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Qiryat Shemona, Israel

Stern R.A.,Galilee Technology Center | Korchinsky R.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Ben-Arie R.,Fruit Storage Research Laboratory | Cohen Y.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

'Cripp's Pink' apple often develops a poor colour at commercial harvest, resulting in economic loss. To determine if fruit colour could be improved without advancing ripening, 'Cripp's Pink' apple trees were sprayed with various synthetic auxins at different phenologic stages, from 30 d after bloom (30 DAB) until 150 DAB. The experiments were conducted in the North of Israel, from 2006 to 2008. Application of 50 mg I-1 of the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxypropionic acid (2,4-DP), as its butoxyethyl ester (Power™), or as its potassium salt 2,4-DP-P (Prigan™), at approx. 60 DAB, increased the rate of endogenous ethylene production by the fruit. This was accompanied by an increased concentration of anthocyanins in the fruit skin, and a higher percentage of red blush, without causing the fruit drop that is usually associated with increased levels of ethylene. Although both auxins accelerated fruit maturation, neither had any negative effects on fruit quality at harvest, or after 6 months of storage at 0°C. The effects were specific to 2,4-DP (and 2,4-DP-P). Several other synthetic auxins such as 2,4dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 2,4-D plus NAA, and naphthaleneacetamide (NAD) plus NAA, had no effect on the red skin colour of 'Cripp's Pink' apple. 2,4-DP sprays therefore represent an effective treatment to improve the colour of 'Cripp's Pink' apple at commercial harvest, without adversely affecting other fruit quality attributes.

Shenderey C.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Shmulevich I.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Alchanatis V.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Egozi H.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | And 5 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2010

Moldy core of apples is undetectable until the fruit is cut open or bitten into, therefore it can pose serious problems to both producer and consumer. Removal of diseased fruits prior to storage would be most desirable. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of VIS-NIR minispectrometers to detect moldy core in apples, on line. An apparatus which is qualified for on-line Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements was developed based on an off-the-shelf minispectrometer. Apples, cv. Red Delicious, were collected from several orchards before and during the commercial harvest, and were stored at 0°C pending the tests. The data were analyzed by chemometric procedures, specifically, by partial least squares regression (PLSR), and were classified by means of canonical discriminant analysis. The canonical variables were represented by the latent variables of PLS models based on the spectra. The accuracy of the classification results was high, in light of doubts regarding the moldy fraction threshold of 5%; in such a case the mold covers only the seed carpals of the fruit, where it might remain without really damaging the fruit. Improvements should aim to reduce errors in classifying low-level damage, and also in misclassifying some healthy fruits. The rate of testing (1 s per fruit) is acceptable for quality-control purposes, but should be accelerated for future packing-line implementation. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

Stern R.,Galilee Technology Center | Stern R.,Galilee College | Ben-Arie R.,Fruit Storage Research Laboratory | Ginzberg I.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Calyx cracking in 'Pink Lady' apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) results in substantial economic losses. 'Pink Lady' apple trees were sprayed with various rates and combinations of synthetic gibberellins (GA3, or GA4 plus GA7) and a synthetic cytokinin (6-benzyladenine; BA) at different phenological stages, starting at 60 d after full bloom (DAFB) until 150 DAFB, to determine if the incidence of cracking could be reduced. The experiments were conducted in Northern Israel between 2008-2011. The percentages of fruit with calyx cracking decreased following three applications of 0.2% (v/v) Superlon™ (i.e., 40 mg l-1 BA plus 40 mg l-1 GA4+7) at 14 d intervals, starting at 60 DAFB. GA3 or GA4+7 alone had no effect on cracking. In addition, the Superlon™ treatments resulted in increases in epidermal cell density at the calyx end, which may have contributed to the increased elasticity of the peel, thus preventing crack formation. No change was observed in cuticle thickness. Fruit quality was not affected by 0.2% (v/v) Superlon™ at harvest, or after 5 months of controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. However, fruit size increased, probably due to the effect of BA. The results from semi-commercial multiple applications of 0.2% (v/v) Superlon™ supported its use in orchards of 'Pink Lady' that tend to suffer from calyx cracking.

Levy E.,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development | Elkind G.,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development | Ben-Arie R.,Fruit Storage Research Laboratory | Ben-Ze'ev I.S.,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2011

Pomegranate fruit rot, caused by Coniella granati, is reported for the first time in Israel in 2010, following an interception of contaminated grafting material imported in 2006. © 2011 Springer Science & Business Media BV.

Benjamin O.,Tel-Hai Academic College | Benjamin O.,Galilee Research Center | Gamrasni D.,Tel-Hai Academic College | Gamrasni D.,Fruit Storage Research Laboratory
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2015

The taste profile of the juice from four cultivars of pomegranate (PMG) (‘Shani’, ‘Acco’, ‘Emeq’, and ‘116’) was evaluated using an electronic tongue in comparison with commonly used methods such as chemical analysis and a sensory panel. Estimated intensity of taste (EIT) for sourness, astringency and bitterness (including the aftertaste) were calculated according to the linear range outputs of citric acid, tannic acid and iso-alpha acid solutions. The aftertaste EITast and EITbit values showed good correlations with the sensory panel scores, R2 = 0.92 and R2 = 0.78, respectively. Six PMG juices were discriminated based on the taste profile results from the e-tongue sensors and the sensory panel. Sourness and sweetness attributes were the main factors for the variance axis (F1 = 53.2 %) with the juice of ‘116’ being the most sour. Bitterness and astringency were plotted on the second axis, positioning the cvs. ‘Shani’ and ‘Organic Acco’ with positive correlations. The sensors for astringency and bitterness were significantly correlated with the polyphenol and hydrolysable tannin contents. The e-tongue could be used to monitor PMG juice quality in shelf life, mainly for changes in astringency. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

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