Fruit Tree Research Center

Rome, Italy

Fruit Tree Research Center

Rome, Italy
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Grez J.,University of Santiago de Chile | Massetani F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Neri D.,Marche Polytechnic University | Neri D.,Fruit Tree Research Center | Gambardella M.,University of Santiago de Chile
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2017

The white strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) has great potential as an alternative product with excellent organoleptic quality. However, this species bears only one inflorescence per year, so productivity is very low (4-6 t ha1). In red strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), the morphology, plant architecture model and flower physiology are well known, while in the case of the white strawberry these topics have been little studied and apparently it would have a different behavior. Based on this background, we carried out a phenotypic characterization of Chilean white strawberry (F. chiloensis subsp. chiloensis f. chiloensis) and Chilean wild form (F. chiloensis subsp. chiloensis f. patagonica). To evaluate induction and floral differentiation, we performed a meristematic analysis during the winter rest (June) and early spring (September). Finally, we observed the flowering under greenhouse conditions (November). In June, both accessions had differentiated only the apical meristem of the main shoot. In early September, the Chilean white strawberry maintained its initial condition, whereas the wild form showed more shoots, which were developed from axillary buds. These axillary shoots also were flower differentiated in the terminal meristem. The phenotype in greenhouse was congruent with these observations. The Chilean white strawberry only developed one shoot (crown) per plant with one inflorescence during the season, while wild strawberry developed 10-15 secondary and tertiary shoots per plant, each with its own terminal inflorescence. Results indicated that Chilean white strawberry flower differentiated only the apical meristem in inductive condition. Therefore, likely an apical dominance effect and heavy bud dormancy may limit the formation of the lateral shoots, finally determining a very low production potential, while in the Chilean wild form the apical dominance is lower and the branching capacity is higher.


Sato M.,Fukushima University | Sato M.,Fruit Tree Research Center | Takase T.,Fukushima University | Yamaguchi K.,Fukushima University
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology | Year: 2017

Methods have been developed and evaluated to collect137Cs in stemflow to investigate the possibility of secondary radiocaesium contamination via stemflow in Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thumb.) orchards. Collection pads were made by encapsulating sphagnum or absorbent cotton in a tea pack (polyester-polyethylene composite fiber). In addition, stemflow was collected directly by a plastic zipper bag (collection bag). A significant linear relationship between the amount of137Cs per 1 g sphagnum collected and the accumulated precipitation over the measurement period was evident, indicating a close relationship between outflow of137Cs from the bark and precipitation. There was a significant difference between the percentages of dissolved137Cs to the total137Cs in stemflow collected by the sphagnum pads and the collection bag (Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.01), suggesting that organic mediums consisting mainly of cellulose should not be used for the investigation of dissolved137Cs. The weight of stemflow, the amount of137Cs in particulate form and the total137Cs in the stemflow collected with sphagnum were significantly higher than those in the water collected with cotton. Accordingly, it is concluded that collection pads using sphagnum are more appropriate as stemflow collectors to quantify secondary deposition because of enabling to fix anywhere. © 2017, Society of Agricultural Meteorology of Japan. All rights reserved.


Sato M.,Fukushima University | Sato M.,Fruit Tree Research Center | Takase T.,Fukushima University | Yamaguchi K.,Fukushima University
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2017

The effects of bark washing, and of epiphytic moss growing on the bark surfaces, on the 137Cs activity concentrations in bark and stemflow samples were evaluated at two Japanese persimmon orchards located in Fukushima City and Date City, both approximately 60-65 km northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The means of 137Cs in stemflow captured by 1 g of sphagnum placed on the main trunks of washed and unwashed trees, and on sites with moss and with no moss growing on bark of the non-washed trees in Date City, were 0.37 Bq, 1.08Bq, 0.77 Bq and 0.52 Bq respectively. The 137Cs was significantly lower in the washed bark and in the absence of moss at p = 0.00031 and p = 0.0443 by t-test respectively. The 137Cs in directly-collected stemflow on the main trunks was significantly higher for the unwashed tree at 6.0 Bq L-1 compared with the washed tree at 1.1 Bq L-1 (p = 0.017 by Tukey's test). The extraction rate of dissolved 137Cs with deionized water was 7.3% even after stirring for 40 h. These results indicate that the moss acts as reservoir of 137Cs, and that bark-washing decontamination can reduce the additional 137Cs supply from moss in subsequent years following the radioactive fallout. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.


Massetani F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Pica F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Neri D.,Fruit Tree Research Center
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2017

Strawberry plant architecture shows some constant features related to its sympodial growth. Variability in plant architecture is related to the position of the vegetative and reproductive structures along its short axis (rosette plant) and is determined by many factors, including abiotic, agronomic, nutritional and environmental factors. Propagation technique provides plant types showing different architectures. Each type of plant is suitable for specific growing cycles. Plants from different nursery cultivation systems were dissected to determine the fate of all the meristems before field cultivation. Branching pattern and organs topology were described in order to provide basic information on the developmental ability of the plants. The study shows that using specific propagation techniques, it may be possible to guide the architecture of the strawberry plants towards different number and distribution of axillary shoots, inflorescences and stolons.


Mbengue M.,Sainsbury Laboratory | Mbengue M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bourdais G.,Fruit Tree Research Center | Gervasi F.,Sainsbury Laboratory | And 13 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2016

Sensing of potential pathogenic bacteria is of critical importance for immunity. In plants, this involves plasma membrane-resident pattern recognition receptors, one of which is the FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) receptor kinase. Ligand-activated FLS2 receptors are internalized into endosomes. However, the extent to which these spatiotemporal dynamics are generally present among pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their regulation remain elusive. Using live-cell imaging, we show that at least three other receptor kinases associated with plant immunity, PEP RECEPTOR 1/2 (PEPR1/2) and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), internalize in a ligand-specific manner. In all cases, endocytosis requires the coreceptor BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1), and thus depends on receptor activation status. We also show the internalization of liganded FLS2, suggesting the transport of signaling competent receptors. Trafficking of activated PRRs requires clathrin and converges onto the same endosomal vesicles that are also shared with the hormone receptor BRASSINOSTERIOD INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1). Importantly, clathrin-dependent endocytosis participates in plant defense against bacterial infection involving FLS2-mediated stomatal closure and callose deposition, but is uncoupled from activation of the flagellin-induced oxidative burst and MAP kinase signaling. In conclusion, immunity mediated by pattern recognition receptors depends on clathrin, a critical component for the endocytosis of signaling competent receptors into a common endosomal pathway.


Neri D.,Fruit Tree Research Center | Lodolini E.M.,Marche Polytechnic University | Bastianelli M.,VITROPLANT
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2017

Acclimation ex vitro is considered one of the most critical stages of the whole micro-propagation cycle. The root system is still weak and root growth and absorption need to be improved to compensate the increasing leaf transpiration and need of nutrients. The experiments presented in this study aimed to improve the aerial and root growth by using different substrates (type and mode of filling of the pots) in combination with specific fertilizers and replacing part of the root absorption with nutrient application to the leaves. The supply of mineral elements and organic compounds to the leaves in synergy with the available reserves in the seedlings can avoid the increasing of the cost of the absorption process for the plantlet. Results confirm the importance of the substrate to affect root growth and establishment. The quality of the growth of root and foliar P, K, Ca, Mg, and humic acids application positively influenced the growth and the plant settlement. Results showed that foliar applications in fertilized growing media are able to enhance vegetative growth, dry matter accumulation and basal steam diameter in all the tested clones. When nonfertilized growing media are used, foliar application is less effective in controlling vegetative growth to obtain the required height and basal stem diameter. This study suggests that is advisable to have a micro-porous substrate and apply moderate fertilizations through the substrate. The supply of the nutrients to the leaves resulted in bigger, but well hardened plants. It is possible to argue that changing concentrations and ratio among the different elements according to the acclimation cycle stage would balance vegetative growth and reduce hidden stresses.


PubMed | University of Rome La Sapienza, Fruit Tree Research Center and Edmund Machinery Foundation
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2015

Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the most serious disease of the apple worldwide. Two cultivars (Malus domestica), having different degrees of resistance against fungi attacks, were analyzed by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Aqueous and organic extracts of both apple flesh and skin were studied, and over 30 metabolites, classified as organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, lipids, sterols, and other metabolites, were quantified by means of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiments. The metabolic profiles of the two apple cultivars were compared, and the differences were correlated with the different degrees of resistance to apple scab by means of univariate analysis. Levels of metabolites with known antifungal activity were observed not only to be higher in the Almagold cultivar but also to show different correlation patterns in comparison to Golden Delicious, implying a difference in the metabolic network involved in their biosynthesis.


PubMed | The Sainsbury Laboratory, University of Basel, Fruit Tree Research Center, Japan National Institute for Basic Biology and RWTH Aachen
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2016

Sensing of potential pathogenic bacteria is of critical importance for immunity. In plants, this involves plasma membrane-resident pattern recognition receptors, one of which is the FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) receptor kinase. Ligand-activated FLS2 receptors are internalized into endosomes. However, the extent to which these spatiotemporal dynamics are generally present among pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their regulation remain elusive. Using live-cell imaging, we show that at least three other receptor kinases associated with plant immunity, PEP RECEPTOR 1/2 (PEPR1/2) and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), internalize in a ligand-specific manner. In all cases, endocytosis requires the coreceptor BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1), and thus depends on receptor activation status. We also show the internalization of liganded FLS2, suggesting the transport of signaling competent receptors. Trafficking of activated PRRs requires clathrin and converges onto the same endosomal vesicles that are also shared with the hormone receptor BRASSINOSTERIOD INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1). Importantly, clathrin-dependent endocytosis participates in plant defense against bacterial infection involving FLS2-mediated stomatal closure and callose deposition, but is uncoupled from activation of the flagellin-induced oxidative burst and MAP kinase signaling. In conclusion, immunity mediated by pattern recognition receptors depends on clathrin, a critical component for the endocytosis of signaling competent receptors into a common endosomal pathway.


Hoshi H.,Fruit Tree Research Center | Takabe M.,Horticultural Experiment Station of Yamagata Integrated Agricultural Research Center | Nakamuta K.,Chiba University
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2016

Mating disruption of the carpenter moth, Cossus insularis (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), with a synthetic version of its sex pheromone, a mixture of (E)-3-tetradecenyl acetate and (Z)-3-tetradecenyl acetate, was tested for three successive years in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards. Pheromone trap catches, percentage mating of tethered females and females enclosed with males in a mating cage, and tree damage were measured in both the pheromone-treated and untreated control orchards. The attraction of male moths to pheromone traps at heights of 1.5, 3, and 5 m was strongly disrupted when the pheromone dispensers were placed at 1.5 m height. Mating of tethered females placed at 1 m was completely inhibited, and the mating of tethered females at a height of 3 m was significantly reduced by the treatment in comparison to matings in an untreated control orchard. Similarly, mating of pairs of moths enclosed in mating cages was significantly reduced by the synthetic pheromone treatment in comparison to controls. The percentage of damaged trees in the pheromone-treated orchard also decreased significantly over the course of the experiment. These results suggest that mating disruption with the synthetic sex pheromone appears promising for reducing damage caused by C. insularis in apple orchards in Japan, and a commercial mating disruption product has been developed and registered. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Yoshihara T.,Japan Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry | Hashida S.-N.,Japan Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry | Abe K.,Fruit Tree Research Center | Ajito H.,Fruit Tree Research Center
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2014

Radiocesium (134Cs+137Cs) concentrations, primarily derived from the Fukushima accident in March 2011, were measured in litterfalls and green leaves of Japanese flowering cherry trees (Prunus x yedoensis cv. Somei-Yoshino). The sampling was performed mainly during the defoliation season in 2011 and 2012 using traps to collect litterfalls before contact with the ground. The average radiocesium concentration in litterfalls in 2012 fell to one-third of that in 2011 (0.43 and 1.2kBqkg-DW-1, respectively). Interestingly, the concentrations in litterfalls collected in late autumn in both 2011 and 2012 (0.68 and 0.19kBqkg-DW-1, respectively) were significantly lower than those in litterfalls collected in the early autumn (1.7 and 1.1kBqkg-DW-1, respectively). In addition, the reductions in radiocesium concentrations in the litterfall were nearly synchronous with those in potassium concentrations (p≤0.05). On the contrary, radiocesium concentrations in green leaves were also correlated with potassium concentrations; however, the slopes of the regression lines between the radiocesium and potassium concentrations were very similar in the 2011 litterfalls and the 2012 litterfalls, while the slopes were significantly different between these litterfalls and the green leaves. Consequently, the correlation between potassium and radiocesium was clear but independently observable in each of the litterfalls and the green leaves. It is possible that the reduction in radiocesium concentration occurred as a part of physiological demand, a translocation of potassium from the leaves to the body/twigs. © 2013 The Authors.

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