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Miyazaki-shi, Japan

Shichijo H.,University of Miyazaki | Takahashi T.,University of Miyazaki | Kondo Y.,University of Miyazaki | Sakamoto S.H.,Frontier Science Research Center | Morita T.,University of Miyazaki
Mammalia | Year: 2013

Coprophagy is widespread among rodent species and has nutritional significance in providing microbial protein to animals via feces. However, studies of coprophagy in rodents have focused mainly on species that are cecal fermenters. In this study using rat-like hamsters (Tscherskia triton), which have a large forestomach and cecum, we investigated the contribution of coprophagy to protein nutrition in pregastric and cecal fermenters and also examined whether or not the cecum is involved in protein nutrition enhanced by coprophagy. With or without a forestomach, coprophagy may affect protein digestion in T. triton , and coprophagy cannot provide beneficial effects without a cecal contribution. Prevention of coprophagy increased the fecal concentration of crude protein in animals with an intact cecum. Therefore, we conclude that coprophagy is closely related to the cecum in terms of protein nutrition, even in the pregastric and cecal fermenter T. triton . Source

Tsukada H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Li W.,Qinghai University | Duo H.,Qinghai University | Guo Z.,Qinghai University | And 13 more authors.
Wildlife Biology | Year: 2014

We compared the diet and the spatial distribution of the Tibetan fox Vulpes ferrilata and the red fox Vulpes vulpes in the Tibetan plateau, to elucidate mechanisms of coexistence for these two sympatric canids and to clarify their roles as definitive hosts for zoonotic Echinococcus parasites. Diet and fine-scale distribution patterns were assessed by fecal DNA analysis. A total of 45 fecal samples (15 belonging to Tibetan fox, 30 belonging to red fox were collected from 15 sites into three of which contained only Tibetan fox feces, six only red fox feces, and six contained feces of both species. The abundance of pika burrows, a key prey item for both species, did not differ among the sites. Food composition analysis, estimated using a point-frame method, revealed slight but insignificant differences between the two species. Tibetan foxes consumed primarily mammals, whereas red foxes consumed primarily insects. The dietary range of the Tibetan fox was narrower than that of the red fox but there was little dietary overlap between the two species. These findings suggest that the weak partitioning of food resources between Tibetan and red foxes can facilitate their coexistence even within the same habitat where they share the same key prey items, i.e. small mammals such as pikas. These dietary differences between the two fox species also suggest that the Tibetan fox is a more important definitive host for Echinococcus on the Tibetan plateau than is the red fox. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Sato M.,Frontier Science Research Center | Yoshida M.,Kagoshima University | Miyoshi K.,Kagoshima University | Ohtsuka M.,Tokai University | Watanabe S.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2011

Contents: Porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEFs) have been used extensively as donor nuclei for the production of cloned pigs via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Somatic cell nuclear transfer of gene-targeted PEFs has been the only way to produce gene-targeted pigs, given the lack of germ-line-competent porcine embryonic stem cells. Unlike other primary-cultured cells, such as murine embryonic fibroblasts, a single porcine PEF is unable to proliferate under normal conditions in which a certain number of PEFs (likely over 100) can grow normally. This limitation greatly hampers re-cloning of gene-modified PEFs, which is required for SCNT. Herein, we demonstrate the cultivation of a single PEF transfectant carrying the pEGFP-N1 plasmid with intact normal PEFs (>100) in a Terasaki microtest plate, which resulted in stimulation of the growth of the former cell (doubling time=2.6days). In contrast, when a single cell was cultured, it could typically divide only once and never divided more than twice. When a single transfectant was seeded in a well of a 96-well plate together with 5×10 4 untransfected PEFs and was subsequently selected in the presence of G418, we obtained a pure cell population of single-cell origin. Thus, this method should be useful for the purification of target recombinant pig clones from mosaic populations that cannot be cultured as a single cell or for which suitable cell growth-promoting conditions are unclear. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Ito K.,Tokyo University of Science | Liu H.,University of Miyazaki | Komiyama M.,Tokyo University of Science | Hayashi T.,Frontier Science Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2013

8-Azidoadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-azido cAMP) was directly detected in living cells, by applying Cu-free azide-alkyne cycloaddition to probe cAMP derivatives by fluorescence light-up. Fluorescence emission was generated by two non-fluorescent molecules, 8-azido cAMP as a model target and difluorinated cyclooctyne (DIFO) reagent as a probe. The azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction between 8-azido cAMP and DIFO induces fluorescence in 8-azido cAMP. The fluorescence emission serves as a way to probe 8-azido cAMP in cells. © 1996-2013 MDPI AG. Source

Murase K.,Frontier Science Research Center | Martin P.,University Paul Sabatier | Martin P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Martin P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 20 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

Escherichia coli can cause extraintestinal infections in humans and animals. The hlyF gene is epidemiologically associated with virulent strains of avian pathogenic E. coli and human neonatal meningitis-associated E. coli. We demonstrated that culture supernatants of E. coli expressing HlyF induced autophagy in eukaryotic cells. This phenotype coincided with an enhanced production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) by bacteria expressing HlyF. The HlyF protein displays a predicted catalytic domain of the shortchain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. This conserved domain was involved the ability of HlyF to promote the production of OMVs. The increased production of OMVs was associated with the release of toxins. hlyF was shown to be expressed during extraintestinal infection and to play a role in the virulence of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli in a chicken model of colibacillosis. This is the first evidence that pathogenic bacteria produce a virulence factor directly involved in the production of OMVs. © The Author 2015. Source

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