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The Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society is a science research institute located at the heart of the academic district of Dahlem, in Berlin, Germany.The original Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, founded in 1911, was incorporated in the Max Planck Society and simultaneously renamed for its first director, Fritz Haber, in 1953.The research topics covered throughout the history of the institute include chemical kinetics and reaction dynamics, colloid chemistry, atomic physics, spectroscopy, surface chemistry and surface physics, chemical physics and molecular physics, theoretical chemistry, and materials science.During World War I and World War II, the research of the institute was directed more or less towards Germany's military needs.To the illustrious past members of the Institute belong Herbert Freundlich, James Franck, Paul Friedlander, Rudolf Ladenburg, Michael Polanyi, Eugene Wigner, Ladislaus Farkas, Hartmut Kallmann, Otto Hahn, Robert Havemann, Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer, Iwan N. Stranski, Ernst Ruska, Max von Laue, Gerhard Borrmann, Rudolf Brill, Kurt Moliere, Jochen Block, Heinz Gerischer, Rolf Hosemann , Kurt Ueberreiter, Alexander Bradshaw, Elmar Zeitler, and Gerhard Ertl.Nobel Prize laureates affiliated with the institute include Max von Laue , Fritz Haber , James Franck , Otto Hahn , Eugene Wigner , Ernst Ruska , Gerhard Ertl . Wikipedia.

Nakao H.,Kyoto University | Nakao H.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Mikhailov A.S.,Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society
Nature Physics | Year: 2010

Turing instability in activator-inhibitor systems provides a paradigm of non-equilibrium self-organization; it has been extensively investigated for biological and chemical processes. Turing instability should also be possible in networks, and general mathematical methods for its treatment have been formulated previously. However, only examples of regular lattices and small networks were explicitly considered. Here we study Turing patterns in large random networks, which reveal striking differences from the classical behaviour. The initial linear instability leads to spontaneous differentiation of the network nodes into activator-rich and activator-poor groups. The emerging Turing patterns become furthermore strongly reshaped at the subsequent nonlinear stage. Multiple coexisting stationary states and hysteresis effects are observed. This peculiar behaviour can be understood in the framework of a mean-field theory. Our results offer a new perspective on self-organization phenomena in systems organized as complex networks. Potential applications include ecological metapopulations, synthetic ecosystems, cellular networks of early biological morphogenesis, and networks of coupled chemical nanoreactors. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Su D.S.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Su D.S.,Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Two different methods recently yielded inorganic materials with double-helix structures: Silicon microtubes (see picture) formed when high inner pressure forced NaSi melt through an opening in the surface of a disc, and carbon nanotubes were prepared when plates of layered double hydroxide coated with active catalyst particles were used as substrate. These reports open the door for the application of double-helical inorganic materials in chemistry and biology. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Seifert T.,Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society
Nature Photonics | Year: 2016

Terahertz electromagnetic radiation is extremely useful for numerous applications, including imaging and spectroscopy. It is thus highly desirable to have an efficient table-top emitter covering the 1–30 THz window that is driven by a low-cost, low-power femtosecond laser oscillator. So far, all solid-state emitters solely exploit physics related to the electron charge and deliver emission spectra with substantial gaps. Here, we take advantage of the electron spin to realize a conceptually new terahertz source that relies on three tailored fundamental spintronic and photonic phenomena in magnetic metal multilayers: ultrafast photoinduced spin currents, the inverse spin-Hall effect and a broadband Fabry–Pérot resonance. Guided by an analytical model, this spintronic route offers unique possibilities for systematic optimization. We find that a 5.8-nm-thick W/CoFeB/Pt trilayer generates ultrashort pulses fully covering the 1–30 THz range. Our novel source outperforms laser-oscillator-driven emitters such as ZnTe(110) crystals in terms of bandwidth, terahertz field amplitude, flexibility, scalability and cost. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group

Su D.S.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research | Su D.S.,Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society | Perathoner S.,Messina University | Centi G.,Messina University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

Nanocarbon is a term increasingly used to indicate the broad range of carbon materials having a tailored nanoscale dimension and functional properties that significantly depend on their nanoscale features. CNT and graphene belong to this class of materials comprising many more types of carbon materials, such as nanofibers, -coils, -diamonds, -horns, -onions, and fullerene. The field of application of nanocarbon materials is large, because they possess electrical and thermal conductivity, as well as a mechanical strength and lightness that conventional materials cannot match. With the diversity of their structure, these characteristic values can be achieved over an extremely wide range of conditions. For these reasons, they are extensively studied in applications going from photonics and optoelectronics to biotech and nanomedicine, advanced electrodes, and polymer composites. It should be mentioned that for commercial applications a comprehensive understanding of the catalyst structure, bonding, and properties is desirable, but not strictly necessary, provided that the catalysts are well-reproducible and give superior performances.

Schlogl R.,Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society | Schlogl R.,Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

A heterogeneous catalyst is a functional material that continually creates active sites with its reactants under reaction conditions. These sites change the rates of chemical reactions of the reactants localized on them without changing the thermodynamic equilibrium between the materials. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

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