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Merelani, Tanzania

Robinson J.E.,University of East Anglia | Bell D.J.,University of East Anglia | Saleh F.M.,Fruits and Forestry | Suleiman A.A.,Fruits and Forestry | Barr I.,University of East Anglia
ORYX | Year: 2010

Flying foxes of the genus Pteropus are predominantly island taxa, with high levels of endemism, and face high risks of extinction. Their ecological and economic importance in island ecosystems has been widely recognized. Here we investigate the population size and conservation status of the Vulnerable Pteropus voeltzkowi, endemic to the western Indian Ocean island of Pemba, Tanzania. Direct counts and patch counts were used to determine abundance of flying foxes at roost sites, supplemented with evening dispersal counts, which were conducted to test accuracy of counting techniques under varying conditions of visibility. We estimate that the population size is now a minimum of 18,200-22,100, thus validating reports of annual increases by in-country monitoring teams since the last documented population survey of 4,600-5,500 bats in 1995. Taking into account differences in the counting methodologies for roosting bats we estimate that the population size could be as high as 35,600 individuals. We identified 44 occupied roosting sites, with just four of these supporting up to 87% of the population. Roost disturbance represents a continuing threat to this species and was found to influence roost occupancy and colony size. The implications of the population increase for the local human community are discussed and recommendations provided for continued monitoring and future management of this species on Pemba Island. © 2010 Fauna & Flora International. Source

Mustelin J.,University of Turku | Mustelin J.,Griffith University | Klein R.G.,University of Turku | Assaid B.,Fruits and Forestry | And 4 more authors.
Population and Environment | Year: 2010

Many developing countries are already affected by multiple stressors, which have increased their vulnerability to accelerated negative environmental change. Coastal erosion, deforestation and habitat fragmentation become even more serious problems in coastal locations when coupled with the projected impacts of climate change. However, anticipatory adaptation to such changes as increased coastal erosion and extreme events does not need to wait for specific climate scenarios, but is more reliant on the examination of current vulnerabilities and the range of possible no-regret strategies. These need to, however, accommodate multiple stakeholder preferences. This study therefore examines coastal communities' perceptions of environmental change in northeast Zanzibar, Tanzania and their preferences for adaptive strategies, while simultaneously examining physical change processes through change analysis. The study suggests coastal forest buffer zones as an anticipatory adaptation measure, which is based on soft measures such as vegetation planting, awareness raising and stakeholder cooperation. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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