Fruitfed Supplies

Hastings, New Zealand

Fruitfed Supplies

Hastings, New Zealand
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Wright P.,New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research | Cameron P.,Mt Eden | Hodson A.,HortPlus | Herman T.,Fruitfed Supplies | And 2 more authors.
New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science | Year: 2013

Fungicide use in processing (field) tomatoes from 1995 to 2009 on the East Coast of the North Island of New Zealand has been documented using data extracted from growers' annual spray diary records. During this period, 26 different fungicides-some of which are also used as bactericides-were used by growers to control a range of plant diseases. The number of fungicide applications to each crop ranged from 10 to 28, with fewer applications in very dry seasons. Inorganic copper (mainly copper hydroxide), applied to control both bacterial and fungal diseases, was the most commonly used material, followed by chemicals in the dithiocarbamate, chloro-nitrile and pyridinamine groups. These four multi-site protective fungicide groups accounted for 90% of all disease-control products used during the 15-year period. Site-specific fungicides (e.g. benzimidazoles, phenylamides, dicarboximides, dimethomorph and strobilurins) were used much less frequently. The exclusive use of fungicides at risk from fungicide resistance development (most commonly the site-specific fungicides) was generally avoided and therefore overall risk of the development of fungicide resistance in processing tomatoes in Hawke's Bay is believed to be low. This study demonstrated that the number of fungicide applications per crop has increased about two-fold since 1995 while, during the same period, insecticide applications decreased. © 2013 The Royal Society of New Zealand.

Walker G.P.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Davis S.I.,LeaderBrand Produce Ltd. | MacDonald F.H.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Herman T.J.B.,Fruitfed Supplies
New Zealand Plant Protection | Year: 2012

The susceptibility of field populations of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, to lambda-cyhalothrin, methamidophos, spinosad and indoxacarb collected from the four major brassica-growing regions has been assessed approximately every 2 years from 1997 to 2008. Recent results indicate that populations from all regions have increased their resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, but there is little or no resistance to spinosad and indoxacarb and reduced resistance to methamidophos. This mitigation of resistance in DBM is attributed to, in particular, a decade-long regional adherence by the vegetable industry of rotating spinosad with indoxacarb in a two-windows-per-year rotation strategy. The original insecticide resistance management rotation strategy had to be updated to incorporate chlorantraniliprole registered as a foliar spray, and recently a mixture of chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam as a seedling drench. Seedling drenches have been removed from the two-window strategy used for foliar sprays, with drenches now aligned with periods targeting the highest pest pressure, allowing mode of action (MoA)-free periods and rotation of different MoA insecticides to mitigate any resistance build-up in DBM. © 2012 New Zealand Plant Protection Society (Inc.).

Pushparajah I.P.S.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Ryan T.R.,Fruitfed Supplies | Hawes L.G.,Lynda Hawes Horticultural Consultancy | Smith B.N.,Etec Crop Solutions | And 3 more authors.
New Zealand Plant Protection | Year: 2014

Populations of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) on vines sprayed with a biological control agent (Bacstar™; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D747; Ba) and on untreated control vines were monitored using qPCR. Leaf discs were taken from vines in February 2014, 3 months after the final of three spray applications of Bacstar™ in October and November 2013. An aliquot of leaf washings in bacterial saline (BS) was spread on to potato dextrose agar in Petri plates and the numbers of colonies of Ba were counted. DNA was extracted from the remaining BS and the quantity of Psa DNA was determined using qPCR. Ba was recovered from leaf discs that had been sprayed with Bacstar™ in greater numbers than from unsprayed leaf discs (P<0.05). Psa was recovered in greater numbers from the unsprayed control leaf discs than from the Bacstar™ sprayed discs (P<0.05). © 2014 New Zealand Plant Protection Society (Inc.).

Walker G.P.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Herman T.J.B.,Fruitfed Supplies | Kale A.J.,1013 Totara Street | Wallace A.R.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd
Biological Control | Year: 2010

An adjustable action threshold that uses estimates of larval parasitism of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in individual fields was assessed over three consecutive years in processing tomatoes in Hawke's Bay, New Zealand. Tomato fields were monitored weekly for levels of infestation by H. armigera larvae. When infestation levels became of concern, either approaching or exceeding the standard action threshold of one larva per plant, collections of 30+ representative larvae were made. These larvae were measured and reared individually at 30 °C, and after 4 days rates of parasitism were estimated visually. From these data, spray recommendations were made using a formula that adjusted the action threshold to allow for mortality from parasitism. At harvest, damage assessments were made to validate these recommendations. Results showed that estimates of parasitism after 4 days were accurate predictors of final assessments of parasitism. Overall parasitism during the three seasons was 71%, confirming that the original threshold, which relies on about 50% parasitism, needed revision. The dominant parasitoid was Cotesia kazak, reared from 91% of all parasitized larvae over the 3 years. Microplitis croceipes and the self introduced polyphagous parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis were reared from 4% and 5% of the parasitized larvae respectively. In 16 of 17 fields examined, the adjustable threshold kept fruit damage at harvest below the tolerated level of 5%. The single crop with excessive damage had only 0.5% fruit damage above this level. This adjustable threshold, which varied in this study from 1-8.3 larvae per plant, has been incorporated into an updated IPM programme and contributed to a 95% reduction in insecticide use. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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