Hastings, New Zealand
Hastings, New Zealand

Time filter

Source Type

Lo P.L.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Walker J.T.S.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Fraser T.M.,Fruition Horticulture | Manktelow D.W.,Hawkes Bay Mail Center
New Zealand Plant Protection | Year: 2012

Mealybug infestations in New Zealand apples declined when integrated fruit production was implemented in the late 1990s. In Hawke's Bay, however, mealybugs have recently become an increasing problem. The mean incidence of mealybugs at harvest increased from 1.7% in 2008 to 2.2% in 2010. In 2009 and 2010, almost 50% of blocks had a higher incidence than the previous year. Analysis of spray diaries suggested that spray programmes up to 2009-10 were inadequate to maintain long-term suppression of mealybugs. Key factors were the number of insecticide sprays, their time of application, and the choice of product, but not spray coverage. Consequently, in spring 2010, orchard managers were encouraged to follow a 'best practice' spray programme against mealybugs, which led to markedly improved mealybug control. At harvest in 2011, the mean incidence was 0.7% and just 14% of blocks had more mealybugs than the previous year while almost 60% had fewer. © 2012 New Zealand Plant Protection Society (Inc.).


Clothier B.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Clothier B.,Massey University | Green S.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Herath I.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | And 8 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Water footprints have been proposed as being suitable indicators for quantifying the impacts of goods and services on freshwater scarcity and quality. We have assessed two different approaches to determine the water footprint of apples. These approaches are the consumptive approach of the Water Footprint Network (WFN), and the hydrological approach that has recently been published for kiwifruit from New Zealand. Using the hydrological approach, which we consider rational, we find that the water footprint of export apple production from the orchard phase in New Zealand is slightly negative, at-3.3 L/kg, although it can be considered essentially zero. That is, as much water is returned to the blue water resource (B) under the orchards by winter rains, as is withdrawn for irrigation in summer. We conclude therefore that export apple production in New Zealand is sustainable in terms of water quantity. Nonetheless, there is burgeoning pressure on our water resources, and apple growers, along with all others, must be encouraged to reduce further their usage of, and impacts on our water resources. To assist apple growers, we have developed a water-footprint decision support tool to enable eco-verification of apple production and measures of continuous improvement.


Walker J.T.S.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Rogers D.J.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Lo P.L.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Suckling D.M.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | And 3 more authors.
New Zealand Plant Protection | Year: 2011

Leafrollers are important pests of apples and infested fruit can result in rejection of export consignments. Leafroller mating disruption using a pheromone blend with activity against three species was examined in 12 Hawke's Bay orchards over two seasons (2009-10 and 2010-11). Pheromone dispensers (600/ha) and a single insecticide were applied to trees in early November, and subsequent insecticide use was based on leafroller pheromone trapping and thresholds. The pheromone blend substantially suppressed mating of virgin female lightbrown apple moth in treated orchards and reduced male catch in pheromone traps by up to 98% compared with the season prior to implementation. Insecticide use for leafroller control decreased accordingly, from 2.1-2.7 insecticides per block in 2008/09 to 1.0-1.8 in 2010/11. Leafroller control using mating disruption was acceptable, fruit damage varied from 0.3% to 0.16% and no leafroller larvae were found on fruit in both field assessments and phytosanitary inspections of packed cartons.


Walker J.T.S.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Lo P.L.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Horner R.M.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Park N.M.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | And 2 more authors.
New Zealand Plant Protection | Year: 2013

New Zealand apple growers need to produce crops that satisfy conlicting export market requirements. Some markets want pest-free fruit, while others demand residue-free fruit. Pheromone mating disruption combined with the judicious use of insecticides enables crops to meet both demands. This study in 14 Hawke's Bay apple orchards showed that seasonal pheromone trap catch was reduced by 70%, from 40.1 codling moths/trap in the season before mating disruption was introduced to 11.7 moths/trap over the subsequent ive seasons. In the same period, insecticide use reduced from 5.9 applications/season in 2006- 07 to 2.3 in 2007-08 and 3.7 since 2008-09. The incidence of larvae in fruit where mating disruption operated averaged 0.01%, which was lower than in orchards using insecticides only. Damage increased from 2008-09 with greater reliance on codling moth granulosis virus over residual insecticides. Nevertheless, mating disruption with 3-4 insecticide sprays controlled codling moth to the high standard needed. © 2013 New Zealand Plant Protection Society.


Dryden G.H.,Fruition Horticulture | Nelson M.A.,Fruition Horticulture | Smith J.T.,HortEye | Walter M.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd
New Zealand Plant Protection | Year: 2016

Postharvest foliar nitrogen (urea) is often applied to apple leaves immediately after picking for bud fertilising, and/or during leaf fall for Venturia inaequalis control. During 2013-2016, ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid copper (EDTA-Cu, to enhance leaf abscission), urea, calcium nitrate and Bud-Wiser™ foliar treatments were applied alone or in combination to determine their effects on leaf scar infection by Neonectria ditissima in 'Braeburn' (2013-14), 'Scifresh' and 'Royal Gala' (2015-16) orchards. In 2013-14, leaf scar infection increased six-fold when 5% urea was added to EDTA-Cu and sprayed at the onset of leaf fall. In 2015-16, up to a nine-fold increase in leaf scar infections was observed. The timing of application was more important than the amount or form of nitrogen used. As a result of this research, the use of urea-based foliar nitrogen fertilisers for V. inaequalis before leaf fall are not recommended, and growers should consider all factors affecting Neonectria ditissima infections before applying nitrogen immediately after harvest. © 2016 New Zealand Plant Protection Society (Inc.).

Loading Fruition Horticulture collaborators
Loading Fruition Horticulture collaborators