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Faehn T.,Research Dep Statistics Norway | Faehn T.,Frisch Center | Isaksen E.T.,Research Dep Statistics Norway | Isaksen E.T.,University of Oslo
Energy Journal | Year: 2016

Publicly announced greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation targets and emissions pricing strategies by individual governments may suffer from inherent commitment problems. When emission prices are perceived as short-lived, socially cost-effective upfront investment in climate technologies may be hampered. This paper compares the social abatement cost of a uniform GHG pricing system with two policy options for overcoming such regulatory uncertainty: One combines the emissions pricing with a state guarantee scheme whereby the regulatory risk is borne by the government and one combines the system with subsidies for upfront climate technology investments. A technology-rich computable general equilibrium model is applied that accounts for abatement both within and beyond existing technologies. Our findings suggest a tripling of abatement costs if domestic climate policies fail to stimulate investment in new technological solutions. Since the cost of funding investment subsidies is found to be small, the subsidy scheme performs almost as well as the guarantee scheme. © 2016 by the IAEE. All rights reserved.


Golombek R.,Frisch Center | Hoel M.,University of Oslo
Environmental and Resource Economics | Year: 2011

We examine international cooperation on technological development as an alternative to international cooperation on emission reductions. We show that without any R&D cooperation, R&D in each country should be increased beyond the non-cooperative level if (i) the technology level in one country is positively affected by R&D in other countries, (ii) the domestic carbon tax is lower than the Pigovian level, or (iii) the domestic carbon tax is set directly through an international tax agreement. We also show that a second-best technology agreement has higher R&D, higher emissions, or both compared with the first-best-outcome. The second-best subsidy always exceeds the subsidy under no international R&D cooperation. Further, when the price of carbon is the same in the second-best technology agreement and in the case without R&D cooperation, welfare is highest, R&D is highest and emissions are lowest in the second-best R&D agreement. © 2011 The Author(s).


Kittelsen S.A.C.,Frisch Center | Anthun K.S.,Sintef | Goude F.,Karolinska Institutet | Huitfeldt I.M.S.,Frisch Center | And 5 more authors.
Health Economics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2015

This article develops and analyzes patient register-based measures of quality for the major Nordic countries. Previous studies show that Finnish hospitals have significantly higher average productivity than hospitals in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway and also a substantial variation within each country. This paper examines whether quality differences can form part of the explanation and attempts to uncover quality-cost trade-offs. Data on costs and discharges in each diagnosis-related group for 160 acute hospitals in 2008-2009 were collected. Patient register-based measures of quality such as readmissions, mortality (in hospital or outside), and patient safety indices were developed and case-mix adjusted. Productivity is estimated using bootstrapped data envelopment analysis. Results indicate that case-mix adjustment is important, and there are significant differences in the case-mix adjusted performance measures as well as in productivity both at the national and hospital levels. For most quality indicators, the performance measures reveal room for improvement. There is a weak but statistical significant trade-off between productivity and inpatient readmissions within 30 days but a tendency that hospitals with high 30-day mortality also have higher costs. Hence, no clear cost-quality trade-off pattern was discovered. Patient registers can be used and developed to improve future quality and cost comparisons. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Heijink R.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Engelfriet P.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Rehnberg C.,Karolinska Institutet | Kittelsen S.A.C.,Frisch Center | Hakkinen U.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare
Health Economics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2015

The aim of EuroHOPE was to provide new evidence on the performance of healthcare systems, using a disease-based approach, linkable patient-level data and internationally standardized methods. This paper summarizes its main results. In the seven EuroHOPE countries, the Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), stroke and hip fracture patient populations were similar with regard to age, sex and comorbidity. However, non-negligible geographic variation in mortality and resource use was found to exist. Survival rates varied to similar extents between countries and regions for AMI, stroke, hip fracture and very low birth weight. Geographic variation in length of stay differed according to type of disease. Regression analyses showed that only a small part of geographic variation could be explained by demand and supply side factors. Furthermore, the impact of these factors varied between countries. The findings show that there is room for improvement in performance at all levels of analysis and call for more in-depth disease-based research. In using international patient-level data and a standardized methodology, the EuroHOPE approach provides a promising stepping-stone for future investigations in this field. Still, more detailed patient and provider information, including outside of hospital care, and better data sharing arrangements are needed to reach a more comprehensive understanding of geographic variations in health care. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare, Frisch Center, University of Southern Denmark and Sintef
Type: | Journal: Health economics | Year: 2015

This article develops and analyzes patient register-based measures of quality for the major Nordic countries. Previous studies show that Finnish hospitals have significantly higher average productivity than hospitals in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway and also a substantial variation within each country. This paper examines whether quality differences can form part of the explanation and attempts to uncover quality-cost trade-offs. Data on costs and discharges in each diagnosis-related group for 160 acute hospitals in 2008-2009 were collected. Patient register-based measures of quality such as readmissions, mortality (in hospital or outside), and patient safety indices were developed and case-mix adjusted. Productivity is estimated using bootstrapped data envelopment analysis. Results indicate that case-mix adjustment is important, and there are significant differences in the case-mix adjusted performance measures as well as in productivity both at the national and hospital levels. For most quality indicators, the performance measures reveal room for improvement. There is a weak but statistical significant trade-off between productivity and inpatient readmissions within 30 days but a tendency that hospitals with high 30-day mortality also have higher costs. Hence, no clear cost-quality trade-off pattern was discovered. Patient registers can be used and developed to improve future quality and cost comparisons.


PubMed | National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Karolinska Institutet, Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare and Frisch Center
Type: | Journal: Health economics | Year: 2015

The aim of EuroHOPE was to provide new evidence on the performance of healthcare systems, using a disease-based approach, linkable patient-level data and internationally standardized methods. This paper summarizes its main results. In the seven EuroHOPE countries, the Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), stroke and hip fracture patient populations were similar with regard to age, sex and comorbidity. However, non-negligible geographic variation in mortality and resource use was found to exist. Survival rates varied to similar extents between countries and regions for AMI, stroke, hip fracture and very low birth weight. Geographic variation in length of stay differed according to type of disease. Regression analyses showed that only a small part of geographic variation could be explained by demand and supply side factors. Furthermore, the impact of these factors varied between countries. The findings show that there is room for improvement in performance at all levels of analysis and call for more in-depth disease-based research. In using international patient-level data and a standardized methodology, the EuroHOPE approach provides a promising stepping-stone for future investigations in this field. Still, more detailed patient and provider information, including outside of hospital care, and better data sharing arrangements are needed to reach a more comprehensive understanding of geographic variations in health care.


Golombek R.,Frisch Center | Kittelsen S.A.C.,Frisch Center | Rosendahl K.E.,Statistics Norway
Energy Economics | Year: 2013

We analyze how different ways of allocating emission quotas may influence the electricity market. Using a large-scale numerical model of the Western European energy market with heterogeneous electricity producers, we show that different allocation mechanisms can have very different effects on the electricity market, even if the total emission target is fixed. This is particularly the case if output-based allocation (OBA) of quotas is used. Gas power production is then substantially higher than if quotas are grandfathered. Moreover, the welfare costs of attaining a fixed emission target are significantly higher. The numerical results for OBA are supported by a theoretical analysis, which offers some new results. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Andersen I.L.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Naevdal E.,Frisch Center | Boe K.E.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of litter size and parity on sibling competition, piglet survival, and weight gain. It was predicted that competition for teats would increase with increasing litter size, resulting in a higher mortality due to maternal infanticide (i.e., crushing) and starvation, thus keeping the number of surviving piglets constant. We predicted negative effects on weight gain with increasing litter size. Based on maternal investment theory, we also predicted that piglet mortality would be higher for litters born late in a sow's life and thus that the number of surviving piglets would be higher in early litters. As predicted, piglet mortality increased with increasing litter size both due to an increased proportion of crushed piglets, where most of them failed in the teat competition, and due to starvation caused by increased sibling competition, resulting in a constant number of survivors. Piglet weight at day 1 and growth until weaning also declined with increasing litter size. Sows in parity four had higher piglet mortality due to starvation, but the number of surviving piglets was not affected by parity. In conclusion, piglet mortality caused by maternal crushing of piglets, many of which had no teat success, and starvation caused by sibling competition, increased with increasing litter size for most sow parities. The constant number of surviving piglets at the time of weaning suggests that 10 to 11 piglets could be close to the upper limit that the domestic sow is capable of taking care of. © 2011 The Author(s).


Golombek R.,Frisch Center | Kittelsen S.A.C.,Frisch Center | Haddeland I.,Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate
Climatic Change | Year: 2012

This paper studies some impacts of climate change on electricity markets, focusing on three climate effects. First, demand for electricity is affected because of changes in the temperature. Second, changes in precipitation and temperature have impact on supply of hydro electric production through a shift in the inflow of water. Third, plant efficiency for thermal generation will decrease because the temperature of water used to cool equipment increases. To find the magnitude of these partial effects, as well as the overall effects, on Western European energy markets, we use the multi-market equilibrium model LIBEMOD. We find that each of the three partial effects changes the average electricity producer price by less than 2%, while the net effect is an increase of only 1%. The partial effects on total electricity supply are small, and the net effect is a decrease of 4%. The greatest effects are found for Nordic countries with a large market share for reservoir hydro. In these countries, annual production of electricity increases by 8%, reflecting more inflow of water, while net exports doubles. In addition, because of lower inflow in summer and higher in winter, the reservoir filling needed to transfer water from summer to winter is drastically reduced in the Nordic countries. © 2011 The Author(s).


PubMed | Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate and Frisch Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Climatic change | Year: 2015

This paper studies some impacts of climate change on electricity markets, focusing on three climate effects. First, demand for electricity is affected because of changes in the temperature. Second, changes in precipitation and temperature have impact on supply of hydro electric production through a shift in the inflow of water. Third, plant efficiency for thermal generation will decrease because the temperature of water used to cool equipment increases. To find the magnitude of these partial effects, as well as the overall effects, on Western European energy markets, we use the multi-market equilibrium model LIBEMOD. We find that each of the three partial effects changes the average electricity producer price by less than 2%, while the net effect is an increase of only 1%. The partial effects on total electricity supply are small, and the net effect is a decrease of 4%. The greatest effects are found for Nordic countries with a large market share for reservoir hydro. In these countries, annual production of electricity increases by 8%, reflecting more inflow of water, while net exports doubles. In addition, because of lower inflow in summer and higher in winter, the reservoir filling needed to transfer water from summer to winter is drastically reduced in the Nordic countries.

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