Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society
Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society
The Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society is a science research institute located at the heart of the academic district of Dahlem, in Berlin, Germany.The original Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, founded in 1911, was incorporated in the Max Planck Society and simultaneously renamed for its first director, Fritz Haber, in 1953.The research topics covered throughout the history of the institute include chemical kinetics and reaction dynamics, colloid chemistry, atomic physics, spectroscopy, surface chemistry and surface physics, chemical physics and molecular physics, theoretical chemistry, and materials science.During World War I and World War II, the research of the institute was directed more or less towards Germany's military needs.To the illustrious past members of the Institute belong Herbert Freundlich, James Franck, Paul Friedlander, Rudolf Ladenburg, Michael Polanyi, Eugene Wigner, Ladislaus Farkas, Hartmut Kallmann, Otto Hahn, Robert Havemann, Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer, Iwan N. Stranski, Ernst Ruska, Max von Laue, Gerhard Borrmann, Rudolf Brill, Kurt Moliere, Jochen Block, Heinz Gerischer, Rolf Hosemann , Kurt Ueberreiter, Alexander Bradshaw, Elmar Zeitler, and Gerhard Ertl.Nobel Prize laureates affiliated with the institute include Max von Laue , Fritz Haber , James Franck , Otto Hahn , Eugene Wigner , Ernst Ruska , Gerhard Ertl . Wikipedia.
Schlogl R.,Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society |
Schlogl R.,Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015
A heterogeneous catalyst is a functional material that continually creates active sites with its reactants under reaction conditions. These sites change the rates of chemical reactions of the reactants localized on them without changing the thermodynamic equilibrium between the materials. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
Su D.S.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Metal Research |
Su D.S.,Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society |
Perathoner S.,Messina University |
Centi G.,Messina University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013
Nanocarbon is a term increasingly used to indicate the broad range of carbon materials having a tailored nanoscale dimension and functional properties that significantly depend on their nanoscale features. CNT and graphene belong to this class of materials comprising many more types of carbon materials, such as nanofibers, -coils, -diamonds, -horns, -onions, and fullerene. The field of application of nanocarbon materials is large, because they possess electrical and thermal conductivity, as well as a mechanical strength and lightness that conventional materials cannot match. With the diversity of their structure, these characteristic values can be achieved over an extremely wide range of conditions. For these reasons, they are extensively studied in applications going from photonics and optoelectronics to biotech and nanomedicine, advanced electrodes, and polymer composites. It should be mentioned that for commercial applications a comprehensive understanding of the catalyst structure, bonding, and properties is desirable, but not strictly necessary, provided that the catalysts are well-reproducible and give superior performances.
Nakao H.,Kyoto University |
Nakao H.,Japan Science and Technology Agency |
Mikhailov A.S.,Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society
Nature Physics | Year: 2010
Turing instability in activator-inhibitor systems provides a paradigm of non-equilibrium self-organization; it has been extensively investigated for biological and chemical processes. Turing instability should also be possible in networks, and general mathematical methods for its treatment have been formulated previously. However, only examples of regular lattices and small networks were explicitly considered. Here we study Turing patterns in large random networks, which reveal striking differences from the classical behaviour. The initial linear instability leads to spontaneous differentiation of the network nodes into activator-rich and activator-poor groups. The emerging Turing patterns become furthermore strongly reshaped at the subsequent nonlinear stage. Multiple coexisting stationary states and hysteresis effects are observed. This peculiar behaviour can be understood in the framework of a mean-field theory. Our results offer a new perspective on self-organization phenomena in systems organized as complex networks. Potential applications include ecological metapopulations, synthetic ecosystems, cellular networks of early biological morphogenesis, and networks of coupled chemical nanoreactors. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Seifert T.,Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society
Nature Photonics | Year: 2016
Terahertz electromagnetic radiation is extremely useful for numerous applications, including imaging and spectroscopy. It is thus highly desirable to have an efficient table-top emitter covering the 1–30 THz window that is driven by a low-cost, low-power femtosecond laser oscillator. So far, all solid-state emitters solely exploit physics related to the electron charge and deliver emission spectra with substantial gaps. Here, we take advantage of the electron spin to realize a conceptually new terahertz source that relies on three tailored fundamental spintronic and photonic phenomena in magnetic metal multilayers: ultrafast photoinduced spin currents, the inverse spin-Hall effect and a broadband Fabry–Pérot resonance. Guided by an analytical model, this spintronic route offers unique possibilities for systematic optimization. We find that a 5.8-nm-thick W/CoFeB/Pt trilayer generates ultrashort pulses fully covering the 1–30 THz range. Our novel source outperforms laser-oscillator-driven emitters such as ZnTe(110) crystals in terms of bandwidth, terahertz field amplitude, flexibility, scalability and cost. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group
Kampfrath T.,Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society |
Tanaka K.,Kyoto University |
Tanaka K.,Japan Science and Technology Agency |
Nelson K.A.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Nature Photonics | Year: 2013
Electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz (THz) frequency range is a fascinating spectroscopic tool that provides resonant access to fundamental modes, including the motions of free electrons, the rotations of molecules, the vibrations of crystal lattices and the precessions of spins. Consequently, THz waves have been extensively used to probe such responses with high sensitivity. However, owing to recent developments in high-power sources, scientists have started to abandon the role of pure observers and are now exploiting intense THz radiation to engineer transient states of matter. This Review provides an overview and illustrative examples of how the electric and magnetic fields of intense THz transients can be used to control matter and light resonantly and nonresonantly. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Freund H.-J.,Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2010
I review a concept that models heterogeneous catalysis based on a surface-science approach. It is shown that models catching part of the complexity of the real system, which is connected with the finite size of active components and the flexibility of the arrangement of atoms in the active component, play an important part in determining the activity and selectivity of the system. I have chosen several examples from our own laboratory to elaborate the details and will put those into perspective with respect to the literature. I will show that Pd nanoparticles in hydrogenation incorporate hydrogen, which turns out to be crucial for the actual hydrogenation step. Another example correlates the structure of vanadia monolayer catalysts with its reactivity in methanol oxidation. With a third example we address the question of charge on Au nanoparticles when anchored to an oxide surface, a problem heavily discussed in the literature. Further examples refer to ultrathin oxide film catalysts in which the oxide metal interface controls either the charge state of Au particles grown on the film, and, in a last example, the oxide film itself exhibits remarkable CO-oxidation activity, which can be traced to a reactive intermediate structure of the ultrathin film. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH&Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Pettinger B.,Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society
Molecular Physics | Year: 2010
A review is given on single-molecule surface- and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS and TERS). It sketches the historical development along different routes toward huge near-field enhancements, the basis of single-molecule enhanced Raman spectroscopy; from SNOM to apertureless SNOM to tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) and microscopy; from SERS to single-molecule SERS to single-molecule TERS. The claim of extremely high enhancement factors of 1014 in single-molecule SERS is critically discussed, in particular in the view of recent experimental and theoretical results that limits the electromagnetic enhancement to 1011. In the field of TERS only very few reports on single-molecule TERS exist: single-molecule TERS on dyes and on a protein (cytochrome c). In the latter case, TERS 'sees' even subunits of this protein, either amino-acids or the heme, depending on the orientation of the protein relative to the tip. The former case concerns the dye brilliant cresyl blue adsorbed either on a Au surface under ambient conditions or on a Au(111) surface in ultra high vacuum. These results indicate that significant progress is to be expected for TERS in general and for single-molecule TERS in particular. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.
Schlogl R.,Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society
Advances in Catalysis | Year: 2013
This review is concerned with nanoscale carbon as a catalyst. Elemental carbon has become available in many nanostructured forms representing combinations of the hybridizations found in fundamental carbon allotropes, and the materials can be enriched by a large number of surface functional groups, some generated by nanostructuring. Consequently, many examples of catalytic applications of carbon are documented, but the development of the field has been hampered by the lack of a conceptual approach linking structure and function and by the lack of understanding of synthesis of the materials. This chapter provides a foundation for an advanced comprehension of the catalytic reactivity of carbon and addresses key aspects of characterization and synthesis. The usefulness of X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and electron microscopy for the characterization of nanoscale carbons is briefly contrasted with the limitations of these methods. The various structural elements-among them carbon hybridization, local defects, and topology-that contribute to the electronic structure are discussed in detail. The difficulties of analyzing the resulting complex electron spectra are highlighted. In its core part, this chapter uses the derived knowledge of the electronic structure to arrive at concepts illustrating carbon's potential in catalysis. A general synthesis strategy for the controlled functionalization of carbons is laid out. The ambivalent role of carbon deposits on catalyst surfaces as poisons or an active phase is demonstrated. One-third of the chapter is devoted to two case studies that illustrate the ideas; the catalytic transformations are the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene and of alkanes. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Shaikhutdinov S.,Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society |
Freund H.-J.,Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society
Annual Review of Physical Chemistry | Year: 2012
Well-ordered, thin oxide films have drawn some attention in recent years as suitable oxide supports for modeling highly dispersed metal catalysts at the atomic scale. It turned out, however, that ultrathin oxide films may exhibit interesting catalytic properties in their own right. In this review, we discuss phenomena specifically connected to ultrathin oxide films to explain and understand the physicochemical basis of their reactivity in oxidation reactions. Two sets of systems are discussed, i.e., transition metal oxide films grown on metal substrates and native oxide films formed upon oxidation of metal surfaces. © Copyright ©2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society | Date: 2013-09-04
The present invention relates to the electrolytic splitting of water using a carbon-supported manganese oxide (MnO_(X)) composite. Specifically, the present electrolytic splitting of water is carried under neutral electrolyte conditions with a high electrolytic activity, while using an oxygen evolution reaction (OER)-electrode comprising the present carbon-supported MnO_(X) composite. Next, the present invention relates to a process for producing such a carbon-supported MnO_(X) composite as well as to a composite obtainable by the present process for producing the same and to an OER-electrode comprising the carbon-supported MnO_(X) composite obtainable by the present process.