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Sithole B.B.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Pimentel J.,Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada | Gibbons S.,Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada | Watanabe C.,Frontier Laboratories Ltd.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2012

Understanding the cause of effluent toxicity is an important requirement for its prevention, remediation and return to compliance. One component of the strategy entails identification and fingerprinting of additives or components in additives that may be the cause of the toxicity episodes. A number of additives used in pulp and papermaking are polymeric compounds that are suspect in effluent toxicity. Their analysis and detection is difficult as they are not amenable to analysis by normal techniques applicable to mill effluents such as gas chromatography. Py-GC/MS is a powerful analytical technique that can be used to fingerprint these additives. The presence of the additives is confirmed by fingerprint pyrograms of the additives (or components in the formulations of the additives) in conjunction with mass spectrometry. The technique has been used to fingerprint and quantify polymeric additives associated with mill effluent toxicity episodes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Watanabe C.,Frontier Laboratories Ltd. | Ramus T.,Diablo Analytical | Meijboom R.,University of Johannesburg | Freeman B.,Frontier Laboratories United States
Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy | Year: 2014

The design of a tandem micro-reactor is discussed. A tandem micro-reactor, consists of two reactors (upper and lower), which are individually temperature-controlled. The upper reactor (1st reactor) is used to preheat a gas, vaporize a liquid, or thermally decompose (i.e., pyrolyze) organic solids in order to form a vapor phase sample. The catalyst reaction tube is packed with a catalyst and placed in the lower reactor (2nd reactor). Vapors from the 1st reactor flow into the reaction tube in the lower reactor, where they react with the catalyst. A mass flow controller allows selection of one to three reactant gases that can be introduced to the sample vapors exiting the upper reactor prior to entering the lower reactor containing the catalyst bed. The reaction products exiting the lower reactor flow directly into the gas chromatograph for analysis. The catalyst is evaluated by noting what compounds are formed and their relative distribution using mass spectrometer detection. The transformation of cellulose, glycerol, and Jatropha "press cake" illustrate the value and convenience of using the tandem micro reactor to rapidly characterize a catalyst or a series of catalysts. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

Frontier Laboratories Ltd. | Date: 2014-12-15

There is provided a gas phase component analyzer which obtains excellent separation performance, when a gas phase component mixture generated by catalysis is analyzed on-line. A gas phase component analyzer

Frontier Laboratories Ltd. | Date: 2013-12-17

There is provided a capillary column comprising a flat cross section and a desired theoretical plate number and having both high resolution and high sample load capacity. The capillary column

Takahashi T.,Frontier Laboratories Ltd. | Odagiri K.,Frontier Laboratories Ltd. | Watanabe A.,Frontier Laboratories Ltd. | Watanabe C.,Frontier Laboratories Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2011

A solid-phase extraction element based on epoxy polymer monolith was fabricated for sorptive enrichment of polar compounds from liquid and gaseous samples. After ultrasonication of the element in an aqueous solution for a given period of time, the thermal desorption (TD) using a pyrolyzer with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), in which TD temperature was programmed from 50 to 250°C for the analytes absorbed in the element, was used to evaluate the element for basic extraction performance using the aqueous standard mixtures consisting of compounds having varied polarities such as hexanol, isoamyl acetate, linalool, furfural and decanoic acid, in concentrations ranging from 10 μg/L to 1 mg/L. Excellent linear relationships were observed for all compounds in the standard mixture, except decanoic acid. In the extraction of beverages such as red wine, the extraction element showed stronger adsorption characteristics for polar compounds such as alcohols and acids than a non-polar polydimethylsiloxane-based element. This feature is derived from the main polymer structure along with hydroxyl and amino groups present in the epoxy-based monolith polymer matrix. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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