FRx Inc.

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LaBrecque D.,Multi-phase Technologies, Llc | Brigham R.,Multi-phase Technologies, Llc | Denison J.,FRx Inc. | Murdoch L.,FRx Inc. | And 10 more authors.
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, HFTC 2016 | Year: 2016

The goal of this project is to develop techniques for monitoring hydraulic fractures in reservoirs by injecting electrically conductive, dielectric, or magnetically permeable proppants. The contrasts between the properties of the proppants and the subsurface provided the basis for imaging using geophysical methods. The initial experiments focused on a series of small, shallow fractures; however, the goal of the project is to develop methods applicable to oil-field fractures. The project began by screening different proppant types using laboratory and numerical analyses that have been ongoing by researchers at the Advanced Energy Consortium (AEC). This work identified Loresco coke breeze and steel shot as materials that could create significant electrical or magnetic contrasts with most geological formations. These proppants were tested by creating hydraulic fractures in a shallow field setting consisting of highly weathered residual saprolite near Clemson University in western South Carolina. Six hydraulic fractures were created in highly monitored cells by injecting the contrasting proppants at a depth of approximately 1.5 m. This created sub-horizontal fractures filled with proppant approximately 10 mm thick and extending 3 to 5 m in maximum dimension. Each cell had a dense array of electrodes and magnetic sensors on the surface, as well as four shallow vertical electrode arrays that were used to obtain data before and after hydraulic fracturing. Net vertical displacement, cores and trenching were used to characterize the fracture geometries. Hydraulic fracture geometries were estimated by inverting pre-and post-injection geophysical data using various codes. Data from cores and excavation show that the hydraulic fractures formed a saucer-shape with a preferred propagation in the horizontal direction. The geophysical inversions generated images with remarkably similar form, size, and location to the ground truth from direct observation. Displacement and tilt data appear promising as a constraint on fracture geometry. Copyright 2016, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Bryant D.,Geo Cleanse International Inc. | Moody W.,Geo Cleanse International Inc. | Turkot S.,Geo Cleanse International Inc. | Maalouf G.Y.,Rogers and Callcott Engineers | And 3 more authors.
Pollution Engineering | Year: 2013

Chlorinated solvent DNAPL site remediation remains a daunting challenge that often requires the integration of multiple technologies to achieve cleanup objectives. Technologies must be adapted to variable site conditions and flexible to the evolving nature of the source and plume as the remediation progresses. The proposal was an integrated in-situ chemical oxidation using potassium permanganate in the source area, with in-situ chemical reduction using zero-valent iron (ZVI) barriers in the down gradient plume area. Reagents were injected as high-solids slurries to effectively distribute large reagent volumes within specific and focused target zones in the low-permeability saprolite and a fractured zone in bedrock. A TCE handling unit located near the southwest corner of the facility, which was in operation for about 10 years, was determined to be the primary source, with an estimated discharge of approximately 1,365 gallons of solvent.


Bryant D.A.N.,Geo Cleanse International Inc. | Moody W.,Geo Cleanse International Inc. | Turkot S.,Geo Cleanse International Inc. | Maalouf G.Y.,Rogers and Callcott Engineers | And 3 more authors.
Pollution Engineering | Year: 2013

Geo-Cleanse International Inc was contracted to design and implement a pilot test for a challenging site characterized by high source area trichloroethylene (TCE) concentrations, low permeability saprolite geology overlying highly transmissive bedrock, low natural attenuation, and a large plume area with limited accessibility. The proposal was an integrated in-situ chemical oxidation using potassium permanganate in the source area, with in-situ chemical reduction using zero-valent iron (ZVI) barriers in the downgradient plume area. The groundwater analytes in the permanganate pilot test area consisted of VOC, color, oxidation-reduction potential, specific conductivity and pH. The VOC concentrations in the groundwater downgradient from the barrier exhibited significant reductions. The TCE concentrations were reduced by 46-100% relative to the baseline concentrations in the four downgradient monitoring wells. The TCE concentrations were reduced from ≈ 35,000 to 950 μg/L and from 18 to 9.7 μg/L in the two saprolite monitoring wells. Cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, formed from ZVI degradation of TCE, initially increased following the injection. However, additional post-injection sampling showed a subsequent decrease as a function of time.


Slack B.,FRX INC.
Pollution Engineering | Year: 2013

The article discusses the processes involved in environmental fracturing and fracking for oil and gas recovery, examining how they differ. The process and physics utilized during environmental fracturing are similar to those used when fracking for oil and gas recovery, however, significant differences exist with respect to scale, materials, and methodology. More importantly, environmental fractures are specifically designed and created for cleaning up contaminants, and therefore have avoided the environmental controversy and resulting headlines that surround the energy applications. The injection fluid used during environmental fracturing can be liquid or gas, providing some flexibility when it comes to design options. Inducing fractures by injecting gases is known as pneumatic fracturing. Fracturing with proppant creates layers of solid material in the subsurface, and it is the geometry, or form, of these layers that largely control application strategies.

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