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Frostburg, MD, United States

Frostburg State University is a four-year university located on a 260-acre campus in Frostburg, Maryland, in Western Maryland, and is part of the University System of Maryland. FSU is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools. Wikipedia.

Amthauer H.A.,Frostburg State University | Tsatsoulis C.,University of North Texas
BMC Genomics | Year: 2010

Background: There is increasing evidence that gene location and surrounding genes influence the functionality of genes in the eukaryotic genome. Knowing the Gene Ontology Slim terms associated with a gene gives us insight into a gene's functionality by informing us how its gene product behaves in a cellular context using three different ontologies: molecular function, biological process, and cellular component. In this study, we analyzed if we could classify a gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to its correct Gene Ontology Slim term using information about its location in the genome and information from its nearest-neighbouring genes using classification learning.Results: We performed experiments to establish that the MultiBoostAB algorithm using the J48 classifier could correctly classify Gene Ontology Slim terms of a gene given information regarding the gene's location and information from its nearest-neighbouring genes for training. Different neighbourhood sizes were examined to determine how many nearest neighbours should be included around each gene to provide better classification rules. Our results show that by just incorporating neighbour information from each gene's two-nearest neighbours, the percentage of correctly classified genes to their correct Gene Ontology Slim term for each ontology reaches over 80% with high accuracy (reflected in F-measures over 0.80) of the classification rules produced.Conclusions: We confirmed that in classifying genes to their correct Gene Ontology Slim term, the inclusion of neighbour information from those genes is beneficial. Knowing the location of a gene and the Gene Ontology Slim information from neighbouring genes gives us insight into that gene's functionality. This benefit is seen by just including information from a gene's two-nearest neighbouring genes. © 2010 Amthauer and Tsatsoulis; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Leung K.,Sandia National Laboratories | Budzien J.L.,Frostburg State University
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2010

The decomposition of ethylene carbonate (EC) during the initial growth of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films at the solvent-graphitic anode interface is critical to lithium ion battery operations. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of explicit liquid EC/graphite interfaces are conducted to study these electrochemical reactions. We show that carbon edge terminations are crucial at this stage, and that achievable experimental conditions can lead to surprisingly fast EC breakdown mechanisms, yielding decomposition products seen in experiments but not previously predicted. © the Owner Societies.

Norris B.N.,Frostburg State University | Zhang S.,University of Pittsburgh | Campbell C.M.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Auletta J.T.,University of Pittsburgh | And 3 more authors.
Macromolecules | Year: 2013

Although sequence must necessarily affect the photophysical properties of oligomers and copolymers prepared from donor and acceptor monomers, little is known about this effect, as nearly all the donor/acceptor materials have an alternating structure. A series of sequenced p-phenylene-vinylene (PV) oligomers was synthesized and investigated both experimentally and computationally. Using Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) chemistry, a series of dimers, trimers, tetramers, pentamers, and hexamers were prepared from two building block monomers, a relatively electron-poor unsubstituted p-phenylene-vinylene (A) and an electron-rich dialkoxy-substituted p-phenylene-vinylene (B). UV-vis absorption/emission spectra and cyclic voltammetry demonstrated that the optoelectronic properties of these oligomers depended significantly on sequence. Calculations predicting the HOMO-LUMO gap of the sequenced oligomers correlated well with the experimental properties for the 2- to 4-mers, and the consensus model developed was used to design hexameric sequences with targeted characteristics. Despite the weak acceptor qualities of the "A" monomer employed in the study, HOMO-LUMO gap differences of ∼0.25 eV were found for isomeric, sequenced oligomers. In no case did the alternating structure give the largest or smallest gap. The use of sequence as a strategy represents a new dimension in tailoring properties of π-conjugated polymers. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Cole J.R.,Harvard University | McCoskey S.,Frostburg State University
Sustainability: Science, Practice, and Policy | Year: 2013

In this article, we use data on meat consumption, per capita income, and other socioeconomic variables for 150 countries to determine whether data support the hypothesis that per capita meat consumption follows a Kuznets-style inverted U-curve. In other words, as nations increase their real per capita incomes, while individuals at first consume more meat, ultimately, over time and with increased income, do they moderate their consumption? Our results signal that although there is evidence of a Kuznets relationship, the income at which our data suggests a deceleration of meat is large enough that for many countries this deceleration will not be reached in the foreseeable future. In a cross-section sample of low-income countries, we find no evidence of a Kuznets relationship. In a cross-section sample of high-income countries, we do find a potential Kuznets relationship and a deceleration of meat consumption at a per capita income of US$49,848. In the full panel-data sample combining high- and low-income countries, including data on land area and urbanization, our results suggest an inflection point in meat consumption at an income of US$36,375, still quite high for any realistic impact. Thus, our results highlight that effectively decelerating the global demand for meat may require aggressive and potentially controversial policy interventions, which, while leaving individuals with less choice, would address the otherwise devastating environmental impacts of increasing meat consumption. © 2013 Rivers Cole & Mccoskey.

Kessler F.C.,Frostburg State University | Slocum T.A.,University of Kansas
Annals of the Association of American Geographers | Year: 2011

This article examines changes in the design of thematic maps in two geographical journals (the Annals of the Association of American Geographers and The Geographical Journal) over the course of the twentieth century. We analyzed the design of thematic maps using both qualitative and quantitative content analyses. The qualitative content analysis involved writing positive and negative comments pertaining to eleven map design elements. For the quantitative content analysis, we created a set of seventeen items based on many of these same map design elements, but for each item there was a fixed set of possible nominal or ordinal-level responses. We also rated the overall effectiveness of map design using a ten-point scale. The overall design rating revealed a significant, albeit gradual, improvement in map design over the twentieth century, with considerable variation for individual years. The quantitative content analysis suggested that the improvement in map design over time was a function of improved readability and visual hierarchy and to some extent an improved logic of symbology (the latter was not significant over time). Perhaps more interesting were the summary statistics for certain map design elements. For instance, a source was not included on the majority of maps even though we felt that the maps could have been interpreted more effectively if a source were included. Another interesting finding was that thematic maps frequently fell in to what we describe as a miscellaneous category. Choropleth, dot, and other familiar thematic map symbolization types were much less common and their frequency varied considerably from year to year. Overall, our results are disconcerting because the quality of map design in these journals did not reflect our discipline's long interest in mapping and the importance of cartography to geography. © 2011 by Association of American Geographers.

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