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Zhou C.,University of Adelaide | Gilbert J.D.,Frome Rd | Yool A.,University of Adelaide | Byard R.W.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine | Year: 2013

Basal vacuolization of renal epithelial cells occurs in diabetic and alcoholic ketoacidosis, hypothermia and starvation. The vacuoles contain triglycerides. Following a case where formalin pigment deposition within these vacuoles led to the identification of ketoacidosis, a retrospective review of a further 31 cases with ketoacidosis, was undertaken. There were 24 diabetics and 7 alcoholics (age range 21-80 yrs; mean 50.9 yrs; M:F ratio = 2:1. The post-mortem interval was 1-12 days (mean-4.5 days). Characteristic basally-located pigment surrounding vacuoles was found in 16 cases (51.6%) (14 diabetic ketoacidosis; 2 alcoholic ketoacidosis). Fifteen cases had no formalin pigment deposition. No relationship could be found between the intensity of staining and the postmortem interval, degree of putrefaction, or level of vitreous humour β-hydroxybutyrate. No staining was demonstrated in control cases matched for postmortem interval. Although formalin pigment deposition occurred in only 51.6% of cases with proven ketoacidosis at autopsy, it appeared to be a highly specific phenomenon. As these deposits were identifiable after recognizable cellular morphology had been lost due to autolysis and putrefaction, this artefact of fixation may be of particular use in suggesting the possibility of ketoacidosis in decomposed bodies with compromised histology. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.


Anderson P.H.,Frome Rd | Anderson P.H.,University of Adelaide | Lee A.M.,Frome Rd | Lee A.M.,University of Adelaide | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

Vitamin D depletion in rats causes osteopenia in at least three skeletal sites. However it is unclear whether modulation of dietary calcium intake impacts on the relationship between the level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and bone loss. Nine-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=5-6/group) were pair-fed a semi-synthetic diet containing either 0 or 20. IU vitamin D3/day with either low (0.1%) or high (1%) dietary Ca for 6 months. At 15 months of age, fasting bloods were collected for biochemical analyses. Serum 25D levels were lowest in the animals fed 0. IU vitamin D and 0.1% Ca. The animals fed 1% Ca had significantly higher serum 25D levels when compared to animals fed 0.1% Ca (P<0.05). The major determinants of serum 25D were dietary vitamin D and dietary calcium (Multiple R=0.75, P<0.05). Animals fed 0.1% Ca had higher renal CYP27B1 mRNA expression and 12-18-fold increased levels of serum 1,25D. Hence, the reported effects of low calcium diets on bone loss may be, in part, due to the subsequent effects of 25D metabolism leading to reduction in vitamin D status. Such an interaction has significant implications, given the recent evidence for local synthesis of active vitamin D in bone tissue. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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