Frontier Agriculture

Newbury, United Kingdom

Frontier Agriculture

Newbury, United Kingdom

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Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: BBSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 225.97K | Year: 2011

This proposal for LINK funded project will build on a solid base of work currently underway, funded through existing LINK programmes, BBSRC, directly by industry, the Scottish Government and the NIAB Trust fund. The proposed study will seek to initiate a better understanding of wheat root growth, morphology and functional relationships with nutrient and water uptake. Methods to describe roots in a diverse range of winter wheat types will be implemented in controlled glasshouse conditions and in the field. The project will form the foundation for improving nutrient sequestration and conversion in this important UK crop through initiation of pre-breeding and development of ideal root ideotypes suitable for use in current and future wheat production. The consortium will concentrate on efficient or enhanced use of resources, especially nitrogen and phosphate and will consider interactions with water availability. In addition, the importance of interactions with beneficial mycorrhizal fungi on nutrient sequestration and the negative impact of soil-borne pathogenic fungi on susceptible genotypes will be considered under field conditions. Finally, the potential impact of agrochemical seed coats on root performance will be assessed. Overall, research in root biology leading to increases in nutrient uptake efficiency will contribute to reductions in diffuse pollution and will substantially reduce green house gas emission due a reduction in the use of nitrogen fertilisers in wheat cultivation


Gul S.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Khan N.U.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Batool S.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Baloch M.J.,Sindh Agriculture University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2014

Legacy of seed cotton yield and other quantitative traits is highly persuaded by environmental aspects, therefore, phenotypic response of a genotype is ascertained by genetic and environmental factors upon it, although occurrence of a third effect, of no less importance i.e. genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI). Studies were conducted in 2010 and 2011 evaluating G × E interactions and correlation in upland cotton using randomized complete block design at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. The GEI was characterized using eight upland cotton cultivars viz., SLH- 284, CIM-446, CIM-473, CIM-496, CIM-499, CIM-506, CIM-544 and CIM-707. Significant (p≤0.01) mean squares for genotypes, environments and G × E interactions revealed genetic variability among cotton genotypes as well as environments inconsistency. The contribution to the total sums of squares, regardless of trait, revealed that genotypes and genotype × environment play principal role followed by environments, while replications (experimental error) share was minimal. The environment accounts for 61.86%, 26.99% and 18.64% of total variation for bolls plant-1, seed cotton yield and sympodia plant-1, respectively, considering the larger effects of environment in combination with genotypes on plant growth and morphology. Seed cotton yield has significant (p≤0.01) positive correlation with boll number, and positive with morphological traits. Based on two-year studies, CIM-496 exhibited the best performance followed by CIM-554 and SLH-284 for improvement in seed cotton and lint yields.


Khakwani A.A.,Gomal University | Dennett M.D.,University of Reading | Khan N.U.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Munir M.,Frontier Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

The stomatal and chlorophyll effects were determined on yield and its contributing traits of wheat cultivars (Damani, Hashim-8, Gomal-8, DN-73, Zam-04 and Dera-98) under stress conditions at booting and after anthesis stages during 2009 at the University of Reading, UK. Significant water stress effects were observed on chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, leaf area, relative water content (RWC %) and grain yield per plant. All the cultivars behaved independently and significantly different for physiological and yield traits. Cultivars Hashim-8, Zam-04 and Damani were observed as best candidate genotypes for rain-fed regions, and minimum effect and percent reduction was recorded at their booting and after anthesis stages for all traits at stress conditions. These rain-fed cultivars were also persistent at higher level of stomatal conductance and RWC % even under water stress condition, which reflects their adaptability under drought environment.


Khakwani A.A.,Gomal University | Khakwani A.A.,University of Reading | Dennett M.D.,University of Reading | Munir M.,Frontier Agriculture | Abid M.,University of Karachi
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Plants of 6 bread wheat varieties (Damani, Hashim-8, Gomal-8, DN-73, Zam-04 and Dera-98) were subjected to 2 treatments i.e., control treatment (100% field capacity) and stressed treatment (20 days water stress was given during booting stage and 20 days water stress after anthesis). The findings revealed highly significant differences among means of wheat varieties in all physiological and yield traits. Almost all varieties showed their best adaptation under stressed environment however Hashim-8 and Zam-04 behaved exclusively and indicated higher relative water content (RWC), mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and stress tolerance index (STI) whereas stress susceptibility index (SSI) and tolerance (TOL) was estimated at its lowest, as these traits are recognised beneficial drought tolerance indicators for selection of a stress tolerant variety. Similarly, total grain yield per plant, biological yield per plant and harvest index was also higher in the same wheat varieties that put them as good candidates for selection criteria in wheat breeding program for drought resistant.


Khan E.A.,Gomal University | Khakwani A.A.,Gomal University | Munir M.,Frontier Agriculture
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2015

A study on allelopathic effect of leaf water extracts of Eucalyptus, Acacia, Sorghum, Shishum, Sunflower, Poplar, Tobacco and Congress grass on weeds control and growth of wheat cv. Hashim-8 was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan during 2012-2013. The findings of this study revealed that allelopathic chemicals in leaf water extracts of these plants significantly suppressed weeds growth by reducing weed density, fresh and dry weed biomass, and encouraged wheat yield and yield components such as days to 50% heading, plant height, tillers m-2, grain spike -1 , 1000-gain weight, biological and grain yield. Even though minimum fresh and dry weed biomass and highest wheat grain yield and yield related components were observed in twice hand weeding treatment which is economically less feasible on large scale. However, our findings showed an alternative allelopathic technique to minimize weed infestation and boost wheat growth and yield using natural plant material. On the basis of present results, it is recommended that leaf water extracts of Sorghum, Sunflower and Congress grass can be applied twice (30 and 60 DAS) during the growing season to control weeds and to enhance wheat grain yield. © 2015, Pakistan Botanical Society. All Rights reserved.


Alhajhoj M.R.,King Faisal University | Munir M.,Frontier Agriculture
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2016

The rationale of the present study was to quantify the effects of different shade levels (30%, 40%, 50% and 60%) and a control (no shade) on growth, flowering and dry matter partitioning traits of Snapdragon cultivar Liberty Wight. A linear relationship was observed between different shade levels and flowering time, rate of progress to flowering, leaf numbers, leaf area, plant height, plant spread, plant fresh weight, plant dry weight, leaf fresh weight and lead dry weight. These growth and development traits increased linearly from 30% to 60% shade levels, however, the rate of progress to flowering was inverse to flowering time when plants were kept under shades. A polynomial hyperbolic relationship was observed in specific leaf area, specific leaf weight, leaf weight ratio, leaf area ratio, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. It is concluded that different shade levels significantly (P≤0.05) prolonged various growth and development phases of Snapdragon cultivar Liberty White. These finding can be applied to enhance crop quality and to delay growth and flowering time for steadily supply of plants to the market. © 2016, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights reserved.


Baloch J.-U.-U.,Gomal University | Munir M.,Frontier Agriculture | Abid M.,University of Karachi | Iqbal M.,Gomal University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Present study was carried out at the Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan, during the year 2005. Seeds of five qualitative LDPs (Pot Marigold cv. Resina, Annual Phlox cv. Astoria Magenta, Cornflower cv. Florence Blue, Oriental Poppy cv. Burning Heart, Flax cv. Scarlet Flax) were sown on 1st March 2005. The experiment was designed to study flowering response under four distinct controlled photoperiods (11, 13, 15 and 17 h.d-1). A curvilinear qualitative response was observed in almost all cultivars studied. Pot Marigold, Annual Phlox, Cornflower, Oriental Poppy and Flax took minimum time to flower when grown under 17 h.d-1 photoperiods however it was significantly (p<0.05) increased when photoperiod decreased to 11 h.d-1.


Baloch J.-U.-D.,Gomal University | Munir M.,Frontier Agriculture | Abid M.,University of Karachi | Iqbal M.,Gomal University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Seeds of five Facultative long day plants (FLDPs) i.e. Moss Rose cv. Sundance, Pansy cv. Baby Bingo, Snapdragon cv. Coronette, Petunia cv. Dreams and Annual Verbena cv. Obsession were sown into module trays containing homogeneous leaf mould compost. After germination, saplings of each cultivar were shifted into four light intensity chambers (42, 45, 92 and 119μmol.m-2.s-1) for a duration of 8h (from 08:00 to 16:00h). The findings of this study showed that Facultative LDPs grown under high irradiance (92 and 119 μmol.m-2.s-1) flowered earlier. However, there was a non-significant difference between 42/45μmol.m-2.s-1 and 92/119μmol.m-2.s-1 irradiance levels. Although FLDPs under 119μmol.m-2.s-1 flowered few days earlier than those received 92μmol.m-2.s-1 irradiance but the quality of plants (plant height and leaf size/appearance) was inferior. It is therefore concluded that for better plant quality and early flowering FLDPs should be grown under 92μmol.m-2.s-1 irradiance.


Baloch J.-U.-D.,Gomal University | Munir M.,Frontier Agriculture | Abid M.,University of Karachi
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Seeds of 6 Facultative SDPs (Zinnia cv. Lilliput, Sunflower cv. Elf, French Marigold cv. Orange Gate, African Marigold cv. Crush, Cockscomb cv. Bombay and Cosmos cv. Sonata Pink) were sown into module trays containing homogeneous leaf mould compost. After germination, saplings of each cultivar were shifted into four light intensity chambers (42, 45, 92 and 119μmol.m-2.s-1) for a duration of 8h (from 08:00 to 16:00h) to observe their flowering response. The findings of this study showed that Facultative SDPs raised under low irradiance (42 and 45μmol.m-2.s-1) were more responsive to produce early flowers. However, there was a non-significant difference between 42 and 45μmol.m-2.s-1 and 92 and 119μmol.m-2.s-1 irradiance levels. Although Facultative SDPs under 42μmol.m-2.s-1 flowered few days earlier than those received 45μmol.m-2.s-1 irradiance but the quality of plants (plant height and leaf appearance) was inferior. It is therefore concluded that for better plant quality and early flowering Facultative SDPs should be grown under 45μmol.m-2.s-1 irradiance. Moreover, these plants can be kept under high light intensity (92μmol.m-2.s-1) to prolong juvenile phase for continuous supply in the market.


Baloch J.-U.-D.,Gomal University | Munir M.,Frontier Agriculture | Abid M.,University of Karachi
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

To assess photoperiod sensitive/insensitive phases of 3 long day plants (LDPs) viz., Pansy cv. Baby Bingo, Snapdragon cv. Coronette and Petunia cv. Dreams and one short days plant (SDP) viz., Cosmos cv. Sonata Pink a non-linear statistical model was used for its validation. Six plants of each cultivar were transferred from LD to SD and Vice versa at four days interval from emergence until first flower appearance. Plants at juvenile phase (initial phase of development) were insensitive to photoperiod in both inductive (LD for LDPs and SD for SDP) and non-inductive (SD for LDPs and LD for SDP) environment. After completing the juvenile phase when plants were transferred from LD to SD (Pansy, Snapdragon and Petunia) and SD to LD (Cosmos), they showed a coherent recognition of the stimulus carry forward from their respective inductive environment and induced flowering. However, plants transferred from non-inductive environment to inductive showed a continuous phase of photosensitivity. The duration of photoperiod sensitive phases varied with the cultivars. Hence, it is concluded that LDPs and SDP are not sensitive to photoperiod during their entire course of growth and development. Therefore, providing light during whole growing span is mere wastage of energy. These cultivars require 5-10 days of photoperiod at critical phase to flower that will minimize the production cost of cut flower industry.

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