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Tomic S.D.,FTW Forschungszentrum Telekommunikation Wien GmbH
IEEE Green Technologies Conference

How to efficiently integrate and exploit flexible demand and distributed renewable generation in the Smart Grid is a question of high interest reflecting the societal need for energy efficiency and urge to lower carbon emissions. This question also provides strong motivation for honing the concept of a micro grid as an atomic cell of future active distribution networks as well as the smallest market entity. The micro grid locally balances demand and supply in a far more efficient way than in current practice. Complementary, the micro grid market offers basis for creating energy prices that stimulate investments in renewable generation, storage, and demand response. As similar to the current energy markets, the micro grid market can accommodate trading of the short term and the long term energy products, balancing energy and capacity. The foundation of trading is forecasting and optimization, and consequently each party involved in micro grid trading must be able to forecast its demand, supply, or flexibility. But how precise these forecasts must be? This paper focuses on the impact of forecasting errors on the economic effects of trading and balancing in the micro grid: while lower forecasting accuracy induces greater differences between forecasted and real consumption/generation, and hence higher need for balancing energy, higher forecasting precision may increase the cost of the system. We present results of an agent-based simulation study of a micro grid with a simple market integrating local suppliers and customers with flexible loads, renewable energy sources and storage capacity. These actors buy energy, sell demand reduction, and sell energy produced by their wind turbines and solar panels, or stored in their battery. The Micro grid System Operator (MSO) operates the local market and balances demand and supply. In our model MSO operates a dedicated storage and interacts with the global grid markets and performs clearing and settlement of balancing energy costs. In the presented study we compare the economic results of trading and balancing for different values of forecasting errors in scenarios characterized with different supply levels in the micro grid. © 2013 IEEE. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2009-3.4-1 | Award Amount: 8.89M | Year: 2010

In the last two decades, a precise management of agricultural land has been made possible due to the availability of new technologies, including global positioning systems (GPS), geographic information systems (GIS), sensors, automation of agricultural machinery, and high resolution image sensing. As a result, the concept of Precision Agriculture has emerged as the management strategy that uses information technologies to collect and process data from multiple sources in order to facilitate decisions associated with crop production. Moreover, the EUs sixth environmental action programme addresses the need to encourage farmers to change their use of plant protection products . RHEA is focused on the design, development, and testing of a new generation of automatic and robotic systems for both chemical and physical mechanical and thermal effective weed management focused on both agriculture and forestry, and covering a large variety of European products including agriculture wide row crops (processing tomato, maize, strawberry, sunflower and cotton), close row crops (winter wheat and winter barley) and forestry woody perennials (walnut trees, almond trees, olive groves and multipurpose open woodland). RHEA aims at diminishing the use of agricultural chemical inputs in a 75%, improving crop quality, health and safety for humans, and reducing production costs by means of sustainable crop management using a fleet of small, heterogeneous robots ground and aerial equipped with advanced sensors, enhanced end-effectors and improved decision control algorithms. RHEA can be considered as a cooperative robotic system, falling within an emerging area of research and technology with a large number of applications as reported by the FP6 Network of Excellence EURON, Special Interest Group on Cooperative Robotics, funded by the European Commission. RHEA will be a unique opportunity to gather a very large number of multidisciplinary research groups with adequate funds to accomplish an authentic step forward in applying precision agriculture techniques in a massive way. This consortium joints a number of multidisciplinary, experienced researchers capable of improving individual scientific knowledge, but a large cooperation project is demanded to sum up the individual efforts in a holistic manner. The success of RHEA could bring a new means of applying automatic systems to agriculture and forestry crops with an important impact in improving the economy and environment as well as in maintaining the sustainability of rural areas by launching new technological jobs.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.6.1 | Award Amount: 4.90M | Year: 2012

Stability and cost-efficient operation of Power distribution grids are the main targets of novel information-rich demand, voltage, and generation control, while at the same time aiming to reduce costs for the grid infrastructure. However, adding intelligence to the power grid requires communication and computation infrastructure, with consequent requirements for additional investments. To be cost efficient, it is therefore essential to enable intelligent power grid operation leveraging existing communication infrastructures.\nGoal of SmartC2Net is to develop, implement, and validate robust solutions that enable smart grid operation on top of heterogeneous off-the-shelf communication infrastructures with varying properties. The resulting innovative middleware functions are: (1) adaptive network and grid monitoring, (2) strategies to control communication network configurations and QoS settings, and (3) extended information models and adaptive information management procedures. These middleware functions create awareness of the communication network properties and their impact on information quality, which is subsequently exploited by innovative flexible power control algorithms of SmartC2Net.\nThe effectiveness of project results will be validated in representative use-cases of the active operation of Distributed Energy Resources connected to medium and low voltage distribution networks. These use-cases are investigated in three complementary lab prototypes.\nThe SmartC2Net results will clearly show that intelligent distribution grid operation can be realized in a robust manner over existing communication infrastructures even despite the presence of accidental faults and malicious attacks.\nA consortium of seven partners (two large companies, one SME, two research centres and two universities) from five European countries provides the required expertise combination in the three central disciplines: communication technologies, control methods, and energy technology.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-ARTEMIS | Phase: SP1-JTI-ARTEMIS-2011-6;SP1-JTI-ARTEMIS-2011-1 | Award Amount: 12.01M | Year: 2012

The SESAMO project addresses the root causes of problems arising with convergence of safety and security in embedded systems at architectural level, where subtle and poorly understood interactions between functional safety and security mechanisms impede system definition, development, certification, and accreditation procedures and standards. Intense market innovation is being held back by this root cause: the absence of a rigorous theoretical and practical understanding of safety and security feature interaction. The proposed solution is to develop a component-oriented design methodology based upon model-driven technology, jointly addressing safety and security aspects and their interrelation for networked embedded systems in multiple domains (e.g., avionics, transportation, industry control). Key elements of the SESAMO approach are: a methodology to reduce interdependencies between safety and security mechanisms and to jointly ensure their properties constructive elements for the implementation of safe and secure systems procedures for integrated analysis of safety and security an overall design methodology and tool-chain utilizing the constructive elements and integrated analysis procedures to ensure that safety and security are intrinsic characteristics of the system. The relevance of the SESAMO results is guaranteed by the involvement of large partners with significant economic interests in safety and security critical systems in the use case domains: automotive, aerospace, energy, mobile medical, and metropolitan rail transport; a sound group of technology providers (including SMEs); and prestigious research entities (academia and institutes) with deep and complementary multi-domain expertise. SESAMO will enable cost-efficient and systematic design, analysis, development, and assessment of distributed safety and security critical embedded systems. The results will have broad, cross-domain applicability in numerous strategic sectors of European industry. Approved by ARTEMIS-JU on 22/02/2012, Amendment 1 approved by ARTEMIS-JU on 27/02/2014, Amendment 2 approved by ECSEL-JU on 18/02/2015.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.1.4 | Award Amount: 8.24M | Year: 2010

The Internet is not run by a single organization; indeed, this is a key characteristic of the Internet architecture, and a key reason behind its success as a platform for innovation in communications. Instead, the management, safety, and trustworthiness of each domain of the network are the responsibility of that domain; cooperation among these domains is largely done on a personal, and somewhat informal, basis.\nHowever, the growing complexity of the network leads to complex, emergent threats that challenge the ability of current cooperative efforts to respond. Large-scale network accidents, such as routing failures or software faults on widely distributed endpoints, are not confined within a single domain, and therefore difficult to react to. More troubling, organized criminal enterprises leverage vulnerabilities within the network across multiple domains to build botnets, which are essentially large-scale coordinated infrastructures applied to a range of nefarious activities, from sending spam, to extortion scams through denial of service attacks, to the theft of personal financial information. There are societal challenges, as well, as growing awareness of privacy issues leads to unease with the traditional measurement approach of centralized storage and analysis of traffic information.\nAttempts to further centralize the response to these threats will simply not work. Therefore, network traffic monitoring and measurement must be made effective across domain boundaries in order to meet the challenges of this environment. Cooperative threats and distributed failures call for a distributed, cooperative detection and mitigation infrastructure. Specifically, DEMONS aims to design and demonstrate the operation of a network for cooperative monitoring. We will apply innovative measurement, analysis and data protection techniques across a network of flexible monitoring nodes in multiple domains to accomplish cooperation, resiliency, and scalability in measurement, and confidentiality of measured traffic.\nDEMONS will significantly advance the ability to detect and respond to large-scale threats while preserving citizens right to privacy, thus increasing societal acceptance of the need for being monitored. The project will demonstrate the trustworthiness of the proposed network monitoring and management infrastructure in a cooperative operational environment across several major network operators.

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