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Oslo, Norway

Andersen I.L.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Naevdal E.,Frisch Center | Boe K.E.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of litter size and parity on sibling competition, piglet survival, and weight gain. It was predicted that competition for teats would increase with increasing litter size, resulting in a higher mortality due to maternal infanticide (i.e., crushing) and starvation, thus keeping the number of surviving piglets constant. We predicted negative effects on weight gain with increasing litter size. Based on maternal investment theory, we also predicted that piglet mortality would be higher for litters born late in a sow's life and thus that the number of surviving piglets would be higher in early litters. As predicted, piglet mortality increased with increasing litter size both due to an increased proportion of crushed piglets, where most of them failed in the teat competition, and due to starvation caused by increased sibling competition, resulting in a constant number of survivors. Piglet weight at day 1 and growth until weaning also declined with increasing litter size. Sows in parity four had higher piglet mortality due to starvation, but the number of surviving piglets was not affected by parity. In conclusion, piglet mortality caused by maternal crushing of piglets, many of which had no teat success, and starvation caused by sibling competition, increased with increasing litter size for most sow parities. The constant number of surviving piglets at the time of weaning suggests that 10 to 11 piglets could be close to the upper limit that the domestic sow is capable of taking care of. © 2011 The Author(s). Source


Heijink R.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Engelfriet P.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Rehnberg C.,Karolinska Institutet | Kittelsen S.A.C.,Frisch Center | Hakkinen U.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare
Health Economics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2015

The aim of EuroHOPE was to provide new evidence on the performance of healthcare systems, using a disease-based approach, linkable patient-level data and internationally standardized methods. This paper summarizes its main results. In the seven EuroHOPE countries, the Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), stroke and hip fracture patient populations were similar with regard to age, sex and comorbidity. However, non-negligible geographic variation in mortality and resource use was found to exist. Survival rates varied to similar extents between countries and regions for AMI, stroke, hip fracture and very low birth weight. Geographic variation in length of stay differed according to type of disease. Regression analyses showed that only a small part of geographic variation could be explained by demand and supply side factors. Furthermore, the impact of these factors varied between countries. The findings show that there is room for improvement in performance at all levels of analysis and call for more in-depth disease-based research. In using international patient-level data and a standardized methodology, the EuroHOPE approach provides a promising stepping-stone for future investigations in this field. Still, more detailed patient and provider information, including outside of hospital care, and better data sharing arrangements are needed to reach a more comprehensive understanding of geographic variations in health care. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Golombek R.,Frisch Center | Hoel M.,University of Oslo
Environmental and Resource Economics | Year: 2011

We examine international cooperation on technological development as an alternative to international cooperation on emission reductions. We show that without any R&D cooperation, R&D in each country should be increased beyond the non-cooperative level if (i) the technology level in one country is positively affected by R&D in other countries, (ii) the domestic carbon tax is lower than the Pigovian level, or (iii) the domestic carbon tax is set directly through an international tax agreement. We also show that a second-best technology agreement has higher R&D, higher emissions, or both compared with the first-best-outcome. The second-best subsidy always exceeds the subsidy under no international R&D cooperation. Further, when the price of carbon is the same in the second-best technology agreement and in the case without R&D cooperation, welfare is highest, R&D is highest and emissions are lowest in the second-best R&D agreement. © 2011 The Author(s). Source


Golombek R.,Frisch Center | Kittelsen S.A.C.,Frisch Center | Rosendahl K.E.,Statistics Norway
Energy Economics | Year: 2013

We analyze how different ways of allocating emission quotas may influence the electricity market. Using a large-scale numerical model of the Western European energy market with heterogeneous electricity producers, we show that different allocation mechanisms can have very different effects on the electricity market, even if the total emission target is fixed. This is particularly the case if output-based allocation (OBA) of quotas is used. Gas power production is then substantially higher than if quotas are grandfathered. Moreover, the welfare costs of attaining a fixed emission target are significantly higher. The numerical results for OBA are supported by a theoretical analysis, which offers some new results. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Kittelsen S.A.C.,Frisch Center | Anthun K.S.,Sintef | Goude F.,Karolinska Institutet | Huitfeldt I.M.S.,Frisch Center | And 5 more authors.
Health Economics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2015

This article develops and analyzes patient register-based measures of quality for the major Nordic countries. Previous studies show that Finnish hospitals have significantly higher average productivity than hospitals in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway and also a substantial variation within each country. This paper examines whether quality differences can form part of the explanation and attempts to uncover quality-cost trade-offs. Data on costs and discharges in each diagnosis-related group for 160 acute hospitals in 2008-2009 were collected. Patient register-based measures of quality such as readmissions, mortality (in hospital or outside), and patient safety indices were developed and case-mix adjusted. Productivity is estimated using bootstrapped data envelopment analysis. Results indicate that case-mix adjustment is important, and there are significant differences in the case-mix adjusted performance measures as well as in productivity both at the national and hospital levels. For most quality indicators, the performance measures reveal room for improvement. There is a weak but statistical significant trade-off between productivity and inpatient readmissions within 30 days but a tendency that hospitals with high 30-day mortality also have higher costs. Hence, no clear cost-quality trade-off pattern was discovered. Patient registers can be used and developed to improve future quality and cost comparisons. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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