangled Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), which is fragmented BEC with quantum entanglement between the two species and with both interspecies and intraspecies singlet pairs. For comparison, we also apply the generating function method to a mixture of two species of pseudospin-12 atoms, for which the total spin quantum number of each species is fixed as half of the atom number, in contrast with the case of spin 1, for which it is a variable determined by energetics. Consequently, singlet pairs in entangled BEC of a pseudospin-12 mixture are all interspecies. Interspecies spin exchange leads to novel features beyond those of spinor BEC of a single species of atoms as well as mixtures without interspecies spin exchange. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Fang Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Tian W.,Fudan University | Ji H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Cell Research | Year: 2012

Classical algorithms aiming at identifying biological pathways significantly related to studying conditions frequently reduced pathways to gene sets, with an obvious ignorance of the constitutive non-equivalence of various genes within a defined pathway. We here designed a network-based method to determine such non-equivalence in terms of gene weights. The gene weights determined are biologically consistent and robust to network perturbations. By integrating the gene weights into the classical gene set analysis, with a subsequent correction for the "over-counting" bias associated with multi-subunit proteins, we have developed a novel gene-weighed pathway analysis approach, as implemented in an R package called "Gene Associaqtion Network-based Pathway Analysis" (GANPA). Through analysis of several microarray datasets, including the p53 dataset, asthma dataset and three breast cancer datasets, we demonstrated that our approach is biologically reliable and reproducible, and therefore helpful for microarray data interpretation and hypothesis generation. © 2012 IBCB, SIBS, CAS All rights reserved.

Li J.,Fudan University
Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi | Year: 2010

to screen microRNA (miRNA) that inhibit expression of the metastasis-related gene ezrin in ovarian cancer cells and explore their correlation to the invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer. the differential expression of ezrin in two paired high-metastatic and low-metastatic cell lines were examined by real time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and western blot. A functional screen with microarray was employed to identify miRNA that were differentially expressed between SKOV3 and SKOV3ip cell lines. Three programs, TARGETSCAN (http://www.targetscan.org), MICROCOSM (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/enright-srv/microcosm/htdocs/targets/v5/) and PICTAR (http://www.pictar.mdc-berlin.de), were employed to identify all miRNA, which may inhibit the expression of ezrin and were differentially expressed between SKOV3 and SKOV3ip cells. To test the repressive potential of these miRNA, synthetic mimetics were transfected individually into SKOV3ip cells and endogenous ezrin expression levels monitored by western blot and real-time RT-PCR. (1) the mRNA average level of ezrin were (81.74 ± 5.34)-fold higher expression level in SKOV3ip versus SKOV3 cells (P < 0.01), while (2.61 ± 0.14)-fold in HO-8910PM versus HO-8910 cells (P < 0.01). Elevated protein level of ezrin were observed in SKOV3ip cells compared with that in SKOV3 cells, and the same that in HO-8910PM cells compared with HO-8910 cells. Paired SKOV3 and SKOV3ip cells were employed to study the more significant difference in ezrin expression between them. (2) By a functional screen using miRNA microarray combined with bioinformatics analysis, the miR-183 and miR-22 were indentified as two candidate miRNA, which may have the potential regulatory role in ezrin expression. Real time RT-PCR assays revealed that miR-183 and miR-22 were, respectively, an average of (5.84 ± 0.66)-fold and (6.67 ± 0.67)-fold higher expression level in SKOV3ip versus SKOV3 cells (P < 0.01), which were in agreement with the microarray data. A subsequent validation by western blot and real time RT-PCR revealed that over-expression of miR-183 and miR-22 could both lead to an obvious decrease in ezrin protein level, while there were not signicant difference in the level of ezrin mRNA (P > 0.05). increased expression of miR-183 and miR-22 may both repress the protein level of ezrin, indicating that miR-183 and miR-22 may bear a potential role in inhibiting ovarian cancer metastasis in a ezrin-mediated way.

Fan E.,Fudan University
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2011

Binary Bell polynomials are extended to systematically construct bilinear formalism, bilinear Bäcklund transformations, Lax pairs and infinite conservation laws of the nonisospectral and variable-coefficient KdV equation in a quick and natural way. Moreover, the infinite conservation laws are local and obtained through directly decoupling binary Bell polynomials. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ma D.,Fudan University
Nanoscale | Year: 2014

Gene therapy with siRNA is a promising biotechnology to treat cancer and other diseases. To realize siRNA-based gene therapy, a safe and efficient delivery method is essential. Nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery is of great importance to overcome biological barriers for systemic delivery in vivo. Based on recent discoveries, endosomal escape is a critical biological barrier to be overcome for siRNA delivery. This feature article focuses on endosomal escape strategies used for nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery, including cationic polymers, pH sensitive polymers, calcium phosphate, and cell penetrating peptides. Work has been done to develop different endosomal escape strategies based on nanoparticle types, administration routes, and target organ/cell types. Also, enhancement of endosomal escape has been considered along with other aspects of siRNA delivery to ensure target specific accumulation, high cell uptake, and low toxicity. By enhancing endosomal escape and overcoming other biological barriers, great progress has been achieved in nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

Zhang Q.,Fudan University
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2013

Lead-acid batteries are widely used in electric vehicles and lights. The current status of recycling of spent lead-acid batteries in China is described, including the main methods used and general trends. Current recycling of lead-acid batteries in China is mainly conducted by lead recovery companies and without direct government control. Some suggestions for improvements are made. © 2013 by ESG.

A fundamental result of population genetics states that a new mutation, at an unlinked neutral locus in a randomly mating diploid population, has a mean time of fixation of ~4N e generations, where N e is the effective population size. This result is based on an assumption of fixed population size, which does not universally hold in natural populations. Here, we analyze such neutral fixations in populations of changing size within the framework of the diffusion approximation. General expressions are derived for the mean and variance of the fixation time in changing populations. Some explicit results are given for two cases: (i) the effective population size undergoes a sudden change, representing a sudden population expansion or a sudden bottleneck; (ii) the effective population changes linearly for a limited period of time and then remains constant. Additionally, a lower bound for the mean time of fixation is obtained for an effective population size that increases with time, and this is applied to exponentially growing populations. The results obtained in this work show, among other things, that for populations that increase in size, the mean time of fixation can be enhanced, sometimes substantially so, over 4N e,0 generations, where N e,0 is the effective population size at the time the mutation arises. Such an enhancement is associated with (i) an increased probability of neutral polymorphism in a population and (ii) an enhanced persistence of highfrequency neutral variation, which is the variation most likely to be observed. © 2012 by the Genetics Society of America.

Liang M.,Fudan University
Mediators of inflammation | Year: 2013

Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal fibrotic disease of the lungs with unclear etiology. Recent insight has suggested that early injury/inflammation of alveolar epithelial cells could lead to dysregulation of tissue repair driven by multiple cytokines. Although dysregulation of interleukin- (IL-) 22 is involved in various pulmonary pathophysiological processes, the role of IL-22 in fibrotic lung diseases is still unclear and needs to be further addressed. Here we investigated the effect of IL-22 on alveolar epithelial cells in the bleomycin- (BLM-) induced pulmonary fibrosis. BLM-treated mice showed significantly decreased level of IL-22 in the lung. IL-22 produced γδ T cells were also decreased significantly both in the tissues of lungs and spleens. Administration of recombinant human IL-22 to alveolar epithelial cell line A549 cells ameliorated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and partially reversed the impaired cell viability induced by BLM. Furthermore, blockage of IL-22 deteriorated pulmonary fibrosis, with elevated EMT marker ( α -smooth muscle actin ( α -SMA)) and overactivated Smad2. Our results indicate that IL-22 may play a protective role in the development of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and may suggest IL-22 as a novel immunotherapy tool in treating pulmonary fibrosis.

Liu Y.,Fudan University | Pan Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang B.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

We develop a holographic superconductor in BTZ black hole background with backreactions. We investigate the influence of the backreaction on the condensation of the scalar hair and the dynamics of perturbation in the background spacetime. When the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound is approached, we argue that only one of two possible operators can reflect the real property of the condensation in the holographic superconductor. This argument is supported by the investigation in dynamics. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Sun B.,Fudan University
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2012

Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been used not only for pulmonary vasodilation in term neonates with hypoxemic respiratory failure, but also in preterm ones at risk of chronic lung disease (CLD) with variable results in prevention and treatment of CLD and/or brain injury. However, meta analysis of clinical trials does not support that iNO should be used routinely in preterm infants with hypoxic respiratory failure as it has no convincing long-term follow-up data to show its advantages in neurodevelopment. Investigation of extra-pulmonary effects of iNO through nitrosothiol hemoglobin-associated hypoxic vasodilation, as well as its intra-and extra-pulmonary anti-inflammation effect, would have biological and physiological potential in the management of the lung and brain injury of prematurity. The eligibility and safety of iNO in these premature infants at high risk of neurodevelopmental disability require more clinical and follow-up effort to test its pharmacological benefit over harm. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

Xu X.-D.,Fudan University | He J.-H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang B.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

We study the interacting dark energy model with time varying dark energy equation of state. We examine the stability in the perturbation formalism and the degeneracy among the coupling between dark sectors, the time-dependent dark energy equation of state and dark matter abundance in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Further we discuss the possible ways to break such degeneracy by doing global fitting using the latest observational data and we get a tight constraint on the interaction between dark sectors. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Xie J.,Fudan University
Glycoconjugate Journal | Year: 2012

Natural killer gene complex (NKC) encodes a group of proteins with a single C-type lectin-like domain, (CTLD) which can be subdivided several subfamilies according to their structures and expression patterns. The receptors containing the conserved calcium binding sites in the CTLD fold belong to group II of C-type lectin superfamily and are expressed on myeloid cells and non- myeloid cells. The receptors lacking conserved calcium binding sites in the CTLD fold have evolved to bind ligands other than carbohydrates independently on calcium and thereby are named as C-type lectin-like receptors. The C-type lectinlike receptors are previously thought to be exclusively expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and enable NK cells to discriminate self, missing self or altered self. However, some C-type lectin-like receptors are identified in myeloid cells and are intensely investigated, recently. These myeloid C-type lectin-like receptors, especially Dectin-1 cluster, have a wide variety of ligands, including those of exogenous origin, and play important roles in the physiological functions and pathological processes including immune homeostasis, immune defenses, and immune surveillance. In this review, we summarize each member of the Dectin-1 cluster, including their structural profiles, expression patterns, signaling properties as well as known physiological functions. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Poo Y.,Nanjing University | Wu R.-X.,Nanjing University | Lin Z.,Fudan University | Yang Y.,Nanjing University | Chan C.T.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We present an experimental demonstration of self-guiding electromagnetic edge states existing along the zigzag edge of a honeycomb magnetic photonic crystal. These edge states are shown to possess unidirectional propagation characteristics that are robust against various types of defects and obstacles. In particular, they allow for the unidirectional transport of electromagnetic energy without requiring an ancillary cladding layer. © 2011 American Physical Society. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Lu Y.,Fudan University | Lu Y.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2010

Copper thin film on silane modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate was fabricated by ultrasonic-assisted electroless deposition. The composition and topography of copper plating PET films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Peel adhesion strength, as high as 16.7 N/cm, was achieved for the planting copper layer to the modified PET substrate with ultrasonic-assisted deposition; however, a relative low value as 11.9 N/cm was obtained for the sample without ultrasonic vibration by the same measurement. The electrical conductivity of Cu film was changed from 7.9 × 104 to 2.1 × 105 S/cm by using ultrasonic technique. Ultrasonic operation has the significant merits of fast deposition and formation of good membranes for electroless deposition of Cu on PET film. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang S.,Fudan University
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent that selectively triggers apoptosis in various cancer cells by interacting with its proapoptotic receptors DR4 and KILLER/DR5. The intensive studies of TRAIL signaling pathways over the past decade have provided clues for understanding the molecular mechanisms of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in carcinogenesis and identified an array of therapeutic responses elicited by TRAIL and its receptor agonists. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that recombinant TRAIL and the agonistic mono-antibodies targeting TRAIL receptors exhibit potent tumoricidal activities as monotherapies and that the combinatorial therapies of these agents in conjunction with other anticancer modalities such as chemo or radiotherapy amplify the activities of anticancer agents and widen the therapeutic window by overcoming tumor resistance to apoptosis and driving cancer cells to self-destruction. The identification of a number of biomarkers that predict tumor sensitivity of patients to TRAIL-based therapy shed a new light on the personalized therapeutic strategies targeting the TRAIL/TRAIL receptor pathway. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Shen C.,Fudan University
Chinese medical journal | Year: 2012

To discuss the present status and progress of clinical research on the cognitive effects caused by different types of brain tumors and common treatments. The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed articles published in English from 1990 to Febuary 2012. Research terms were "cognitive deficits" or "cognitive dysfunction". Articals including any information about brain tumor related cognitive deficits were selected. It is widely accepted that brain tumors and related treatments can impair cognitive function across many domains, and can impact on patients' quality of life. Tumor localization, lateralization, surgery, drugs, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are all thought to be important factors in this process. However, some conflicting findings regarding brain tumor-related cognitive deficits have been reported. It can be difficult to determine the mechanism of these treatments, such as chemotherapy, antibiotics, antiepileptics, and steroids. Future research is needed to clarify these potential treatment effects. Cognitive function is important for patients with brain tumor. Much more focus has been paid on this field. It should be regarded as an important prognostic index for the patients with brain tumor, and neuropsychological tests should be used in regular examinations.

Zhu S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Yu S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Wang Y.,Fudan University | Ma D.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2010

Figure Presented Hey Mickey, you're so fine! Organocatalytic Michael additions of aldehydes with protected 2-amino-1-nitroethene could go through three different transition-states to afford adducts with usual and unusual stereochemistry, thereby providing a facile entry to Tamiflu (see scheme) and substituted 3-aminopyrrolidines. TMS = trimethylsilyl, Ac = acetyl. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Yu H.,Fudan University
European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2013

After the surgical procedure of ossicular chain reconstruction, the effectiveness and/or stability of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP) or total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP) were systematically compared and evaluated using meta-analysis. A total of 40 eligible investigations with 4,311 subjects were included in our study. There was a significant difference in the effectiveness of the reconstruction of the ossicular chain between PORP and TORP; the data showed a combined risk ratio (RR) of 1.28 (95 % CI 1.17-1.41, p < 0.00001), but no notable difference was obtained in staged procedures subgroup and cholesteatoma subgroup, with a combined RR of 1.13 (95 % CI 0.60-2.11, p = 0.70) in staged procedures subgroup and RR of 2.60 (95 % CI 0.20-36.21, p = 0.59 in cholesteatoma subgroup). There was a statistically significant difference in the stability of the prostheses in long-term follow-up, with a combined RR of 0.37 (95 % CI 0.16-0.85, p = 0.02), but no significant difference was observed in the total sample, with a combined RR of 0.64 (95 % CI 0.40-1.03, p = 0.06). Our overall results suggest that the effectiveness of PORP was higher than TORP, except within staged procedures subgroup and cholesteatoma subgroup. In addition, the stability of PORP was significantly superior to TORP in long-term follow-ups, but no significant effect was detected in the general study.

Jiang A.Q.,Fudan University | Lee H.J.,Seoul National University | Hwang C.S.,Seoul National University | Scott J.F.,University of Cambridge
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2012

After calculations of various domain-switching current transients under the pulse from electrical circuit parameters, the field dependence of domain-switching speeds is accurately estimated over five orders of magnitude in a wide temperature range of 5.4-280 K from the height of domain-switching current in Pb(Zr 0.4Ti 0.6)O 3 thin films. These estimations are extended following Merz's equation [W. J. Merz, Phys. Rev. 1954, 95, 690] and an ultimate domain-switching current density of 1.4 ×10 8 A cm -1 is extracted at the highest field of 0.20 MV cm -1. From classical domain-nucleation models with thermal fluctuations, an ultimate (asymptotic high-field) nucleation time of 0.47 ps is derived when the domain sideways motion is kink-nucleation-rate limited. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Liu J.-X.,Iowa State University | Liu J.-X.,Fudan University | Howell S.H.,Iowa State University
Plant Cell | Year: 2010

Stress agents known to elicit the unfolded protein response in Arabidopsis thaliana upregulate the expression of a constellation of genes dependent on the membrane-associated basic domain/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, bZIP28. Among the stress-activated genes, a consensus promoter sequence corresponding to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-responsive element I (ERSE-I), CCAAT-N10-CACG, was identified. Disruption of either the CCAAT or CACG subelement in ERSE-I resulted in reduction of the transcriptional response to ER stress. bZIP28 forms homo- and heterodimers with other bZIP TF family members (in subgroup D) and interacts with CCAAT box binding factors, heterotrimeric factors composed of NF-Y subunits. Arabidopsis encodes 36 NF-Y subunits, and it was found that subunits NF-YB3 and -YC2 interact with bZIP28 and NF-YA4, respectively, in a yeast three-hybrid system. A transcriptional complex containing bZIP28 and the above-mentioned three NF-Y subunits was assembled in vitro on DNA containing ERSE-I. bZIP28, on its own, binds to the CACG subelement in ERSE-I to form a smaller complex I, and in combination with the NF-Y subunits above, bZIP28 assembles into a larger transcriptional complex (complex II). bZIP28 was shown to interact with NF-Y subunits in vivo in bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses and in coimmunoprecipitation assays. Treatment of seedlings with ER stress agents led to the upregulation of NF-YC2 and the relocation of NF-YB3 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Thus, in response to ER stress, bZIP28 is mobilized by proteolysis and recruits NF-Y subunits to form a transcriptional complex that upregulates the expression of ER stress-induced genes. © 2010 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Kuijlaars A.B.J.,Catholic University of Leuven | Zhang L.,Fudan University
Communications in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2014

Akemann, Ipsen and Kieburg recently showed that the squared singular values of products of M rectangular random matrices with independent complex Gaussian entries are distributed according to a determinantal point process with a correlation kernel that can be expressed in terms of Meijer G-functions. We show that this point process can be interpreted as a multiple orthogonal polynomial ensemble. We give integral representations for the relevant multiple orthogonal polynomials and a new double contour integral for the correlation kernel, which allows us to find its scaling limits at the origin (hard edge). The limiting kernels generalize the classical Bessel kernels. For M = 2 they coincide with the scaling limits found by Bertola, Gekhtman, and Szmigielski in the Cauchy–Laguerre two-matrix model, which indicates that these kernels represent a new universality class in random matrix theory. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Zhu Y.,Fudan University | Letaief K.B.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2010

Single carrier interleaved frequency division multiple access (SC-IFDMA) has been recently receiving much attention for uplink multiuser access in the next generation mobile systems because of its lower peak-to-average transmit power ratio (PAPR). In this paper, we investigate the effect of carrier frequency offset (CFO) on SC-IFDMA and propose a new low-complexity time domain linear CFO compensation (TD-LCC) scheme. The TD-LCC scheme can be combined with successive interference cancellation (SIC) to further improve the system performance. The combined method will be referred to as TD-CC-SIC. We shall study the use of user equipment (UE) ordering algorithms in our TD-CC-SIC scheme and propose both optimal and suboptimal ordering algorithms in the MMSE sense. We also analyze both the output SINR and the BER performance of the proposed TD-LCC and TD-CC-SIC schemes. Simulation results along with theoretical SINR and BER results will show that the proposed TD-LCC and TD-CC-SIC schemes greatly reduce the CFO effect on SC-IFDMA. We also propose a new blind CFO estimation scheme for SC-IFDMA systems when the numbers of subcarrier sets allocated to different UEs are not the same due to their traffic requirements. Compared to the conventional blind CFO estimation schemes, it is shown that by using a virtual UE concept, the proposed scheme does not have the CFO ambiguity problem, and in some cases can improve the throughput efficiency since it does not need to increase the length of cyclic prefix (CP). © 2010 IEEE.

Luo W.,Key Laboratory of Computational Physical science Ministry of Education | Xiang H.,Key Laboratory of Computational Physical science Ministry of Education | Xiang H.,Fudan University
Nano Letters | Year: 2015

Two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs), also known as quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulators, are excellent candidates for coherent spin transport related applications because the edge states of 2D TIs are robust against nonmagnetic impurities since the only available backscattering channel is forbidden. Currently, most known 2D TIs are based on a hexagonal (specifically, honeycomb) lattice. Here, we propose that there exists the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) in a buckled square lattice. Through performing global structure optimization, we predict a new three-layer quasi-2D (Q2D) structure, which has the lowest energy among all structures with the thickness less than 6.0 Å for the BiF system. It is identified to be a Q2D TI with a large band gap (0.69 eV). The electronic states of the Q2D BiF system near the Fermi level are mainly contributed by the middle Bi square lattice, which are sandwiched by two inert BiF2 layers. This is beneficial since the interaction between a substrate and the Q2D material may not change the topological properties of the system, as we demonstrate in the case of the NaF substrate. Finally, we come up with a new tight-binding model for a two-orbital system with the buckled square lattice to explain the low-energy physics of the Q2D BiF material. Our study not only predicts a QSH insulator for realistic room temperature applications but also provides a new lattice system for engineering topological states such as quantum anomalous Hall effect. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Protothecosis is an opportunistic infection caused by Prototheca, usually called as saprophytes, and is frequently found in natural and living surroundings with low virulence, but may cause chronic infection in immunocompromised individuals. We report a case of cutaneous protothecosis with zopfii var. portoricensis infection in a 66-year-old diabetic woman following hand surgery on middle right finger. Mycology study showed that smooth, creamy white, yeast-like colonies grown after necrotic tissue was cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar at both 37 and 25°C. The organism was then identified as Prototheca zopfii var. portoricensis by molecular identification and also found from histopathology of the lesion. The lesion got improved with intravenous amphotericin B and itraconazole.

Jin J.-O.,Fudan University | Yu Q.,The Forsyth Institute
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2015

Although some immune modulatory effects of fucoidan have been elucidated, the effects of fucoidan on the apoptosis and activation of human neutrophils have not been investigated. In this study, we demonstrated that fucoidan purified from the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifilda delays spontaneous apoptosis of human neutrophils and induces their activation. Fucoidan treatment inhibited apoptotic nuclei changes and phosphatidyl serine (PS) exposure on neutrophils cultured in vitro for 24. h. The delay in neutrophil apoptosis mediated by fucoidan was associated with increased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and decreased levels of activated caspase-3. Screening of the signaling pathways by specific inhibitors indicated that fucoidan-induced delay in neutrophil apoptosis was dependent on the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, whereas MAPK signaling pathway was not critical. In addition, fucoidan enhanced the production of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α from neutrophils in an AKT-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrated that fucoidan delays human neutrophil apoptosis and induces their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for infectious diseases and neutropenia by controlling neutrophil homeostasis and function with fucoidan. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Calcagni G.,CSIC - Institute for the Structure of Matter | Modesto L.,Fudan University
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2014

We discuss an aspect of string theory which has been tackled from many different perspectives, but incompletely: the role of nonlocality in the theory and its relation to the geometric shape of the string. In particular, we will describe in quantitative terms how one can zoom out from an extended object such as a string in such a way that, at sufficiently large scales, it appears structureless. Since there are no free parameters in free-string theory, the notion of large scales will be unambiguously determined. In other words, we will be able to answer the question: how and at which scale can the string be seen as a particle? In doing so, we will employ the concept of spectral dimension in a new way with respect to its usual applications in quantum gravity. The operational notions of worldsheet and target spacetime dimension in string theory are also clarified and found to be in mutual agreement. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Most tumors initially respond to cytotoxic treatments, but acquired resistance often follows. The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a major barrier to clinical success by compromising therapeutic efficacy, and pathological relevance of multiple soluble factors released by a therapeutically remodeled TME remains largely unexplored. Here we show that the secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), a Wnt pathway modulator, is produced by human primary fibroblasts after genotoxic treatments. SFRP2 induction is remarkable in tumor stroma, with transcription mainly modulated by the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) complex, a property shared by several effectors of the DNA damage secretory program. Instead of directly altering canonical Wnt signaling, SFRP2 augments β-catenin activities initiated by WNT16B, another soluble factor from DNA-damaged stroma. WNT16B recognizes cancer cell surface receptors including frizzled (FZD) 3/4/6, a process enhanced by SFRP2, coordinated by the co-receptor LRP6 but subject to abrogation by DKK1. Importantly, we found WNT16B plays a central role in promoting advanced malignancies particularly acquired resistance by counteracting cell death, an effect that can be minimized by a neutralizing antibody co-administered with classical chemotherapy. Furthermore, DNA damage-triggered expression of WNT16B is systemic, imaged by significant induction among diverse solid organs and circulation in peripheral blood, thereby holding promise as not only a TME-derived anticancer target but also a novel biomarker for clinical evaluation of treatment efficacy. Overall, our study substantiates the biological complexity and pathological implication of a therapy-activated TME, and provides the proof of principle of co-targeting tumor and the TME to prevent acquired resistance, with the aim of improving intervention outcome in an era of precision medicine.Oncogene advance online publication, 11 January 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.494. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Lam K.-C.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Ma W.-C.,Fudan University
Applied Acoustics | Year: 2012

This paper attempts to determine the exposure of the urban population to road traffic noise living in residential complexes built at different times between 1950 and 2000 in Hong Kong. Noise exposure was estimated at the residents' dwelling, neighborhood and community by noise mapping. The purpose of the study is to find out if the noise exposure levels of these residential complexes have improved as a result of stepped up noise control and reduction efforts. A total of 212 residential complexes built at different times, by the government and private sector in different districts, were selected for noise assessment. The results show that, compared to private housing, public housing estates are generally exposed to less road traffic noise. The study has also found that, over the 50-year period, the dwelling noise exposure levels of the recently built residential complexes are lower than the older ones, showing some improvement over time. This is particularly more noticeable at the high exposure end. There is however only some small differences in noise level between recent and old developments at the community scale both for public and private housing estates. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jin L.,Fudan University
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2016

Due to recent applications to communications over powerlines, multilevel flash memories, and block ciphers, permutation codes have received a lot of attention from both coding and mathematical communities. One of the benchmarks for good permutation codes is the Gilbert.Varshamov bound. Although there have been several constructions of permutation codes, the Gilbert.Varshamov bound still remains to be the best asymptotical lower bound except for a recent improvement in the case of constant minimum distance. In this paper, we present an algebraic construction of permutation codes from rational function fields, and it turns out that, for a prime number n of a symbol length, this class of permutation codes improves the Gilbert.Varshamov bound by a factor n asymptotically for a minimum distance d with d = O(rootn). Furthermore, for a constant minimum distance d, we improve the Gilbert. Varshamov bound by a factor n as well as the recent one given by Gao et al. by a factor n/ log n asymptotically for all sufficiently large n. © 2015 IEEE.

Yip W.C.-M.,University of Oxford | Hsiao W.,Harvard University | Meng Q.,Shandong University | Chen W.,Fudan University | Sun X.,Pudong Health Authority
The Lancet | Year: 2010

Inappropriate incentives as part of China's fee-for-service payment system have resulted in rapid cost increase, inefficiencies, poor quality, unaffordable health care, and an erosion of medical ethics. To reverse these outcomes, a strategy of experimentation to realign incentives for providers with the social goals of improvement in quality and efficiency has been initiated in China. This Review shows how lessons that have been learned from international experiences have been improved further in China by realignment of the incentives for providers towards prevention and primary care, and incorporation of a treatment protocol for hospital services. Although many experiments are new, preliminary evidence suggests a potential to produce savings in costs. However, because these experiments have not been scientifically assessed in China, evidence of their effects on quality and health outcome is largely missing. Although a reform of the provider's payment can be an effective short-term strategy, professional ethics need to be re-established and incentives changed to alter the profit motives of Chinese hospitals and physicians alike. When hospitals are given incentives to achieve maximum profit, incentives for hospitals and physicians must be separated. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Yuan H.-X.,Fudan University
Cell Research | Year: 2016

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), also known as the mechanistic target of rapamycin, is a central cell growth regulating kinase that forms large molecular complexes in all eukaryotic cells. A paper recently published in Science reports the architecture of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and provides molecular insights into the regulation and substrate selectivity of mTORC1. © 2016 Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Li P.,Fudan University
Annals of neurology | Year: 2013

Recent evidence suggests that functional deficiency in regulatory T cells (Tregs), an innate immunomodulator, exacerbates brain damage after cerebral ischemia. We therefore evaluated the effect of Treg transfer in rodent models of ischemic stroke and further investigated the mechanism underlying Treg-afforded neuroprotection. We examined the therapeutic potential of Tregs and the mechanisms of neuroprotection in vivo in 2 rodent models of ischemic stroke and in vitro in Treg-neutrophil cocultures using a combined approach including cell-specific depletion, gene knockout mice, and bone marrow chimeras. Systemic administration of purified Tregs at 2, 6, or even 24 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion resulted in a marked reduction of brain infarct and prolonged improvement of neurological functions lasting out to 4 weeks. Treg-afforded neuroprotection was accompanied by attenuated blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption during early stages of ischemia, decreased cerebral inflammation, and reduced infiltration of peripheral inflammatory cells into the lesioned brain. Surprisingly, Tregs exerted early neuroprotection without penetrating into the brain parenchyma or inhibiting the activation of residential microglia. Rather, both in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that Tregs suppressed peripheral neutrophil-derived matrix metallopeptidase-9 production, thus preventing proteolytic damage of the BBB. In addition to its potent central neuroprotection, Treg treatment was shown to ameliorate poststroke lymphopenia, suggesting a beneficial effect on immune status. Our study suggests that Treg adoptive therapy is a novel and potent cell-based therapy targeting poststroke inflammatory dysregulation and neurovascular disruption. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

DU P.,Fudan University
Chinese medical journal | Year: 2012

Curcumin, an active ingredient of turmeric with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has recently been reported to have anticonvulsant effects in several animal models of epilepsy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of curcumin on the pilocarpine rat model of status epilepticus. The effect of intraperitoneal administration of curcumin (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) on pilocarpine-induced seizures in rats was tested. The correlation between seizure activity and hippocampal levels of nitric oxide synthase and free radicals was quantified. Whether curcumin treatment modulated these parameters was also investigated. Curcumin significantly increased seizure threshold at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. Rats with pilocarpine- induced seizures showed significantly elevated levels of malonaldehyde, nitric oxide synthase, and lactate dehydrogenase, but decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione compared with normal control rats. At doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, curcumin reversed the effects of pilocarpine-induced seizures on nitric oxide synthase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase. However, curcumin did not restore the elevated malonaldehyde levels. Curcumin has anticonvulsant activity in the pilocarpine rat model of seizures, and that modulation of free radicals and nitric oxide synthase may be involved in this effect.

Qi Y.,Fudan University
Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies | Year: 2013

To characterize the endothelial progenitor cell mobilization in the models of moderate and severe lung injury, we hypothesized that there were differences in endothelial progenitor cell levels and mobilizing cytokines between moderate and severe lung injury. Prospective, randomized, and controlled experimental study. University research laboratory center. Fifteen healthy piglets. Piglets were randomly allocated to control, moderate lung injury (acute lung injury), and severe lung injury (acute respiratory distress syndrome) groups. Lung injury was established by intravenous infusion of oleic acid. Animals were mechanically ventilated for 24-48 hours, and then animals were weaned from ventilation and cared for until day 7. Endothelial progenitor cells were quantified by flow cytometry. After 24 hours, the number of endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood increased in the acute lung injury group but was not altered in the acute respiratory distress syndrome group compared to the control group. The number of CD34KDR, KDRCD133, and CD34KDRCD133 cells was higher in the acute lung injury group than in the acute respiratory distress syndrome group. In bone marrow, the number of CD34KDR and KDRCD133 cells was greater in acute respiratory distress syndrome animals but not altered in acute lung injury animals at 24 hours. Furthermore, plasma stromal cell-derived factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations were higher in acute lung injury than in acute respiratory distress syndrome at 24 hours. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and soluble kit ligand levels in bone marrow were reduced in acute respiratory distress syndrome compared with acute lung injury. Lung CD34, KDR, and lung stromal cell-derived factor-1 messenger RNA expression were higher in the acute lung injury group than in the acute respiratory distress syndrome group. Furthermore, the expression of CD34, KDR, and CD133 messenger RNA in lung tissue was correlated with stromal cell-derived factor-1 in the lung. There was a rapid release of endothelial progenitor cells from bone marrow into circulation in moderate acute lung injury, and endothelial progenitor cell mobilization was impaired in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Guan P.,Fudan University
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

The main purpose of this study was to evaluate liposomes containing a bile salt, sodium deoxycholate (SDC), as oral drug delivery systems to enhance the oral bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble and poorly permeable drug, cyclosporine A (CyA). Liposomes composed of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) and SDC were prepared by a thin-film dispersion method followed by homogenization. Several properties of the liposomes including particle size, polydispersity index, and entrapment efficiency were characterized. The in vitro release of CyA from these liposomes was less than 5% at 12 hours as measured by a dynamic dialysis method. The pharmacokinetic results in rats showed improved absorption of CyA in SPC/SDC liposomes, compared with CyA-loaded conventional SPC/cholesterol (Chol) liposomes and microemulsion-based Sandimmune Neoral(®). The relative oral bioavailability of CyA-loaded SPC/SDC and SPC/Chol liposomes was 120.3% and 98.6%, respectively, with Sandimmun Neoral as the reference. The enhanced bioavailability of CyA was probably due to facilitated absorption by the liposomes containing SDC rather than improved release rate.

Xu M.D.,Fudan University
Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery | Year: 2012

To evaluate the clinical value of submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection(STER) for gastric submucosal tumor(SMT) originating from the muscularis propria (MP) layer. Clinicopathological data of 23 cases with gastric SMT originating from the MP layer treated with STER from September 2010 to December 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 13 males and 10 females. The age ranged from 28 to 73(mean, 52.4) years old. Of the 23 SMTs, 11 were located in the cardia adjacent to the gastric body, 4 in the cardia adjacent to the fundus, 5 in the lesser curvature of gastric body and 3 in the gastric antrum of greater curvature. All the SMTs originating from the MP layer, 14 were located in the superficial MP layer and 9 in the deep MP layer(including 5 gastric SMTs close to serosa). En bloc STER was performed successfully in all the patients. The mean lesion size was 2.1 cm(range 1.5-3.2 cm). The mean procedure time was 54.8 min(range 30-125 min). Pathological examination showed that the lesions were leiomyomas(n=10), stromal tumors(n=8), glomus tumor(n=2), Schwannoma(n=2), and calcifying fibrous tumor(n=1). Both lateral and vertical margins were negative in all the cases. Three patients developed pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema and 5 pneumoperitoneum. One patient developed effusion under the left half of the diaphragm and secondary infection. All of them recovered uneventfully after conservative treatments. No delayed bleeding or GI tract leakage was noticed. None of the 23 cases encountered submucosal hematoma or infection. No tumor residual or recurrence was found during the follow up(range, 3-18 months). STER is a safe, effective for appropriate lesions in the MP layer of the stomach. En bloc resection and accurate histopathological evaluations can be achieved.

Novel nanocomposite films, based on graphene oxide (GO) and TiO(2) nanotube arrays, were synthesized by assembling GO on the surface of self-organized TiO(2) nanotube arrays through a simple impregnation method. The composite films were characterized with field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photoelectrochemical properties of the composite nanotube arrays were investigated under visible light illumination. Remarkably enhanced visible light photoelectrochemical response was observed for the GO decorated TiO(2) nanotube composite electrode compared with pristine TiO(2) nanotube arrays. The sensitizing effect of GO on the photoelectrochemical response of the TiO(2) nanotube arrays was demonstrated and about 15 times enhanced maximum photoconversion efficiency was obtained with the presence of GO. An enhanced photocatalytic activity of the TiO(2) nanotube arrays towards the degradation of methyl blue was also demonstrated after modification with GO. The results presented here demonstrate GO to be efficient for the improved utilization of visible light for TiO(2) nanotube arrays.

TiO(2)/graphene composites were synthesized through a simple one-step hydrothermal reaction and successfully used to selectively capture phosphopeptides from peptide mixtures for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis.

Stem cell transplantation has become a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). However, the poor survival of the donor cells after transplantation has restricted its therapeutic efficacy. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), one gaseous signaling molecule, has been applied to inhibit cell apoptosis and promote cell survival. In the present study, we therefore examined the effects of H(2)S on the survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs were isolated from the femur of male Sprague-Dawley rats (about 4 weeks old, 100 g). Preconditioning MSCs with 200 μmol/L NaHS (as the donor of H(2)S) for 30 min decreased the hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis in vitro. The mechanisms contributing to the beneficial effects of H(2)S on MSCs were associated with increased levels of phosphorylated Akt (pAkt), phosphorylated Erk1/2 (pErk1/2) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (pGSK-3β) in MSCs. Subsequently, MSCs (1 × 10(6)), MSCs preconditioned with H(2)S (1 × 10(6)), or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were injected into rat hearts immediately after MI (the ligation of the left anterior descending of coronary artery). Real-time PCR for the Sry gene, located on the Y chromosome, indicated that preconditioning with H(2)S improved the survival rate of the transplanted MSCs in infarcted myocardium 4 days after MI, compared with the untreated MSCs. Furthermore, transplantation of the H(2)S-pretreated MSCs reduced the infarct size and increased left ventricular (LV) function, as judged by transthoracic echocardiography. In conclusion, H(2)S preconditioning effectively promotes MSCs survival under ischemic injury and helps cardiac repair after MI, which has great clinical significance.

Liu J.-X.,Fudan University | Howell S.H.,Iowa State University
New Phytologist | Year: 2016

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs in plants during certain developmental stages or under adverse environmental conditions, as a result of the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER. To minimize the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER, a protein quality control (PQC) system monitors protein folding and eliminates misfolded proteins through either ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) or autophagy. ER stress elicits the unfolded protein response (UPR), which enhances the operation in plant cells of the ER protein folding machinery and the PQC system. The UPR also reduces protein folding demands in the ER by degrading mRNAs encoding secretory proteins. In plants subjected to severe or chronic stress, UPR promotes programmed cell death (PCD). Progress in the field in recent years has provided insights into the regulatory networks and signaling mechanisms of the ER stress responses in plants. In addition, novel physiological functions of the ER stress responses in plants for coordinating plant growth and development with changing environment have been recently revealed. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust

Sun L.,Fudan University
Zhongguo yi liao qi xie za zhi = Chinese journal of medical instrumentation | Year: 2011

This paper introduces an adaptive filtering algorithm based on the LMS principle to inhibit the ventricular interference in the atrial epicardial mapping experiments.

Perez-Pinzon M.A.,University of Miami | Anne Stetler R.,University of Pittsburgh | Anne Stetler R.,Fudan University | Fiskum G.,University of Maryland Baltimore County
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of acute neurologic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Bioenergetic failure is the primary cause of acute neuronal necrosis, and involves excitotoxicity- associated mitochondrial Ca 2 overload, resulting in opening of the inner membrane permeability transition pore and inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial energy metabolism is also very sensitive to inhibition by reactive O 2 and nitrogen species, which modify many mitochondrial proteins, lipids, and DNA/RNA, thus impairing energy transduction and exacerbating free radical production. Oxidative stress and Ca 2-activated calpain protease activities also promote apoptosis and other forms of programmed cell death, primarily through modification of proteins and lipids present at the outer membrane, causing release of proapoptotic mitochondrial proteins, which initiate caspase-dependent and caspase-independent forms of cell death. This review focuses on three classifications of mitochondrial targets for neuroprotection. The first is mitochondrial quality control, maintained by the dynamic processes of mitochondrial fission and fusion and autophagy of abnormal mitochondria. The second includes targets amenable to ischemic preconditioning, e.g., electron transport chain components, ion channels, uncoupling proteins, and mitochondrial biogenesis. The third includes mitochondrial proteins and other molecules that defend against oxidative stress. Each class of targets exhibits excellent potential for translation to clinical neuroprotection. © 2012 ISCBFM All rights reserved.

Ma G.-L.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics | Huang X.-G.,Fudan University
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2015

The quark-gluon plasma (QGP) generated in relativistic heavy-ion collisions could be locally parity-odd. In parity-odd QGP, the electric field may induce a chiral current which is called the chiral electric separation effect (CESE). We propose two possible observables for CESE in Cu+Au collisions: The first one is the correlation ζαβ=(cos[2(φα+φβ-2ΨRP)]); the second one is the charge-dependent event-plane angle Ψ2q with q=± being charge. Nonzero Δζ=ζopp-ζsame and ΔΨ=(|Ψ2+-Ψ2-|) may signal the CESE in Cu+Au collisions. Within a multiphase transport model, we study how the final state interaction affects these observables. We find that the correlation γαβ=(cos(φα+φβ-ΨRP)) is sensitive to the out-of-plane charge separation caused by the chiral magnetic effect and to the in-plane charge separation caused by the in-plane electric field, but it is not sensitive to the CESE. On the other hand, Δζ and ΔΨ are sensitive to the CESE. Therefore, we suggest that future experiments measure the above observables in Cu+Au collisions in order to disentangle different chiral and charge separation mechanisms. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Shaoqing Y.,Fudan University
Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology | Year: 2011

The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of exhaled CO (eCO) on the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) by means of reviewing published literature. The literatures published between January 1997 and December 2008 from the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) Database were obtained according to inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed. CO levels of asthma and AR patients were compared with that of normal controls. HO-1(heme oxygenase-1) expression and effect of corticosteroids on eCO levels were also analyzed. Fifteen studies concerning asthma and four studies concerning AR were included in this analysis. Heterogeneity from different studies was evident (P < 0.0001), so a random-effects model was preferred. The meta-analysis revealed that asthmatic patients had significantly higher levels of eCO compared to normal controls. There was significant difference between asthma and control groups in terms of eCO (combined weighted mean difference (WMD) 1.33 (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.95), P < 0.0001), and no significant difference between AR and control (combined WMD 0.93 (95% confidence interval -0.54 to 2.40), P = 0.22). HO-1 expression were also reviewed, asthma group produced greater expression of HO-1 than control group with significant difference (combined standardized mean difference (SMD) 2.98 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 4.84), P = 0.002). After corticosteroid therapy, significantly different levels of eCO were produced after corticosteroid therapy than did asthma group (combined WMD -1.23 (95% confidence interval -2.43 to -0.03), P = 0.04). The analysis reveals that eCO levels were significantly raised in asthma and it may attribute to high expression of HO-1, but there were no significantly high eCO levels between AR and control groups. Due to sensitivity to corticosteroid inhibition, eCO may be used as a practical marker to detect and monitor exacerbation of asthma.

Wang Y.,Fudan University | Zhu S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma D.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry
Organic Letters | Year: 2011

Polysubstituted piperidines and tetrahydropyrans are synthesized from aldehydes and two classes of trisubstituted nitroolefins via an O-TMS protected diphenylprolinol catalyzed domino Michael addition/aminalization (or acetalization) process. This approach allows formation of four contiguous stereocenters in the piperidine or tetrahydropyran ring in one step with excellent enantioselectivity. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Jiang G.-L.,Fudan University
Frontiers of Medicine in China | Year: 2012

Particle irradiation started to draw attention in the past decade and has now become a hotspot in the radiation oncology community. This article reviews the most advanced developments in particle irradiation, focusing on the characteristics of proton and carbon ions in radiation physics and radiobiology. The Bragg peak of physical dose distribution causes proton and carbon beams to optimally meet the requirement for cancer irradiation because the Bragg peak permits the accurate concentration of the dose on the tumor, thus sparing the adjacent normal tissues. Moreover, carbon ion has more radiobiological benefits than photon and proton beams. These benefits include stronger sterilization effects on intrinsic radio-resistant tumors and more effective killing of hypoxic, G 0, and S phase cells. Compared with the most advanced radiation techniques using photon, such as three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, proton therapy has yielded more promising outcomes in local control and survival for head and neck cancers, prostate carcinoma, and pediatric cancers. Carbon therapy in Japan showed even more promising results than proton therapy. The local controls and overall survivals were as good as that treated by surgery in early stages of non-small cell lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and head and neck cancers, especially for such highly resistant tumors as melanoma. The non-invasive nature of particle therapy affords more patients with chances to receive and benefit from treatment. Particle therapy is gradually getting attention from the oncology community. However, the cost of particle therapy facilities has limited the worldwide use of this technology. © 2012 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) have provided a new method for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. However, the role of IGRAs for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB), especially in HIV-infected patients remains unclear. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases to identify studies published in January 2001-July 2011 that evaluated the evidence of using QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube (QFT-GIT) and T-SPOT.TB (T-SPOT) on blood for the diagnosis of active TB in HIV-infected patients. The search identified 16 eligible studies that included 2801 HIV-infected individuals (637 culture confirmed TB cases). The pooled sensitivity for the diagnosis of active TB was 76.7% (95%CI, 71.6-80.5%) and 77.4% (95%CI, 71.4-82.6%) for QFT-GIT and T-SPOT, respectively, while the specificity was 76.1% (95%CI, 74.0-78.0%) and 63.1% (95%CI, 57.6-68.3%) after excluding the indeterminate results. Studies conducted in low/middle income countries showed slightly lower sensitivity and specificity when compared to that in high-income countries. The proportion of indeterminate results was as high as 10% (95%CI, 8.8-11.3%) and 13.2% (95%CI, 10.6-16.0%) for QFT-GIT and T-SPOT, respectively. IGRAs in their current formulations have limited accuracy in diagnosing active TB in HIV-infected patients, and should not be used alone to rule out or rule in active TB cases in HIV-infected patients. Further modification is needed to improve their accuracy.

Emerging evidence suggests that adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) plays a critical role in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs). The molecular pathways responsible for the function of Apc in HSCs/HPCs remain unclear. By genetic approach, we demonstrated that inactivation of β-catenin rescued the exhaustion of Apc-deficient HSCs/HPCs, thereby preventing bone marrow failure in Apc-deficient mice. β-catenin loss inhibited the excessive proliferation and apoptosis of Apc-deficient HSCs/HPCs, as well as their defects in myeloid and erythroid differentiation. In addition, loss of β-catenin reversed the down-regulation of Cdkn1a, Cdkn1b, and Mcl1 induced by Apc ablation in Lin(-)Sca(+)c-Kit(+). In assays of long-term stem cell function, the HSCs with deficiency of both Apc and β-catenin displayed a significantly enhanced self-renewal capacity compared with β-catenin-deficient and control HSCs. Our findings suggest that Apc regulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of HSCs/HPCs largely through a β-catenin-mediated pathway. They also indicate that multiple downstream targets of Apc including β-catenin may coordinately regulate HSC self-renewal.

Hu S.,Fudan University
Journal of medical economics | Year: 2013

To analyze the achievements, issues and policy recommendations for implementing essential medicine system in China after a 3-year effort. Policy documents analysis and Literature reviews are conducted. From 2009-2011, a series of national essential medicine (EM) policies has been established which contain EM list, organizing production, quality assurance, pricing, tendering and procurement, distribution, rational use, monitoring and evaluation, etc. About 98.8% government-run primary healthcare institutions and 41.5% village health posts are conducting zero-mark-up policy while buying EMs. The average cost per visit, per admission, and per description in outpatient and inpatient departments has declined. The issues with the national EM list cannot meet the requirements of clinical practice at the local level, all provinces have to increase additional 64-455 EMs in their local supplementary list; the limitation of EML in primary healthcare institutions causes patients to transfer directly to secondary or tertiary hospitals to search appropriate treatment; there is no defined regulation or legislation regarding the responsibility and accountability of government to compensate for the financial loss after implementing a zero mark-up policy in primary healthcare institutions. In the future, some innovative reform should be taken into account, such as revising EML, quality assurance, control margins within the distribution system, differential pricing and internal reference-based pricing, waive taxes and import duties of EMs, and separation between prescribing and dispensing in public hospital reform. Establishing a national essential medicine system is a difficult task to accomplish. The role of the zero-mark-up policy of EMs is to cut off the economic profit chain among different stakeholders. Using pharmaceutical profit to subsidize hospital revenue will be gradually eliminated in China.

Molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the deformation behavior of gold-filled single-walled carbon nanotubes under axial compression. The simulation results show that the buckling strength of Au-filled carbon nanotubes is increased compared with that of a hollow tube, and is similar to the effect of filling with gases or fullerenes. The interactions between filling elements and the carbon wall help restrain the collapse of the tube. With Au-filling, the filled tube experiences an elastic-inelastic transition, somewhat like the behavior of metals, which is different from the cases when it is filled with gases or fullerenes, particularly for low filling density. Analysis of the transition using the potential energy map showed that several Au atoms began to slide before the strain reached the critical value. This is more obvious in the stress concentration zone, where the original Au bonds are first broken and then are re-formed with new neighbors. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ohaegbulam K.C.,Yeshiva University | Assal A.,Montefiore Medical Center | Lazar-Molnar E.,University of Utah | Yao Y.,Fudan University | And 2 more authors.
Trends in Molecular Medicine | Year: 2015

The programmed death 1 (PD-1) receptor and its ligands programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2, members of the CD28 and B7 families, play critical roles in T cell coinhibition and exhaustion. Overexpression of PD-L1 and PD-1 on tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, respectively, correlates with poor disease outcome in some human cancers. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) blockading the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway have been developed for cancer immunotherapy via enhancing T cell functions. Clinical trials with mAbs to PD-1 and PD-L1 have shown impressive response rates in patients, particularly for melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and bladder cancer. Further studies are needed to dissect the mechanisms of variable response rate, to identify biomarkers for clinical response, to develop small-molecule inhibitors, and to combine these treatments with other therapies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.