Qiryat Shemona, Israel
Qiryat Shemona, Israel

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Shenderey C.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Shmulevich I.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Alchanatis V.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Egozi H.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | And 5 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2010

Moldy core of apples is undetectable until the fruit is cut open or bitten into, therefore it can pose serious problems to both producer and consumer. Removal of diseased fruits prior to storage would be most desirable. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of VIS-NIR minispectrometers to detect moldy core in apples, on line. An apparatus which is qualified for on-line Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements was developed based on an off-the-shelf minispectrometer. Apples, cv. Red Delicious, were collected from several orchards before and during the commercial harvest, and were stored at 0°C pending the tests. The data were analyzed by chemometric procedures, specifically, by partial least squares regression (PLSR), and were classified by means of canonical discriminant analysis. The canonical variables were represented by the latent variables of PLS models based on the spectra. The accuracy of the classification results was high, in light of doubts regarding the moldy fraction threshold of 5%; in such a case the mold covers only the seed carpals of the fruit, where it might remain without really damaging the fruit. Improvements should aim to reduce errors in classifying low-level damage, and also in misclassifying some healthy fruits. The rate of testing (1 s per fruit) is acceptable for quality-control purposes, but should be accelerated for future packing-line implementation. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.


Dan G.,Fruit Storage Research Laboratory | Dan G.,Migal Institute | Dan G.,Tel-Hai Academic College | Ruth B.-A.,Fruit Storage Research Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

The changes in ripening parameters of 'Spadona' pears were monitored from 95 days after full bloom (DAFB) until the end of the harvest season in 2 orchards during 3 years, in an attempt to predict the timing of the pre-climacteric minimum (PCM), as a tool for determining the optimum harvest maturity for extended controlled atmosphere (CA) storage.A model based on the pre-harvest rates of changes of fruit weight, firmness, starch degradation and seed colour was found to predict the timing of the PCM with an accuracy of 24h of its occurrence (R2=0.9925). Changes in soluble solid content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) did not improve the model. Fruit quality assessed at removal from CA storage after 6 months, followed by 2 weeks of shelf-life at 20°C, verified that the optimal time for harvest of 'Spadona' pears was at the PCM. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Stern R.A.,Galilee Technology Center | Korchinsky R.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Ben-Arie R.,Fruit Storage Research Laboratory | Cohen Y.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

'Cripp's Pink' apple often develops a poor colour at commercial harvest, resulting in economic loss. To determine if fruit colour could be improved without advancing ripening, 'Cripp's Pink' apple trees were sprayed with various synthetic auxins at different phenologic stages, from 30 d after bloom (30 DAB) until 150 DAB. The experiments were conducted in the North of Israel, from 2006 to 2008. Application of 50 mg I-1 of the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxypropionic acid (2,4-DP), as its butoxyethyl ester (Power™), or as its potassium salt 2,4-DP-P (Prigan™), at approx. 60 DAB, increased the rate of endogenous ethylene production by the fruit. This was accompanied by an increased concentration of anthocyanins in the fruit skin, and a higher percentage of red blush, without causing the fruit drop that is usually associated with increased levels of ethylene. Although both auxins accelerated fruit maturation, neither had any negative effects on fruit quality at harvest, or after 6 months of storage at 0°C. The effects were specific to 2,4-DP (and 2,4-DP-P). Several other synthetic auxins such as 2,4dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 2,4-D plus NAA, and naphthaleneacetamide (NAD) plus NAA, had no effect on the red skin colour of 'Cripp's Pink' apple. 2,4-DP sprays therefore represent an effective treatment to improve the colour of 'Cripp's Pink' apple at commercial harvest, without adversely affecting other fruit quality attributes.


Stern R.,Galilee Technology Center | Stern R.,Galilée College | Ben-Arie R.,Fruit Storage Research Laboratory | Ginzberg I.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Calyx cracking in 'Pink Lady' apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) results in substantial economic losses. 'Pink Lady' apple trees were sprayed with various rates and combinations of synthetic gibberellins (GA3, or GA4 plus GA7) and a synthetic cytokinin (6-benzyladenine; BA) at different phenological stages, starting at 60 d after full bloom (DAFB) until 150 DAFB, to determine if the incidence of cracking could be reduced. The experiments were conducted in Northern Israel between 2008-2011. The percentages of fruit with calyx cracking decreased following three applications of 0.2% (v/v) Superlon™ (i.e., 40 mg l-1 BA plus 40 mg l-1 GA4+7) at 14 d intervals, starting at 60 DAFB. GA3 or GA4+7 alone had no effect on cracking. In addition, the Superlon™ treatments resulted in increases in epidermal cell density at the calyx end, which may have contributed to the increased elasticity of the peel, thus preventing crack formation. No change was observed in cuticle thickness. Fruit quality was not affected by 0.2% (v/v) Superlon™ at harvest, or after 5 months of controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. However, fruit size increased, probably due to the effect of BA. The results from semi-commercial multiple applications of 0.2% (v/v) Superlon™ supported its use in orchards of 'Pink Lady' that tend to suffer from calyx cracking.


Levy E.,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development | Elkind G.,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development | Ben-Arie R.,Fruit Storage Research Laboratory | Ben-Ze'ev I.S.,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2011

Pomegranate fruit rot, caused by Coniella granati, is reported for the first time in Israel in 2010, following an interception of contaminated grafting material imported in 2006. © 2011 Springer Science & Business Media BV.


Gamrasni D.,Fruit Storage Research Laboratory | Gamrasni D.,Migal Galilee Technology Center | Gamrasni D.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Ben-Arie R.,Fruit Storage Research Laboratory | Goldway M.,Migal Galilee Technology Center
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2010

The 'Spadona' pear is a summer cultivar that ripens without chilling-induced ethylene production. To expand our understanding of ethylene involvement in the initiation and progress of 'Spadona' fruit ripening, and with the aim of improving fruit quality after storage, pears were treated with the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP).Fruit were treated with 0.2μLL-1 1-MCP for 20h at 20°C, at four stages of ripeness as determined by ethylene production: pre-climacteric fruit at early and late harvests (H1 and H2, respectively), and early harvested fruit after 7 and 12 d conditioning at 20°C (C1 and C2, respectively), reflecting early and mid-climacteric fruit. The treatment effect was evaluated after 6 months' storage in controlled atmosphere (-0.5°C, 1.5% O2, 5% CO2) and subsequently during 2 weeks at 20°C. 1-MCP treatment effectively inhibited pear ripening when applied immediately after both early (H1) and late (H2) harvests and improved the storage potential of the fruit. However, the effect of 1-MCP treatment on H2 pears was less pronounced, resulting in a more rapid recovery of sensory attributes after storage. 1-MCP application to C1 pears also effectively inhibited ethylene production after storage and delayed pear softening during the first week at 20°C, but thereafter fruit quality deteriorated. Applying 1-MCP to C2 pears resulted in a transient inhibition of ethylene production, which was recovered at 20°C, with little effect on the storage potential of the fruit. mRNA expression of ACC oxidase 1 (ACO1), ACC synthase 1b (ACS1b) and the ethylene response sensor 1 (ERS1) after storage was inhibited by 1-MCP treatment at all stages of ripening, but the extent of inhibition was affected by the stage of ripening at the time of application. ACO activity was inhibited in fruit of all stages of ripeness, apart from mid-climacteric fruit.Improved quality of 'Spadona' pears was achieved after 6 months controlled atmosphere (CA) storage and 2 weeks shelf-life by applying 1-MCP immediately after harvest and the later harvested fruit were larger and of superior sensory attributes. Thus, 1-MCP can serve as an important tool for the regulation of postharvest pear ripening with economic benefits. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Benjamin O.,Tel-Hai Academic College | Benjamin O.,Galilee Research Center | Gamrasni D.,Tel-Hai Academic College | Gamrasni D.,Fruit Storage Research Laboratory
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2015

The taste profile of the juice from four cultivars of pomegranate (PMG) (‘Shani’, ‘Acco’, ‘Emeq’, and ‘116’) was evaluated using an electronic tongue in comparison with commonly used methods such as chemical analysis and a sensory panel. Estimated intensity of taste (EIT) for sourness, astringency and bitterness (including the aftertaste) were calculated according to the linear range outputs of citric acid, tannic acid and iso-alpha acid solutions. The aftertaste EITast and EITbit values showed good correlations with the sensory panel scores, R2 = 0.92 and R2 = 0.78, respectively. Six PMG juices were discriminated based on the taste profile results from the e-tongue sensors and the sensory panel. Sourness and sweetness attributes were the main factors for the variance axis (F1 = 53.2 %) with the juice of ‘116’ being the most sour. Bitterness and astringency were plotted on the second axis, positioning the cvs. ‘Shani’ and ‘Organic Acco’ with positive correlations. The sensors for astringency and bitterness were significantly correlated with the polyphenol and hydrolysable tannin contents. The e-tongue could be used to monitor PMG juice quality in shelf life, mainly for changes in astringency. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Singh V.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Gamrasni D.,Fruit Storage Research Laboratory | Gamrasni D.,Tel-Hai Academic College | Ben Arie R.,Fruit Storage Research Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2016

Lenticel breakdown (LB), appearing as dark brown pits on apple skin, occurs following storage, and the factors associated with LB have not yet been identified. It was assumed that open lenticels at harvest and following postharvest treatments contribute to this phenomenon and therefore a method was developed using SO2 treatment, to detect air-exposed tissue in Red Delicious apples. The efficiency of detection was assessed on artificial openings, created by pricking the apple surface, which caused bleaching around these openings with enlargement of their dimensions. Similarly, SO2 treatment of intact apples caused a bleaching around few of the lenticels, indicating that the underlying parenchyma cells were exposed to air. The percentage of open lenticels decreases after harvest during cold storage. A calcium chloride, but not potassium chloride, immersion at harvest resulted in significantly more SO2 damaged lenticels, indicating that calcium enhances lenticel opening. There was a high correlation between the percentage of open lenticels at harvest and the severity of LB after storage (Pearson's correlation coefficient of r2 =0.80). This suggests that LB might occur due to exposure of parenchyma cells to air at harvest. In conclusion, these results indicate that the SO2 treatment at harvest might be used as an efficient method for the prediction of lenticel damage after storage. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Li L.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Li L.,Zhejiang University | Lichter A.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Chalupowicz D.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | And 5 more authors.
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2016

1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (SmartFresh™) is an ethylene antagonist widely used to retain quality and prolong the postharvest storage period of various climacteric fruits in which ethylene plays a critical role in regulation of the ripening process. Nonetheless, it has been found that exposure to 1-MCP may affect certain ripening-related processes also in non-climacteric fruits. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the effects of 1-MCP on quality and postharvest storage performances of various non-climacteric fruit crops, including grape, cherry, pomegranate, citrus, strawberry, pitaya, prickly pear, lychee, loquat, and olive. Overall, the main observed effects of 1-MCP on postharvest storage performance of non-climacteric fruits were: (1) inhibition of senescence processes, such as rachis browning in grapes, scale senescence in pitaya, and leaf senescence of 'Shatangju' mandarins marketed with attached leaves; (2) inhibition of development of physiological disorders such as scald development in pomegranate, pericarp browning in litchi, and internal browning in loquat; and (3) inhibition of degreening and color change, as observed in various citrus fruits, strawberry, pitaya, prickly pear and olive. Beside these major effects, exposure to 1-MCP had divergent effects on fruit respiration and ethylene production rates, and on decay development, with differing and sometimes contradictory effects observed in different crops and tissues. Finally, exposure to 1-MCP had just minor effects on internal fruit-quality parameters, including nutritional quality and flavor. In the future, it may be worth considering the commercial application of 1-MCP as a means of retaining the green color, reducing physiological disorders, and retarding senescence processes in certain non-climacteric fruits. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Nerya O.,Fruit Storage Research Laboratory | Levin A.,Galil Cold Storage
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

The greatest global marketing challenge is to supply the markets with high quality edible pomegranates throughout the year. Extension of shelf-life requires advanced R&D systems, and modern cold storage facilities. Israel produces more than 60,000 t of pomegranates annually, the majority for export. The fruit requires careful cultivation techniques, including tree forming and plant protection from the early stages of flowering and fruit formation, through postharvest treatments, cold storage, packing and export. Extension of the marketing season required development of storage methods for the late ripening cultivar 'Wonderful'. Indicators were developed to determine optimal timing of harvesting: necessary conditions for extending storage periods included a deep red color, both inside (the arils) and out (the peel), sugar content exceeding 16% and a total lack of blemishes or defects. Appropriate storage methods differ according to the grower's marketing goals. The following systems can be noted: (a) traditional storage, without cooling, allows domestic marketing only, over a one-to two-week shelf life; (b) storage over 1-2 months in a regular atmosphere (RA) at temperatures between 0-5°C, produces quality fruit throughout the period. More sophisticated storage techniques that allow extension of shelf life include: (a) modified atmosphere (MA) at 5-7°C allowing storage over 2-3 months while maintaining high quality; (b) controlled atmosphere (CA) at 5-7°C and suitable relative humidity offers the greatest marketing flexibility, including sales even beyond 3-5 months while maintaining high fruit quality and exportability. Special techniques developed in Israel prevent fruit weight loss, protect against storage diseases and allow shipment of desired cultivars to top European markets. The exporters are not limited by the harvest season and have a marketing potential of close to six months. These capabilities require modern cold storage facilities. Investment in such systems under Israeli conditions ranges between 1,500-2,000 per ton of storage capacity.

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