Fruit Research Institute Cacak

Fruit, Serbia

Fruit Research Institute Cacak

Fruit, Serbia
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Milosevic T.,University of Kragujevac | Duric M.,University of Kragujevac | Milosevic N.,Fruit Research Institute Cacak
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2014

The main objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals in important fruit species such as apple, apricot, and nectarine and their nine, five, and six cultivars, respectively. This work investigates the accumulation of Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb, and Cr in flowers of above species, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. The obtained results revealed that amounts of heavy metals significantly varied among cultivars at the same species and were within the permissible amounts in general. The Cd was not detected in apricot, nectarine, and the most of apple cultivars. Results for floral Fe, and also for Cu and Zn, which are the most important micronutrients for fruit production, suggest that levels of these elements might be used for assessing the storage of these elements during the previous season. We assume that the production of apple, apricot, and nectarine is safe, and there is no risk of contamination with heavy metals. © Springer International Publishing 2014.

Milosevic T.,University of Kragujevac | Milosevic N.,Fruit Research Institute Cacak | Glisic I.,University of Kragujevac | Boskovic-Rakocevic L.,University of Kragujevac | Milivojevic J.,Center for Small Grains
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The influence of cattle manure, complex NPK (15:15:15) and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) mineral fertilisers and natural zeolite commercially named "Agrozel" on tree growth, productivity, fruit physico-chemical features and leaf nutritional status of four apricot cultivars was studied under acidic soil conditions in Western Serbia. Tree growth and yield performances were increased by CAN and NPK applications in general, whereas manure promoted the highest fruit weight. All fertilisers, except NPK promoted flesh firmness. Application of NPK improved primary fruit metabolites (soluble solids and total sugars content and titratable acidity), whereas Agrozel induced the highest levels of secondary metabolites [total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)]. The highest tree vigor and the lowest productivity were observed in 'Biljana', while 'Harcot' had low tree vigor and high productivity. The largest fruits and highest flesh firmness were observed in 'Vera' and 'Biljana', respectively. Fruits of 'Aleksandar' are rich source in soluble solids content and TFC, 'Biljana' in total sugars, 'Vera' also in total sugars and TAC, while 'Harcot' had the highest levels of titratable acidity and TPC. Fertiliser treatments positively affected leaf macro- and micronutrients content, except leaf N and K at 120 days after full bloom (DAFB). All fertilisers induced excessive leaf P content, and deficiency of other nutrients in most cases. Leaf K and Mn contents, partially N and Cu, were not consistent. The highest imbalances and better balances among macronutrients were found when trees of 'Vera' and 'Harcot' fertilized with manure, respectively, whereas these characteristics among micronutrients were observed when trees of 'Aleksandar' and 'Biljana' fertilized with CAN, respectively. Leaf of 'Harcot' showed better balance values among macronutrients, and 'Biljana' among micronutrients. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Milosevic T.,University of Kragujevac | Milosevic N.,Fruit Research Institute Cacak | Glisic I.,University of Kragujevac
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Apricot tree growth, productivity, fruit quality attributes, and nutritional status of leaves of cv. 'Roxana' were evaluated under different fertilization treatments from the first to the fifth year after planting on acidic soil in Western Serbia. Treatments including applications of cattle manure, complex NPK (15:15:15) mineral fertiliser, multi-nutrient fertiliser commercially named Multi Comp Base (NPK + MgO + Me + humic acids), two types of N (calcium ammonium nitrate and urea) mineral fertilisers, natural zeolite (type "Agrozel") and control (no fertilization). Results showed that both N fertilisers promoted tree growth, precocity, yield performances and soluble solid content, whereas Multi Comp Base fertiliser, in general, provoked the best values of the most fruit physical attributes, ripening index, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. Also, respectable values of some physical traits, total phenolic contents and yield efficiency were provided by Agrozel and manure, respectively. Differences among fertiliser treatments for leaf macro- and micronutrients content at 120 days after full bloom (DAFB) were significant, except for leaf B. In general, all fertiliser applications and control promoted excessive leaf P and insufficiency of N, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and B. Leaves Mn and Cu status were not consistent. High imbalances among macronutrients were promoted by NPK and Agrozel, while the best balances among micronutrients were induced by NPK. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Milosevic T.,University of Kragujevac | Milosevic N.,Fruit Research Institute Cacak | Mladenovic J.,University of Kragujevac
Fruits | Year: 2016

Introduction. Cacak is the large fruit production region in Serbia; it presents an enormous diversity represented by different fruit species, highlighting apricot and small fruits. The objective of this work was to investigate and compare the main temperate fruit and berry quality attributes in eight species and their cultivars grown under similar environmental conditions. Materials and methods. The species evaluated were blackberry, woodland and domesticated strawberry, red and white currant, jostaberry (Ribes nigrum × Ribes uva-crispa), gooseberry and apricot. Standard laboratory procedures and methods were used to determine fruit or berry weight, soluble solids content (SSC), acidity (TA) and contents of bioactive compounds. Results and discussion. Significant and strong differences among species were detected for all properties evaluated, especially for fruit or berry weight. The fruits of apricot contained the highest soluble solids content (15.28 ° Brix) and ripening index (RI) value (22.49), whereas blackberry is a very rich source of acidity (1.47%), antioxidant power [161.88 mg AA g-1 dry weight (DW)], total phenolics (110.07 mg GAE g-1 DW) and total flavonoids (51.55 mg RUE g-1 DW). A strong relationship between some quality attributes was detected. Also, the cultivar per se (genotype) behaved as the most influencing factor determining fruit and/or berry chemical composition. Conclusion. Results of our work confirmed that fruits or berries evaluated are rich in primary and secondary metabolites. They showed desirable characteristics for the fresh consumption, while the most of them had high contents of natural antioxidants and may be recommended as a good raw material for the food industry. © Cirad/EDP Sciences 2016.

The behavior of five apricots grafted across Blackthorn inter-stem (BI) on Myrobalan stock and on Myrobalan rootstock (MR) was evaluated through vegetative growth, tree mortality, productivity, fruit quality and leaf nutrient composition from the 1st to the 6th leaf. The trial was performed in the Prislonica village (Cacak, Serbia), on a dry, shallow, sandy-loam and acidic soil. Results showed that MR improved tree vigor, yield per tree, cumulative yield, fruit weight, flesh rate, acidity, antioxidant power, leaf N, K, Ca and Mn contents and better balanced nutritional values for macronutrients. BI increased tree mortality, yield efficiency, yield per hectare, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, and leaf P and Fe amounts. Wide variability among cultivars for evaluated traits was observed on both BI and MR. The more vigorous trees had ‘Biljana’ as compared with others on both BI and MR, whereas the most productive cultivar was ‘Vera’ on BI and ‘Biljana’ on MR. The highest and similar fruit weight had ‘Roxana’ and ‘Harcot’, whereas the highest stone weight and flesh rate was found in ‘Vera’ and ‘Harcot’, respectively, all in both BI and MR. Fruits harvested from ‘Aleksandar’ trees were rich in soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and total flavonoid content (TFC), ‘Harcot’ in total phenolic content (TPC), and ‘Roxana’ in acidity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), also on both BI and MR. The better balanced nutritional values were promoted by BI. Regarding cultivars, the best balanced nutritional values for macronutrients were exhibited by ‘Vera’ on BI, and by ‘Harcot’ on MR. For micronutrients, the wider imbalance among nutrients was found in ‘Roxana’ on BI, and in ‘Vera’ on MR. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Milosevic T.,University of Kragujevac | Milosevic N.,Fruit Research Institute Cacak | Milivojevic J.,Center for Small Grains of Kragujevac | Glisic I.,University of Kragujevac | Nikolic R.,University of Kragujevac
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2014

From 2008 to 2013 we investigate impact of Mazzard seedlings and Colt rootstock on tree growth, precocity, productivity, gross profit, fruit quality and leaf nutrients level of seven sweet cherry cultivars which are grown at Cacak region (Serbia) on heavy and acidic soil in high density planting system (HDP). Results showed that most of the evaluated traits significantly varied between rootstock and among cultivars. Thus, Mazzard induced higher tree vigor, yield performances, gross profit, flesh rate, fruit acidity, and leaf P and Mn levels, whereas Colt induced higher fruit weight, fruit dimensions, size and shape values, stone weight, ripening index and leaf N, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn amounts. Regarding cultivars, 'Stark Hardy Giant' ('SHG') had the lowest tree vigor on both rootstocks, whereas the highest was induced by 'New Star' on Mazzard, and by 'Summit' and 'Lapins' on Colt. Generally, the highest values of yield attributes and financial results were found in 'Sunburst' on Mazzard and 'SHG' on Colt, whereas 'New Star' had the poorest. 'New Star' on both rootstocks, 'June Early' on Mazzard, and 'Lapins' on Colt were cultivars with the better fruit weight and other physical traits, whereas 'Hedelfinger' had higher soluble solids content (SSC) and acidity on both rootstocks as compared with others. 'New Star' grafted on Mazzard and 'Lapins' on Colt showed a tendency to promote higher RI. Cherries of trees grafted on Colt showed higher capacity to accumulate leaf N, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn, whereas leaf of cherries on Colt had higher P and Mn amounts. High variability among cultivars regarding leaf nutrients content was found. Both rootstocks and all cultivars on them exhibited excessive leaf N and Cu levels, and high insufficiency of other leaf macro- and micronutrients. Colt showed better balanced nutritional values for macronutrients, whereas rootstock impact on this trait for micronutrients was not significant. 'SHG' on both rootstocks, in general, is the cultivar with the best balanced nutritional values as compared to others. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Milosevic T.,University of Kragujevac | Milosevic N.,Fruit Research Institute Cacak
Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition | Year: 2015

During two years we have investigated main fruit quality traits, yield and leaf nutrient content at 120 days after full bloom (DAFB) of ‘Idared’ and ‘Melrose’ apples on M.9 rootstock when fertilized with complex NPK (15:15:15) alone, and mixture with natural zeolite (Agrozel) and/or cattle manure. Results showed that fruit quality has been strongly affected by cultivars, whereas fertilizer treatments influenced only yield per tree. Moreover, significant impact of cultivar and fertilizer treatment on leaf P, K and Mg was found. Leaf of ‘Melrose’ contained higher P and K content, and lower Mg content than those of ‘Idared’. In ‘Melrose’, NPK alone increased leaf P, whereas in ‘Idared’, mixture of NPK+Agrozel and NPK+Manure promoted leaf P, K and Mg content. According to DOP and ΣDOP indexes, excessive leaf Mg content was found, and deficiency of the rest of nutrients. ‘Melrose’ exhibited better balanced nutritional values for nutrients as compared to ‘Idared’, whereas NPK+M promoted better balanced nutritional values than other treatments. © 2015, Sociedad Chilena de la Ciencia del Suelo. All rights reserved.

Milosevic T.,University of Kragujevac | Milosevic N.,Fruit Research Institute Cacak | Glisic I.,University of Kragujevac
Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition | Year: 2013

The tree growth, fruit weight and leaf mineral status of ten plum cultivars grafted on rootstock of autochthonous plum 'Belošljiva' under high density planting system (HDP) on acidic soil was investigated in the fifth and sixth leaf. Results indicated that tree vigour, fruit weight and productivity significantly depend on the cultivar. 'Čačanska Najbolja' had the most vigorous trees, while 'Čačanska Lepotica' had the smallest. The fruit weight was the highest in 'Čačanska Rana', and the lowest in 'd'Agen'. 'Stanley' was the most productive cultivar in 2006 and 'Čačanska Rodna' in 2007. Yield efficiency was the highest in 'Čačanska Lepotica' and the lowest in 'Ruth Gerstetter', 'Čačanska Rana', 'Čačanska Najbolja' and 'Opal', respectively. Significant differences were observed among cultivars for leaf major nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) levels at 120 DAFB. Larger imbalance of leaf major elements was observed in 'd'Agen', whereas good balance was found in 'Violeta'. © 2013 Chilean Society of Soil Science.

During first 5 years after planting, we investigated the impact of quinces MA and BA.29 rootstocks on tree growth, precocity, yield, fruit quality and leaf nutrients content 60 days after full bloom (DAFB) of ‘Starking Delicious’, ‘Abbé Fetel’, and ‘Conference’ pear cultivars which are grown in the Cacak region on heavy and acidic soil. Results showed that rootstocks significantly influenced a small number of features which were evaluated. MA promoted better values of fruit weight and fruit length, whereas BA.29 increased leaf width and leaf area. Impact of rootstocks on tree growth and yield attributes were not found. A stronger effect than that of rootstock on all characteristics which were evaluated had the cultivar per se (genotype). Among cultivars, ‘Conference’ showed the highest values of leaf dimensions, leaf area and ripening index (RI); ‘Abbé Fetel’ had the highest flower numbers per umbels, cumulative yield, yield efficiency, all fruit physical characteristics, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total sugar content and vitamin C content, while ‘Starking Delicious’ had the highest tree vigor, yield per tree and unit area. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Milosevic N.,Fruit Research Institute Cacak | Milosevic T.,Cara Dusana | Lukic M.,Fruit Research Institute Cacak
Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2014

During two consecutive years (2010 and 2011) we evaluated the impact of Progerbalin LG® (mixture of gibberellins (GA4+7) and N 6-benzyladenine) on fruit weight, fruit dimensions, elongation, geometric mean diameter or fruit size, aspect ratio, surface area and fruit volume of five apple cultivars belonging to 'Red Delicious' group ('Hapke' grafted on M.9 and M.26, 'Hi Red', 'Starking' and 'Top Red' on M.9, and 'Red Chief Camspur' on MM.106 rootstock). Trees were sprayed twice with 30, 50 or 100 ml L-1 i.e. between 80 % of open flowers and the following petal fall (first treatment), and 10 days after first application (second treatment); control trees were not sprayed. Results showed that the lowest dose increased fruit weight in all cultivars, except 'Top Red' and 'Red Chief Camspur'; this dose promoted fruit dimensions, fruit size and elongation in 'Hapke' on both rootstocks, and also fruit dimensions, surface area and fruit volume in 'Hi Red'. Regarding 'Starking', different doses of Progerbalin LG® did not affect other properties evaluated, but season played an important role in these cases. In contrast, the highest dose of this hormone improved all physical attributes in 'Top Red' and 'Red Chief Camspur', except elongation and/or aspect ratio. In some cases, good values were found in control treatment. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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