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Atasay A.,Fruit Growing Research Station | Akgul H.,Fruit Growing Research Station | Ucgun K.,Fruit Growing Research Station | San B.,Suleyman Demirel University of Turkey
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2013

Pollen quality is very important for apple production because of its gametophytic self-incompatibility. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different nitrogen fertilization doses on pollen production and quality in apple cultivars "Jerseymac" and "Golden Delicious" in Egirdir province of Turkey. Apple trees were fertilized with 0, 30, 60, and 90 g nitrogen per tree in each year during five consecutive years between 2001 and 2005. Nitrogen fertilization significantly affected pollen production and quality in both apple cultivars. The highest pollen number (55,087) as well as the highest percentage of viable (45.6%) and germinated pollens (62.1%) were determined from 60 g nitrogen fertilization dose in apple cultivar "Jerseymac." However, differences between 30, 60, and 90 g per tree nitrogen doses were not significant. Likewise, 60 g nitrogen fertilization per tree also resulted in the highest number of pollens (84,395) and the percentage of viable pollens (52.1%) in apple cultivar "Golden Delicious." The highest percentages of germinated pollens were obtained from the 30 (54.8%) and 60 g nitrogen fertilization (59.6%) doses in apple cultivar "Golden Delicious." The number of anthers per flower and morphological homogeneity were not affected by nitrogen fertilization treatments in both apple cultivars. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Kucukyumuk Z.,Suleyman Demirel University of Turkey | Kucukyumuk C.,Fruit Growing Research Station | Erdal I.,Suleyman Demirel University of Turkey
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

This study was carried out to determine the effect of deficit irrigation on seasonal changes in leaf nutrient concentrations of 'Braeburn' apple variety. The study was conducted during 2010-2011 growing seasons under six different deficit irrigation programs. In order to determine nutrient variations during the growth period depending on irrigation programs, leaf samples were taken in five periods (May, June, July, August and September) and nutrient concentrations (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) were determined. Leaf nutrient concentrations significantly varied with irrigation treatments and seasonal changes. The plant nutrient values of commercial irrigation treatment were higher than whole deficit irrigation treatment levels generally. Nitrogen, P, K, Ca and Zn concentrations decreased under deficit water conditions compared to commercial irrigation treatments. However, micronutrient treatment had no effect on the concentrations. The optimum nutrient demands and uptakes changed with different periods.


Kucukyumuk Z.,Suleyman Demirel University of Turkey | Kucukyumuk C.,Fruit Growing Research Station | Erdal I.,Suleyman Demirel University of Turkey | Eraslan F.,Suleyman Demirel University of Turkey
Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi | Year: 2015

Relation between drought stress, genotypic differences and nutrients are important in plant growth. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different sweet cherry rootstocks grown in 50-liter pots and drought stress on nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, and Cu) concentrations of leaves. In this study 0900 Ziraat sweet cherry variety grafted on five different rootstocks (P. mahaleb, Mazzard, Gisela-6, MaxMa 14, CAB 6) were used. Four irrigation treatments (control or 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% and of the field capacity) were used and irrigation intervals were four days in the study. As a result, mineral concentrations of leaves were changed with both rootstocks and drought stress treatments. In general, “Mazzard and Gisela 6” sweet cherry rootstocks had higher nutrient concentrations than “MaxMa 14” under drought stress conditions. The results showed that drought stress reduced the concentration of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, and Cu concentrations. CAB 6 rootstock was not affected by water deficiencies and had higher performance on nutrition than the other rootstocks under drought stress conditions. In conclusion, drought stress and rootstocks have substantial effects on nutrient concentrations of sweet cherry leaves. © Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi.


Corneanu G.,Fruit Growing Research Station | Sirbu S.,Fruit Growing Research Station | Petre L.,Fruit Growing Research Station | Iurea E.,Fruit Growing Research Station | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

In the 70's, at the Fruit Growing Research Station Iaşi, Romania, began a breeding program for sweet cherry and first cultivars have been released after 90's. The main followed objectives were to improve fruit quality, obtaining self-fertile cultivars, extending the harvest period and achievement cultivars with diseases and pests resistance. Among those released in 2010 nine sweet cherry cultivars were studied between 2007-2011: 'Alex', 'Anda', 'Cociu', 'Margo', 'Ludovic', 'Mihai', 'Andrei', 'Iosif' and 'Paul'. Some parameters related to phenological stages, diameter, weight, firmness, colour and cracking resistance of fruits, soluble solids content and reducing sugars, titratable acidity, ripening time, diseases and pests resistance, trunk section surface and yield per tree were determined. Largest fruits size (10-11 g) was measured in 'Ludovic', 'Cociu' and 'Alex'. 'Anda' and 'Margo' are yellow, 'Paul' is bicolor and all other cultivars have red or dark red skin color. Results showed that soluble solids content ranged from 15 to 17.9Brix and reducing sugars content ranged from 14-16 g 100 g-1 fruit weight. 'Margo' and 'Andrei' have a good anthracnose and monilia resistance. Highest values of yield, ranged from 14.5 to 15.2 kg tree-1, have been obtained at 'Iosif', 'Paul', 'Ludovic' and 'Margo'.


Kucukyumuk C.,Fruit Growing Research Station | Yildiz H.,Fruit Growing Research Station
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2013

This study elucidates the effects of transition from flood irrigation to drip irrigation method on apple trees regarding the water consumption and yield of the plant in 2008 and 2009. Starkrimson Delicious variety grafted onto seedling rootstock was used in the study. The studied apple trees had been irrigated by flood irrigation for many years. During the study, flood irrigation was continued at one part of the orchard, and drip irrigation was applied with different irrigation programs at the remaining parts of the orchard. Irrigation interval was held 20 days for flood irrigation (conventional) method. For drip irrigation, two different irrigation intervals (I1 = 4 days, I2 = 7 days) and four different pan coefficients (Kcp1 = 0.50, K cp2 =0.75, Kcp3 = 1.0, Kcp4 = 1.25) were used in the study. The highest amounts of irrigation water and plant water consumptions were determined for flood irrigation treatment for both years. Expanding the irrigation interval and increasing the pan coefficient led to an increase in plant water consumption during drip irrigation treatments. The highest amount of plant water consumption was determined in I2Kcp4 treatment. Statistically, while the yield with flood irrigation treatment was higher than Kcp1and Kcp2 treatment, the yield data of Kcp3 and Kcp4 treatments were similar in both years. Irrigation levels (Kcp) influenced the yield (p < 0.01); however, irrigation intervals and irrigation intervals x irrigation level interaction did not have any impact on the yield. Kcp3 and Kcp4 (1.25) represented a more marketable fruit size (extra and class 1) than flood irrigation. As a result, during the application of drip irrigation for the apple trees, which were previously irrigated, by flood irrigation for many years, the irrigation interval and pan coefficient (Kcp) under similar climatic and soil conditions were considered as 4 days and 1.0, respectively1.

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