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Jena, Germany

Greulich K.O.,Fritz Lipmann Institute
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

In attempts to explain dark matter, an important component is often neglected: particles such as ultrafast protons/neutrons, which have a relativistic mass comparable to the Planck mass. They are thus invisible. At a critical speed the mass of a particle reaches that of the Planck mass. The Compton wavelength reaches Its Schwarzschild radius, i.e. the particle becomes invisible. For protons/neutrons this is approx. 1019 times of its mass at rest. With the assumption that particles with a rest mass of only the order of 10 000 Sun masses still have such an ultra relativistic speed, it can be explained that the major part of the mass of the Universe appears as "dark". It also becomes plausible that even today visible mass is generated from virtually the vacuum, simply by decelerating down such fast particles by collisions with slow matter. © 2013 SPIE. Source

Greulich K.O.,Fritz Lipmann Institute
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

In earlier contributions to this conference series, a photon model has been presented, where a cloud with a total charge of a Planck charge (qPlanck = e / √ α) oscillates. That model could explain, why electromagnetic radiation is transverse, why E = hν, why the spin of the Photon is 1 and why the Photon is self-propelling with speed "c"? Now it is shown, that a similar model explains mass and gravitation, again based on the Planck charge. The fine structure constant α, contained in the Planck charge, quantitatively governs all particle masses, predicts the mass of many particles exactly. Most masses of the heavy Quarks and Higgs Boson are predicted with accuracies better than 2 %. One of the predicted masses at 70 MeV/c2 cannot be ascribed to a known particle. However, its 1.5 fold is the Muon, its twofold is the Pion, and its sevenfold is a Kaon. All other leptons and hadrons are integer multiples of this mass m0 mostly with an accuracy better than 2 %. © 2013 SPIE. Source

Heidel A.J.,Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology | Heidel A.J.,Fritz Lipmann Institute | Ramos-Onsins S.E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Wang W.-K.,National Cheng Kung University | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Ecology

A. halleri is a psuedometallophyte with a patchy distribution in Europe and is often spread by human activity. To determine the population history and whether this history is consistent with potential human effects, we surveyed nucleotide variation using 24 loci from 12 individuals in a large A. halleri population. The means of total and silent nucleotide variation (θW) are within the range expected for the species. The population genetic neutrality tests Tajima's D and Wall's B had significant composite results rejecting panmixia, and Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis revealed that a subdivision model better explained the variation than the standard neutral model, refugia (or admixture), bottleneck or change of population size models. A categorical regression analysis further supports the subdivision model, and under the subdivision model, the neutrality tests are no longer significant. The best support was for two source populations, a situation consistent with the mixing of two populations possibly mediated by human activity. This scenario might limit the genetic diversity and adaptive potential of the population. The non-neutral population variation described here should be considered in bioinformatic searches for adaptation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Wodniok S.,University of Cologne | Brinkmann H.,University of Montreal | Glockner G.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Heidel A.J.,Fritz Lipmann Institute | And 3 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology

Background: The terrestrial habitat was colonized by the ancestors of modern land plants about 500 to 470 million years ago. Today it is widely accepted that land plants (embryophytes) evolved from streptophyte algae, also referred to as charophycean algae. The streptophyte algae are a paraphyletic group of green algae, ranging from unicellular flagellates to morphologically complex forms such as the stoneworts (Charales). For a better understanding of the evolution of land plants, it is of prime importance to identify the streptophyte algae that are the sister-group to the embryophytes. The Charales, the Coleochaetales or more recently the Zygnematales have been considered to be the sister group of the embryophytes However, despite many years of phylogenetic studies, this question has not been resolved and remains controversial. Results: Here, we use a large data set of nuclear-encoded genes (129 proteins) from 40 green plant taxa (Viridiplantae) including 21 embryophytes and six streptophyte algae, representing all major streptophyte algal lineages, to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of streptophyte algae and embryophytes. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that either the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of the Zygnematales and the Coleochaetales are the sister group to embryophytes. Conclusions: Our analyses support the notion that the Charales are not the closest living relatives of embryophytes. Instead, the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of Zygnematales and Coleochaetales are most likely the sister group of embryophytes. Although this result is in agreement with a previously published phylogenetic study of chloroplast genomes, additional data are needed to confirm this conclusion. A Zygnematales/ embryophyte sister group relationship has important implications for early land plant evolution. If substantiated, it should allow us to address important questions regarding the primary adaptations of viridiplants during the conquest of land. Clearly, the biology of the Zygnematales will receive renewed interest in the future. © 2011 Wodniok et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Greulich K.O.,Fritz Lipmann Institute
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

A so far unnoticed simple explanation of elementary particle masses is given by m = N * melectron/α, where alpha (=1/137) is the fine structure constant. On the other hand photons can be described by two oppositely oscillating clouds of e / √α elementary charges. Such a model describes a number of features of the photon in a quantitatively correct manner. For example, the energy of the oscillating clouds is E = h v, the spin is 1 and the spatial dimension is λ / 2 π When the charge e / √α is assigned to the Planck mass mPl, the resulting charge density is e / (mPl√ α) = 8,62 * 10-11 Cb / kg. This is identical to √ (G / ko) where G is the gravitational constant and ko the Coulomb constant. When one assigns this very small charge densitiy to a n y matter, gravitation can be completely described as Coulomb interaction between such charges of the corresponding masses. Thus, there is a tight quantitative connection between the photon, nonzero rest masses and gravitation / Coulomb interaction. © 2011 SPIE. Source

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